Prognostic significance of nephrectomy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with systemic cytokine or targeted therapy: A 16-year retrospective analysis.
ABSTRACT: We compared progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) among 292 metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients either undergoing nephrectomy (Nx, 61.6%) or not (non-Nx, 38.4%), stratified according to the MSKCC and Heng risk models, treated with either immunotherapy (IT, 45.2%) or targeted therapy (TT, 54.8%) between 2000 and 2015. During the follow-up duration of 16.6 months, PFS/OS of the Nx (6.0/30 months) and non-Nx (3.0/6.0 months) groups were significantly different despite differences among baseline parameters (p??0.05). In both synchronous and metachronous mRCC patients, both PFS and OS showed similar survivals; the Nx group had significantly longer PFS and OS than the non-Nx group, even after considering each systemic therapy and prognostic model. Nx showed a significant positive benefit in PFS and OS compared to no Nx upon patient stratification according to the MSKCC and Heng risk models. The metastatic type did not significantly affect survival between the two groups.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To compare survival outcomes for renal embolization (RE) to cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN) and no primary renal treatment (NT) among patients with synchronous metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) treated using either targeted therapy (TT) or immunotherapy (IT).<h4>Results</h4>The median follow-up duration was 81.3 months, with a duration of first-line treatment of 3.5 months. Among the 211 patients, the median PFS and OS were 4.4 and 10.6 months. Specifically for patients receiving TT (124 patients), the PFS and OS were 5.5 and 12.0 months. An intervention effect was identified only for OS, with a median OS of 20.1, 8.8 and 9.3 months for CN, RE and NT, respectively. After stratification by risk classification, CN provided a significant benefit on OS, compared to RE and NT, for patients with an intermediate risk (MSKCC). For those with a poor risk (Heng criteria), NT provided better survival than PFS (p=0.003), and a comparable survival to RE (p > 0.05).<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Retrospective analysis of 211 patients, 87 treated with IT and 124 with TT, retrieved from our RCC database. Patients' risk factors for survival was evaluated using the Heng and MSKCC criteria, with only patients with an intermediate or poor survival risk included in the analysis. Between-group comparisons were evaluated with respect to progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The differential effect of CN and RE on OS appears to be modulated by risk classification. In patients with a poor risk, RE should be implemented after careful consideration of comorbidities and life expectancy.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to determine the prognostic factors of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in non-nephrectomized patients with synchronous metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) receiving first-line vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeted therapy or immunotherapy. METHODS:Of 70 patients, 57 (81.4%) were treated with targeted therapy, including 5 (7.1%) with previous immunotherapy and 13 (18.6%) with immunotherapy only. The medical records of patients were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed to determine factors of PFS and OS using the Cox proportional hazards model with a statistical significance p-value <0.05. RESULTS:The median treatment and follow-up periods were 3.9 and 30.9 months, respectively. Disease progression was reported in 90.0% of patients, with an objective response rate and clinical benefit rate of 26.1% and 76.8%, respectively. The lung (77.1%) was the most common site of metastasis. Multivariable analysis showed that poor Heng risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.37) and liver metastasis (HR: 2.34) were significant prognostic factors for PFS, and female sex (HR: 2.13), poor Heng risk (HR: 3.14), and liver metastasis (HR: 2.78) were significant prognostic factors for OS (p < 0.05). A subset analysis of risk factors among patients without previous history of immunotherapy also showed poor Heng risk (HR 2.92 and HR 4.24 for PFS) and liver metastasis (HR 2.87 and HR 4.81 for OS) as significant factors for both PFS and OS (p<0.05). CONCLUSION:Poor Heng risk, sex, and liver metastasis were associated with survival outcomes after first-line systemic therapy in patients with non-nephrectomized synchronous mRCC.
Project description:This study evaluated the effects of metastasectomy on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) according to metastatic organs. The medical records (2005-2017) of 273 patients with mRCC were analyzed retrospectively to evaluate OS and PFS according to metastatic organs and their metastasectomy states. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to determine the prognostic significance of metastasectomy. The Kaplan-Meier curve and log-rank test were used to compare groups with different modalities and metastatic organs at a statistical significance of p < 0.05. The overall median age was 57 years; 175 (64.3%) and 83 (30.4%) patients received cytoreductive nephrectomy and metastasectomy, respectively. The metastasectomy group was significantly younger and had a lower clinical T stage with significantly better PFS/OS (20.2/32.0 vs. 9.7/12.8 months) than that in the non-metastasectomy group (N = 190, p < 0.05). Liver with lung metastases were the worst metastatic combination for survivals in which liver metastasis was the only significant unfavorable risk factor for both PFS (HR 1.67) and OS (HR 1.74) (p < 0.05). Multivariable analysis confirmed that metastasectomy was a significant favorable risk factor for PFS (HR 0.70) and OS (HR 0.56) (p < 0.05) along with non-clear cell type (HR 0.61 for PFS), whereas the nuclear grade and poor Heng risk group were unfavorable risk factors (HR > 2.0) for both PFS and OS (p < 0.05). Metastasectomy and the affected metastatic organs significantly influenced prognostic survival in mRCC.
Project description:Purpose:This study aimed to compare progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) in Heng intermediate-risk patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) treated with first-line immunotherapy (IT) or targeted therapy (TT). Materials and Methods:From 2000 to 2017, a total of 186 intermediate-risk mRCC patients treated with first-line IT (n=64, 34.4%) or TT (n=122, 65.6%) were retrospectively evaluated for PFS, OS, and CSS using the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards models for their risk factors with a p-value for significance of <0.05. Results:During a median 5.08-month of systemic treatment and 92.22 months of follow-up, the median PFS, OS, and CSS were 5.16, 18.44, and 19.04 months, respectively. The comparison of baseline characteristics between the two groups showed a significantly higher rate of T3-4 stages, a lower rate of high nuclear grades, shorter follow-up, longer treatment durations, lesser rates of cytoreductive nephrectomy, a lower objective response rate, and no cases of complete response in the TT group compared with the IT group (p<0.05). The survival comparisons between the two groups showed that PFS was significantly different, whereas OS and CSS were not significantly different. The multivariate analyses showed that synchronous metastatic type(hazard ratio [HR], 2.285), IT (HR, 1.746), and treatment-free interval <1 year (HR, 1.926) were significant factors for PFS, whereas none of the risk factors were significant for OS or CSS. Conclusions:TT significantly prolonged PFS compared with IT, whereas long-term survival was not significantly different in intermediate-risk mRCC patients.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:There are little data on the clinical activity of temsirolimus (TM) and everolimus (EV) when used as second-line therapy after sunitinib (SU) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). METHODS:Patients with mRCC treated with EV or TM after SU were included in this retrospective analysis. Progression-free survival (PFS), time to sequence failure (TTSF) from the start of SU to disease progression with EV/TM and overall survival (OS) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method and compared across groups using the log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to investigate predictors of TTSF and OS. RESULTS:In total, 89 patients (median age 60.0 years) were included. At baseline 43% were classified as MSKCC good-risk, 43% as intermediate-risk and 14% as poor-risk. Median OS was 36.3 months and median TTSF was 17.2 months. Sixty-five patients received SU-EV and 24 patients SU-TM. Median PFS after the second-line treatment was 4.3 months in the EV group and 3.5 months in the TM group (p = 0.63). Median TTSF was 17.0 and 18.9 months (p = 0.32) and the OS was 35.8 and 38.3 months (p = 0.73) with SU-EV and SU-TM, respectively. The prognostic role of initial MSKCC was confirmed by multivariable analysis (hazard ratio 1.76, 95% confidence interval 1.08-2.85. p = 0.023). CONCLUSIONS:This study did not show significant differences in terms of disease control and OS between EV and TM in the second-line setting. EV remains the preferred mTOR inhibitor for the treatment of mRCC patients resistant to prior tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment.
Project description:Studies suggested the existence of a 'trial effect', in which for a given treatment, participation in a clinical trial is associated with a better outcome. Sunitinib is a standard treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). We aimed to study the effect of clinical trial participation on the outcome of mRCC patients treated with sunitinib, which at present, is poorly defined.The records of mRCC patients treated with sunitinib between 2004-2013 in 7 centers across 2 countries were reviewed. We compared the response rate (RR), progression free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS), between clinical trial participants (n=49) and a matched cohort of non-participants (n=49) who received standard therapy. Each clinical trial participant was individually matched with a non-participant by clinicopathologic factors. PFS and OS were determined by Cox regression.The groups were matched by age (median 64), gender (male 67%), Heng risk (favorable 25%, intermediate 59%, poor 16%), prior nephrectomy (92%), RCC histology (clear cell 86%), pre-treatment NLR (>3 in 55%, n=27), sunitinib induced hypertension (45%), and sunitinib dose reduction/treatment interruption (41%). In clinical trial participants versus non-participants, RR was partial response/stable disease 80% (n=39) versus 74% (n=36), and progressive disease 20% (n=10) versus 26% (n=13) (p=0.63, OR 1.2). The median PFS was 10 versus 11 months (HR=0.96, p=0.84), and the median OS 23 versus 24 months (HR=0.97, p=0.89).In mRCC patients treated with sunitinib, the outcome of clinical trial participants was similar to that of non-participants who received standard therapy.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To evaluate the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) treated with double- and triple-sequence targeted therapy (TT) using tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi).<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Records of 292 patients with mRCC, treated with TT between January 2005 and July 2015, were analyzed retrospectively. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank analyses were used to calculate and compare the total PFS (tPFS) and OS when patients underwent double- or triple-TT using TKIs or mTORi.<h4>Results</h4>Eighty-one (27.7%) patients who underwent second-line TT were enrolled; 30 (10.3%) of whom underwent third-line TT. The tPFS and OS of double-TT using TKI-mTORi (5.4 and 30 months, respectively) were significantly better compared with TKI-TKI (0.3 and 2 months) or mTORi-TKI (2 and 6 months) (p <0.001). For triple-TT, the tPFS and OS of TKI-mTORi-TKI (22.8 and 25 months, respectively) were significantly superior compared with those for TKI-TKI-mTORi (4 and 9 months) (p <0.05).For patients with intermediate-risk according to the Heng or Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center risk models, TKI-mTORi was associated with a significantly longer tPFS and OS compared with TKI-TKI [expect for OS in the Heng group (p = 0.086)]. For the triple TT group, TKI-mTORi-TKI resulted in improved tPFS and OS compared with TKI-TKI-TKI or TKI-TKI-mTORi (p <0.05).<h4>Conclusion</h4>In patients with mRCC, sequential administration of TKI-mTORi led to a significantly superior tPFS compared with any other TT sequence. By contrast, OS did not differ significantly according to TT sequence.
Project description:There is an unmet need to determine factors predictive of clinical benefit, to guide therapeutic sequencing and selection in metastatic RCC (mRCC). We evaluated clinical factors such as the neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and duration of prior anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors, as predictors of response rate, progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in mRCC patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI).Regulatory approval was obtained. A single center retrospective chart review of mRCC patients at Karmanos Cancer Institute, treated with ICI based therapy (PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors) was conducted. Data were collected on demographics, smoking status, prognostic scoring (Memorial Sloan Kettering and Heng criteria), NLR pretherapy, post 1 and 4 doses of ICI, and duration of prior anti-VEGF therapy ?6 months or <6.42 patients were evaluated with median age of 61 years (range, 24-85). Pretherapy NLR < 3 and ?3 was seen in 19 (45%) and 23 (55%) patients, respectively. 24 (57%) and 18 (43%) patients had prior anti-VEGF inhibitors for a duration of ?6 months and <6 months, respectively. 12 (29%), 22 (52%) and 8 (19%) patients had favorable, intermediate and poor risk disease based on Heng criteria, respectively. Multivariable analysis showed pretherapy NLR ?3 was predictive of shorter PFS and OS when treated with ICI with median 3.08 months and 13.50 months, respectively, versus 15.57 months and not reached for NLR < 3 (adjusted p-values =0.003 and 0.025, respectively). Prior anti-VEGF therapy <6 months was predictive of increased likelihood of benefit from ICI therapies (adjusted p = 0.028). The median PFS was 3.72 months and 14.33 months, respectively, in cases with prior anti-VEGF therapy for ?6 months and <6 months.Pretherapy NLR <3 and duration of prior anti-VEGF therapy of <6 months, are independent statistically significant predictors of longer PFS and OS with ICI therapy in mRCC. Validation is required in a larger sample size with multi-institutional collaboration.
Project description:The aim of this study was to compare progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) between metachronous and synchronous metastatic renal cell carcinomas treated with VEGF-targeted therapy.Between 2005 and 2014, 93 (78.8%) intermediate- and 25 (21.2%) poor-Heng-risk patients, including 32 (27.1%) patients with metachronous and 86 (72.9%) patients with synchronous renal cell carcinoma, were enrolled retrospectively. PFS and OS values were compared according to the number of risk factors and treatment-free interval using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. The prognostic risk factors were also evaluated using a Cox proportional hazard model, with a p-value < 0.05 indicating statistical significance.During a median 5.0-month treatment and 59.3-month follow-up, analysis of the PFS/OS of SM (5.2/9.6 months) and MM (9.6/20.1 months) yielded a significant difference in OS (p = 0.010). However, there was no significant difference when Heng risk groups and treatment-free interval were considered (p > 0.05). There was a significant difference in PFS (hazard ratio: 1.81) and OS (hazard ratio: 2.19) with increasing number of Heng risk factors among patients with synchronous renal cell carcinoma and a treatment-free interval <1 year. Metastatic type, anemia, and neutrophilia were significant predictive factors for OS in multivariable analysis (p < 0.05).The metastatic type of renal cell carcinoma (synchronous or metachronous) significantly affects survival; metachronous type is associated with more favorable outcomes than synchronous type. However, after stratification according to Heng risk factors and treatment-free interval, the differences in survival between metachronous and synchronous type were insignificant.
Project description:Metastatic renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid histology (SmRCC) is associated with poor survival. No data is available from randomized trials on the efficacy of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors in SmRCC. We identified SmRCC patients from a single institutional database. To identify predictive and prognostic biomarkers, immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis was performed on the tumor samples for downstream targets of VEGF and mTOR pathways. Survival outcomes were stratified by IHC analysis, extent of sarcomatoid component, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), and Heng risk criteria. Twenty-seven patients with SmRCC were included. First line therapy included targeted therapy (n = 19), immunotherapy (n = 4), cytotoxic chemotherapy (n = 1), and no treatment (n = 3). Median OS was 8.2 months (95% CI 3.8-14.2 months). Median survival in months, based on MSKCC and Heng risk groups, was favorable 89.3 versus 84.5, intermediate 9.5 versus 12.7, and poor 3.9 versus 5.1. None of the IHC markers predicted outcomes of treatment with VEGF or mTOR inhibitors. Only tumor IMP3 expression was associated with inferior OS, although not statistically significant (IMP3 negative 14.2 versus IMP3 positive 4.9 months; HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.16-1.21; P = 0.12). The study was limited by small sample size.