The WD40 domain of ATG16L1 is required for its non-canonical role in lipidation of LC3 at single membranes.
ABSTRACT: A hallmark of macroautophagy is the covalent lipidation of LC3 and insertion into the double-membrane phagophore, which is driven by the ATG16L1/ATG5-ATG12 complex. In contrast, non-canonical autophagy is a pathway through which LC3 is lipidated and inserted into single membranes, particularly endolysosomal vacuoles during cell engulfment events such as LC3-associated phagocytosis. Factors controlling the targeting of ATG16L1 to phagophores are dispensable for non-canonical autophagy, for which the mechanism of ATG16L1 recruitment is unknown. Here we show that the WD repeat-containing C-terminal domain (WD40 CTD) of ATG16L1 is essential for LC3 recruitment to endolysosomal membranes during non-canonical autophagy, but dispensable for canonical autophagy. Using this strategy to inhibit non-canonical autophagy specifically, we show a reduction of MHC class II antigen presentation in dendritic cells from mice lacking the WD40 CTD Further, we demonstrate activation of non-canonical autophagy dependent on the WD40 CTD during influenza A virus infection. This suggests dependence on WD40 CTD distinguishes between macroautophagy and non-canonical use of autophagy machinery.
Project description:Covalent modification of LC3 and GABARAP proteins to phosphatidylethanolamine in the double-membrane phagophore is a key event in the early phase of macroautophagy, but can also occur on single-membrane structures. In both cases this involves transfer of LC3/GABARAP from ATG3 to phosphatidylethanolamine at the target membrane. Here we have purified the full-length human ATG12-5-ATG16L1 complex and show its essential role in LC3B/GABARAP lipidation in vitro. We have identified two functionally distinct membrane-binding regions in ATG16L1. An N-terminal membrane-binding amphipathic helix is required for LC3B lipidation under all conditions tested. By contrast, the C-terminal membrane-binding region is dispensable for canonical autophagy but essential for VPS34-independent LC3B lipidation at perturbed endosomes. We further show that the ATG16L1 C-terminus can compensate for WIPI2 depletion to sustain lipidation during starvation. This C-terminal membrane-binding region is present only in the ?-isoform of ATG16L1, showing that ATG16L1 isoforms mechanistically distinguish between different LC3B lipidation mechanisms under different cellular conditions.
Project description:Autophagy-related protein ATG16L1 is a component of the mammalian ATG12?ATG5/ATG16L1 complex, which acts as E3-ligase to catalyze lipidation of LC3 during autophagosome biogenesis. The N-terminal part of ATG16L1 comprises the ATG5-binding site and coiled-coil dimerization domain, both also present in yeast ATG16 and essential for bulk and starvation induced autophagy. While absent in yeast ATG16, mammalian ATG16L1 further contains a predicted C-terminal WD40-domain, which has been shown to be involved in mediating interaction with diverse factors in the context of alternative functions of autophagy, such as inflammatory control and xenophagy. In this work, we provide detailed information on the domain boundaries of the WD40-domain of human ATG16L1 and present its crystal structure at a resolution of 1.55 Å.
Project description:A coding polymorphism of human ATG16L1 (rs2241880; T300A) increases the risk of Crohn's disease and it has been shown to enhance susceptibility of ATG16L1 to caspase cleavage. Here we show that T300A also alters the ability of the C-terminal WD40-repeat domain of ATG16L1 to interact with an amino acid motif that recognizes this region. Such alteration impairs the unconventional autophagic activity of TMEM59, a transmembrane protein that contains the WD40 domain-binding motif, and disrupts its normal intracellular trafficking and its ability to engage ATG16L1 in response to bacterial infection. TMEM59-induced autophagy is blunted in cells expressing the fragments generated by caspase processing of the ATG16L1-T300A risk allele, whereas canonical autophagy remains unaffected. These results suggest that the T300A polymorphism alters the function of motif-containing molecules that engage ATG16L1 through the WD40 domain, either by influencing this interaction under non-stressful conditions or by inhibiting their downstream autophagic signalling after caspase-mediated cleavage.
Project description:The modulation of canonical macroautophagy/autophagy for therapeutic benefit is an emerging strategy of medical and pharmaceutical interest. Many drugs act to inhibit autophagic flux by targeting lysosome function, while others were developed to activate the pathway. Here, we report the surprising finding that many therapeutically relevant autophagy modulators with lysosomotropic and ionophore properties, classified as inhibitors of canonical autophagy, are also capable of activating a parallel noncanonical autophagy pathway that drives MAP1LC3/LC3 lipidation on endolysosomal membranes. Further, we provide the first evidence supporting drug-induced noncanonical autophagy in vivo using the local anesthetic lidocaine and human skin biopsies. In addition, we find that several published inducers of autophagy and mitophagy are also potent activators of noncanonical autophagy. Together, our data raise important issues regarding the interpretation of LC3 lipidation data and the use of autophagy modulators, and highlight the need for a greater understanding of the functional consequences of noncanonical autophagy.
Project description:Summary Although commonly associated with autophagosomes, LC3 can also be recruited to membranes by covalent lipidation in a variety of non-canonical contexts. These include responses to ionophores such as the M2 proton channel of influenza A virus. We report a subtractive CRISPR screen that identifies factors required for non-canonical LC3 lipidation. As well as the enzyme complexes directly responsible for LC3 lipidation in all contexts, we show the RALGAP complex is important for M2-induced, but not ionophore drug-induced, LC3 lipidation. In contrast, ATG4D is responsible for LC3 recycling in M2-induced and basal LC3 lipidation. Identification of a vacuolar ATPase subunit in the screen suggests a common mechanism for non-canonical LC3 recruitment. Influenza-induced and ionophore drug-induced LC3 lipidation lead to association of the vacuolar ATPase and ATG16L1 and can be antagonized by Salmonella SopF. LC3 recruitment to erroneously neutral compartments may therefore represent a response to damage caused by diverse invasive pathogens. Graphical abstract Highlights • Subtractive CRISPR screen identifies genes involved in non-canonical LC3 lipidation• v-ATPase regulates LC3 lipidation at erroneously neutral compartments• RALGAP complex involved in M2 proton channel induced LC3 lipidation• ATG4D is responsible for LC3 recycling in M2-induced and basal LC3 lipidation Ulferts et al. identify v-ATPase as the central regulator of ATG16L1 WD40 domain-dependent of LC3 lipidation. This lipidation can be prevented by Salmonella SopF and counteracted by ATG4D, the predominant ATG4 paralog responsible for LC3 delipidation. The RalGAP complex affects influenza virus M2-induced LC3 lipidation by affecting M2 trafficking.
Project description:Autophagy is an essential self-digestion machinery for cell survival and homoeostasis. Membrane elongation is fundamental, as it drives the formation of the double-membrane vesicles that engulf cytosolic material. LC3-lipidation, the signature of autophagosome formation, results from a complex ubiquitin-conjugating cascade orchestrated by the ATG16L1 protein, whose regulation is unknown. Here, we identify the Gigaxonin-E3 ligase as the first regulator of ATG16L1 turn-over and autophagosome production. Gigaxonin interacts with the WD40 domain of ATG16L1 to drive its ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. Gigaxonin depletion induces the formation of ATG16L1 aggregates and impairs LC3 lipidation, hence altering lysosomal fusion and degradation of the main autophagy receptor p62. Altogether, we demonstrate that the Gigaxonin-E3 ligase controls the production of autophagosomes by a reversible, ubiquitin-dependent process selective for ATG16L1. Our findings unveil the fundamental mechanisms of the control of autophagosome formation, and provide a molecular switch to fine-tune the activation of autophagy.
Project description:The obligate intracellular bacteria <i>Chlamydia trachomatis</i>, the causative agent of trachoma and sexually transmitted diseases, multiply in a vacuolar compartment, the inclusion. From this niche, they secrete "effector" proteins, that modify cellular activities to enable bacterial survival and proliferation. Here, we show that the host autophagy-related protein 16-1 (ATG16L1) restricts inclusion growth and that this effect is counteracted by the secretion of the bacterial effector CT622/TaiP (translocated ATG16L1 interacting protein). ATG16L1 is mostly known for its role in the lipidation of the human homologs of ATG8 (i.e., LC3 and homologs) on double membranes during autophagy as well as on single membranes during LC3-associated phagocytosis and other LC3-lipidation events. Unexpectedly, the LC3-lipidation-related functions of ATG16L1 are not required for restricting inclusion development. We show that the carboxyl-terminal domain of TaiP exposes a mimic of an eukaryotic ATG16L1-binding motif that binds to ATG16L1's WD40 domain. By doing so, TaiP prevents ATG16L1 interaction with the integral membrane protein TMEM59 and allows the rerouting of Rab6-positive compartments toward the inclusion. The discovery that one bacterial effector evolved to target ATG16L1's engagement in intracellular traffic rather than in LC3 lipidation brings this "secondary" activity of ATG16L1 in full light and emphasizes its importance for maintaining host cell homeostasis.
Project description:Membrane targeting of autophagy-related complexes is an important step that regulates their activities and prevents their aberrant engagement on non-autophagic membranes. ATG16L1 is a core autophagy protein implicated at distinct phases of autophagosome biogenesis. In this study, we dissected the recruitment of ATG16L1 to the pre-autophagosomal structure (PAS) and showed that it requires sequences within its coiled-coil domain (CCD) dispensable for homodimerisation. Structural and mutational analyses identified conserved residues within the CCD of ATG16L1 that mediate direct binding to phosphoinositides, including phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P). Mutating putative lipid binding residues abrogated the localisation of ATG16L1 to the PAS and inhibited LC3 lipidation. On the other hand, enhancing lipid binding of ATG16L1 by mutating negatively charged residues adjacent to the lipid binding motif also resulted in autophagy inhibition, suggesting that regulated recruitment of ATG16L1 to the PAS is required for its autophagic activity. Overall, our findings indicate that ATG16L1 harbours an intrinsic ability to bind lipids that plays an essential role during LC3 lipidation and autophagosome maturation.
Project description:ATG16L1, an autophagy mediator that specifies the site of LC3 lipidation, includes a C-terminal domain formed by 7 WD40-type repeats (WD40 domain, WDD), the function of which is unclear. Here we show that the WDD interacts with the intracellular domain of cytokine receptors to regulate their signaling output in response to ligand stimulation. Using a refined version of a previously described WDD-binding amino acid motif, here we show that this element is present in the intracellular domain of cytokine receptors. Two of these receptors, IL-10RB and IL-2R?, recognize the WDD through the motif and exhibit WDD-dependent LC3 lipidation activity. IL-10 promotes IL-10RB/ATG16L1 interaction through the WDD, and IL-10 signaling is suboptimal in cells lacking the WDD owing to delayed endocytosis and inefficient early trafficking of IL10/IL-10R complexes. Our data reveal WDD-dependent roles of ATG16L1 in the regulation of cytokine receptor trafficking and signaling, and provide a WDD-binding motif that might be used to identify additional WDD activators.
Project description:Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) often metastasizes to the brain, but identifying which patients will develop brain metastases (BM) is difficult. Macroautophagy/autophagy is critical for cancer initiation and progression. We hypothesized that genetic variants of autophagy-related genes may affect brain metastases (BM) in NSCLC patients. We genotyped 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 7 autophagy-related (ATG) genes (ATG3, ATG5, ATG7, ATG10, ATG12, ATG16L1, and MAP1LC3/LC3) by using DNA from blood samples of 323 NSCLC patients. Further, we evaluated the potential associations of these genes with subsequent BM development. Lung cancer cell lines stably transfected with ATG16L1: rs2241880 (T300A) were established. Mouse models of brain metastasis were developed using cells transfected with ATG16L1-300T or ATG16L1-300A. ATG10: rs10036653 and ATG16L1: rs2241880 were significantly associated with a decreased risk of BM (respective hazard ratios [HRs]=0.596, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.398-0.894, P = 0.012; and HR = 0. 655, 95% CI 0.438-0.978, P = 0.039, respectively). ATG12: rs26532 was significantly associated with an increased risk of BM (HR=1.644, 95% CI 1.049-2.576, P = 0.030). Invasion and migration assays indicated that transfection with ATG16L1-300T (vs. 300A) stimulated the migration of A549 cells. An in vivo metastasis assay revealed that transfection with ATG16L1-300T (vs. 300A) significantly increased brain metastasis. Our results indicate that genetic variations in autophagy-related genes can predict BM and that genome analysis would facilitate stratification of patients for BM prevention trials.