Analysis of Extreme Phenotype Bulk Copy Number Variation (XP-CNV) Identified the Association of rp1 with Resistance to Goss's Wilt of Maize.
ABSTRACT: Goss's wilt (GW) of maize is caused by the Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis (Cmn) and has spread in recent years throughout the Great Plains, posing a threat to production. The genetic basis of plant resistance is unknown. Here, a simple method for quantifying disease symptoms was developed and used to select cohorts of highly resistant and highly susceptible lines known as extreme phenotypes (XP). Copy number variation (CNV) analyses using whole genome sequences of bulked XP revealed 141 genes containing CNV between the two XP groups. The CNV genes include the previously identified common rust resistant locus rp1. Multiple Rp1 accessions with distinct rp1 haplotypes in an otherwise susceptible accession exhibited hypersensitive responses upon inoculation. GW provides an excellent system for the genetic dissection of diseases caused by closely related subspecies of C. michiganesis. Further work will facilitate breeding strategies to control GW and provide needed insight into the resistance mechanism of important related diseases such as bacterial canker of tomato and bacterial ring rot of potato.
Project description:Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis (Cmn), the causal organism of Goss's wilt and leaf blight of maize, can be detected in the phyllosphere of its host prior to disease development. We compared the morphology and pathogenicity of 37 putative isolates of Cmn recovered from asymptomatic and symptomatic maize leaves. Thirty-three of the isolates produced mucoid orange colonies, irrespective of the source of isolation and all but four of these isolates were pathogenic on maize. The remaining 4 isolates recovered from asymptomatic leaves had large fluidal yellow colonies, and were non-pathogenic on maize. Isolates varied in their aggressiveness on a susceptible hybrid of maize but no significant differences in aggressiveness were detected between epiphytic isolates and those recovered from diseased maize tissues. The genomics of Cmn is poorly understood; therefore as a first step to determining what genes may play a role in virulence, we compared 33 putative virulence gene sequences from 6 pathogenic and a non-pathogenic isolate recovered from the phyllosphere. Sequence polymorphisms were detected in 5 genes, cellulase A, two endoglucanases, xylanase B and a pectate lyase but there was no relationship with pathogenicity. Further research is needed to determine what genes play a role in virulence of Cmn. Our data show however, that the virulence factors in Cmn likely differ from those reported for the closely related subspecies michiganensis and sepedonicus.
Project description:Goss's bacterial wilt and leaf blight is a disease of maize caused by the gram positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis (Cmn). First discovered in Nebraska, Goss's wilt has now spread to major maize growing states in the United States and three provinces in Canada. Previous studies conducted using elite maize inbred lines and their hybrids have shown that resistance to Goss's wilt is a quantitative trait. The objective of this study was to further our understanding of the genetic basis of resistance to Goss's wilt by using a combined approach of genome-wide association mapping and gene co-expression network analysis. Genome-wide association analysis was accomplished using a diversity panel consisting of 555 maize inbred lines and a set of 450 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from three bi-parental mapping populations, providing the most comprehensive screening of Goss's wilt resistance to date. Three SNPs in the diversity panel and 10 SNPs in the combined dataset, including the diversity panel and RILs, were found to be significantly associated with Goss's wilt resistance. Each significant SNP explained 1-5% of the phenotypic variation for Goss's wilt (total of 8-11%). To augment the results of genome-wide association mapping and help identify candidate genes, a time course RNA sequencing experiment was conducted using resistant (N551) and susceptible (B14A) maize inbred lines. Gene co-expression network analysis of this time course experiment identified one module of 141 correlated genes that showed differential regulation in response to Cmn inoculations in both resistant and susceptible lines. SNPs inside and flanking these genes explained 13.3% of the phenotypic variation. Among 1,000 random samples of genes, only 8% of samples explained more phenotypic variance for Goss's wilt resistance than those implicated by the co-expression network analysis. While a statistically significant enrichment was not observed (P < 0.05), these results suggest a possible role for these genes in quantitative resistance at the field level and warrant more research on combining gene co-expression network analysis with quantitative genetic analyses to dissect complex disease resistance traits. The results of the GWAS and co-expression analysis both support the complex nature of resistance to this important disease of maize.
Project description:The Goss's bacterial wilt pathogen, Clavibacter nebraskensis, of corn is a candidate A1 quarantine organism; and its recent re-emergence and spread in the USA and Canada is a potential biothreat to the crop. We developed and tested an amplicon-based Nanopore detection system for C. nebraskensis (Cn), targeting a purine permease gene. The sensitivity (1 pg) of this system in mock bacterial communities (MBCs) spiked with serially diluted DNA of C. nebraskensis NCPPB 2581T is comparable to that of real-time PCR. Average Nanopore reads increased exponentially from 125 (1pg) to about 6000 reads (1000 pg) after a 3-hr run-time, with 99.0% of the reads accurately assigned to C. nebraskensis. Three run-times were used to process control MBCs, Cn-spiked MBCs, diseased and healthy leaf samples. The mean Nanopore reads doubled as the run-time is increased from 3 to 6 hrs while from 6 to 12 hrs, a 20% increment was recorded in all treatments. Cn-spiked MBCs and diseased corn leaf samples averaged read counts of 5,100, 11,000 and 14,000 for the respective run-times, with 99.8% of the reads taxonomically identified as C. nebraskensis. The control MBCs and healthy leaf samples had 47 and 14 Nanopore reads, respectively. 16S rRNA bacteriomic profiles showed that Sphingomonas (22.7%) and Clavibacter (21.2%) were dominant in diseased samples while Pseudomonas had only 3.5% relative abundance. In non-symptomatic leaf samples, however, Pseudomonas (20.0%) was dominant with Clavibacter at 0.08% relative abundance. This discrepancy in Pseudomonas abundance in the samples was corroborated by qPCR using EvaGreen chemistry. Our work outlines a new useful tool for diagnosis of the Goss's bacterial wilt disease; and provides the first insight on Pseudomonas community dynamics in necrotic leaf lesions.
Project description:Accurate and rapid detection of bacterial plant pathogen is the first step toward disease management and prevention of pathogen spread. Bacterial plant pathogens Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis (Cmn), Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pss), and Rathayibacter tritici (Rt) cause Goss's bacterial wilt and blight of maize, Stewart's wilt of maize and spike blight of wheat and barley, respectively. The bacterial diseases are not globally distributed and not present in Korea. This study adopted comparative genomics approach and aimed to develop specific primer pairs to detect these three bacterial pathogens. Genome comparison among target pathogens and their closely related bacterial species generated 15-20 candidate primer pairs per bacterial pathogen. The primer pairs were assessed by a conventional PCR for specificity against 33 species of Clavibacter, Pantoea, Rathayibacter, Pectobacterium, Curtobacterium. The investigation for specificity and sensitivity of the primer pairs allowed final selection of one or two primer pairs per bacterial pathogens. In our assay condition, a detection limit of Pss and Cmn was 2 pg/?l of genomic DNA per PCR reaction, while the detection limit for Rt primers was higher. The selected primers could also detect bacterial cells up to 8.8 × 103 cfu to 7.84 × 104 cfu per gram of grain seeds artificially infected with corresponding bacterial pathogens. The primer pairs and PCR assay developed in this study provide an accurate and rapid detection method for three bacterial pathogens of grains, which can be used to investigate bacteria contamination in grain seeds and to ultimately prevent pathogen dissemination over countries.
Project description:Clavibacter is an agriculturally important genus comprising a single species, Clavibacter michiganensis, and multiple subspecies, including, C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis which causes Goss's wilt/blight of corn, accounts for high yield losses and is listed among the five most significant diseases of corn in the United States of America. Our research objective was to develop a robust and rapid multiplex TaqMan real-time PCR (qPCR) to detect C. michiganensis in general and C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis with enhanced reliability and accuracy by adding non-complementary AT sequences to the 5' end of the forward and reverse primers. Comparative genomic analyses were performed to identify unique and conserved gene regions for primer and probe design. The unique genomic regions, ABC transporter ATP-binding protein CDS/ABC-transporter permease and MFS transporter were determined for specific detection of C. michiganensis and C. m. subsp. nebraskensis, respectively. The AT-rich sequences at the 5' position of the primers enhanced the reaction efficiency and sensitivity of rapid qPCR cycling; the reliability, accuracy and high efficiency of the developed assay was confirmed after testing with 59 strains from inclusivity and exclusivity panels-no false positives or false negatives were detected. The assays were also validated through naturally and artificially infected corn plant samples; all samples were detected for C. michiganensis and C. m. subsp. nebraskensis with 100% accuracy. The assay with 5' AT-rich sequences detected up to 10- and 100-fg of C. michiganensis and C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis genome targets, respectively. No adverse effect was observed when sensitivity assays were spiked with host genomic DNA. Addition of 5' AT-rich sequences enhanced the qPCR reaction efficiency from 0.82 (M = -3.83) and 0.91 (M = -3.54) to 1.04 (with optimum slope value; M = -3.23) for both C. michiganensis and C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, respectively; an increase of 10-fold sensitivity was also obtained with C. michiganensis primer set. The methodology proposed here can be used to optimize reaction efficiency and to harmonize diagnostic protocols which have prodigious applications in routine diagnostics, biosecurity and microbial forensics.
Project description:In 2014, the pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis was isolated from symptomatic corn leaves in Manitoba, Canada. We report the draft genome sequence of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis DOAB 397, consisting of 3.059 Mb with 73.0% G+C content, 2,922 predicted protein-coding sequences, 45 tRNAs, 3 rRNAs, and 37 pseudogenes.
Project description:Subspecies of Clavibacter michiganensis are important phytobacterial pathogens causing devastating diseases in several agricultural crops. The genome organizations of these pathogens are poorly understood. Here, the complete genomes of 5 subspecies (C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Cmi; C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, Cms; C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, Cmn; C. michiganensis subsp. insidiosus, Cmi and C. michiganensis subsp. capsici, Cmc) were analyzed. This study assessed the taxonomic position of the subspecies based on 16S rRNA and genome-based DNA homology and concludes that there is ample evidence to elevate some of the subspecies to species-level. Comparative genomics analysis indicated distinct genomic features evident on the DNA structural atlases and annotation features. Based on orthologous gene analysis, about 2300 CDSs are shared across all the subspecies; and Cms showed the highest number of subspecies-specific CDS, most of which are mobile elements suggesting that Cms could be more prone to translocation of foreign genes. Cms and Cmi had the highest number of pseudogenes, an indication of potential degenerating genomes. The stress response factors that may be involved in cold/heat shock, detoxification, oxidative stress, osmoregulation, and carbon utilization are outlined. For example, the wco-cluster encoding for extracellular polysaccharide II is highly conserved while the sucrose-6-phosphate hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose-6-phosphate yielding glucose-6-phosphate and fructose is highly divergent. A unique second form of the enzyme is only present in Cmn NCPPB 2581. Also, twenty-eight plasmid-borne CDSs in the other subspecies were found to have homologues in the chromosomal genome of Cmn which is known not to carry plasmids. These CDSs include pathogenesis-related factors such as Endocellulases E1 and Beta-glucosidase. The results presented here provide an insight of the functional organization of the genomes of five core C. michiganensis subspecies, enabling a better understanding of these phytobacteria.
Project description:The project aimed to study the secretome profile of the Goss's bacterial wilt and blight disease of corn caused by the phytobacterial pathogen Clavibacter nebraskensis (Cn). The experiment was carried out in Vitro using two Cn isolates (A highly aggressive isolate Cmn14-5-1 and a weakly aggressive DOAB232) from Manitoba, Canada grown in two different xylem sap media (Host xylem sap from corn (CXS), and non-host xylem sap from tomato (TXS), besides M9 medium.
Project description:Although the genus Clavibacter was originally proposed to accommodate all phytopathogenic coryneform bacteria containing B2? diaminobutyrate in the peptidoglycan, reclassification of all but one species into other genera has resulted in the current monospecific status of the genus. The single species in the genus, Clavibacter michiganensis, has multiple subspecies, which are all highly host-specific plant pathogens. Whole genome analysis based on average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization as well as multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) of seven housekeeping genes support raising each of the C. michiganensis subspecies to species status. On the basis of whole genome and MLSA data, we propose the establishment of two new species and three new combinations: Clavibacter capsici sp. nov., comb. nov. and Clavibacter tessellarius sp. nov., comb. nov., and Clavibacter insidiosus comb. nov., Clavibacter nebraskensis comb. nov. and Clavibacter sepedonicus comb. nov.
Project description:Mutations in the retinitis pigmentosa 1 (RP1) gene are a common cause of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP), and have also been found to cause autosomal recessive RP (arRP) in a few families. The 33 dominant mutations and 6 recessive RP1 mutations identified to date are all nonsense or frameshift mutations, and almost exclusively (38 out of 39) are located in the 4(th) and final exon of RP1. To better understand the underlying disease mechanisms of and help develop therapeutic strategies for RP1 disease, we performed a series of human genetic and animal studies using gene targeted and transgenic mice. Here we report that a frameshift mutation in the 3(rd) exon of RP1 (c.686delC; p.P229QfsX35) found in a patient with recessive RP1 disease causes RP in the homozygous state, whereas the heterozygous carriers are unaffected, confirming that haploinsufficiency is not the causative mechanism for RP1 disease. We then generated Rp1 knock-in mice with a nonsense Q662X mutation in exon 4, as well as Rp1 transgenic mice carrying a wild-type BAC Rp1 transgene. The Rp1-Q662X allele produces a truncated Rp1 protein, and homozygous Rp1-Q662X mice experience a progressive photoreceptor degeneration characterized disorganization of photoreceptor outer segments. This phenotype could be prevented by expression of a normal amount of Rp1 protein from the BAC transgene without removal of the mutant Rp1-Q662X protein. Over-expression of Rp1 protein in additional BAC Rp1 transgenic lines resulted in retinal degeneration. These findings suggest that the truncated Rp1-Q662X protein does not exert a toxic gain-of-function effect. These results also imply that in principle gene augmentation therapy could be beneficial for both recessive and dominant RP1 patients, but the levels of RP1 protein delivered for therapy will have to be carefully controlled.