Joint ancestry and association test indicate two distinct pathogenic pathways involved in classical dengue fever and dengue shock syndrome.
ABSTRACT: Ethnic diversity has been long considered as one of the factors explaining why the severe forms of dengue are more prevalent in Southeast Asia than anywhere else. Here we take advantage of the admixed profile of Southeast Asians to perform coupled association-admixture analyses in Thai cohorts. For dengue shock syndrome (DSS), the significant haplotypes are located in genes coding for phospholipase C members (PLCB4 added to previously reported PLCE1), related to inflammation of blood vessels. For dengue fever (DF), we found evidence of significant association with CHST10, AHRR, PPP2R5E and GRIP1 genes, which participate in the xenobiotic metabolism signaling pathway. We conducted functional analyses for PPP2R5E, revealing by immunofluorescence imaging that the coded protein co-localizes with both DENV1 and DENV2 NS5 proteins. Interestingly, only DENV2-NS5 migrated to the nucleus, and a deletion of the predicted top-linking motif in NS5 abolished the nuclear transfer. These observations support the existence of differences between serotypes in their cellular dynamics, which may contribute to differential infection outcome risk. The contribution of the identified genes to the genetic risk render Southeast and Northeast Asian populations more susceptible to both phenotypes, while African populations are best protected against DSS and intermediately protected against DF, and Europeans the best protected against DF but the most susceptible against DSS.
Project description:The four dengue virus serotypes (DENV1-4) are responsible for the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral illness in humans. DENV causes a spectrum of disease from self-limiting dengue fever (DF) to severe, life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Antibodies from one infection can contribute to either protection or increased disease severity in a subsequent infection with a distinct DENV serotype. The effectiveness of the antibody response is modulated by both the affinity and avidity of the antibody/antigen interaction.We investigated how antibody avidity developed over time following secondary DENV2 infection across different disease severities.We analyzed sera from 42 secondary DENV2-infected subjects (DF, n=15; DHF, n=16; DSS, n=11) from a pediatric hospital-based dengue study in Nicaragua. IgG avidity against DENV2 virions was measured in samples collected during acute and convalescent phases as well as 3, 6, and 18 months post-illness using a urea enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.The data show a significant increase in avidity from acute to convalescent phase followed by a decrease from convalescent phase to 3 months post-symptom onset, then a plateau. Linear regression analysis comparing antibody avidity between disease severity groups over time indicate that individuals with more severe disease (DHF/DSS) experienced greater decay in antibody avidity over time compared to less severe disease (DF), and ROC curve analysis showed that at 18 months post-illness, lower avidity was associated with previously having experienced more severe disease.These data suggest that increased dengue disease severity is associated with lower antibody avidity at later time-points post-illness.
Project description:Research on vaccine approaches that can provide long-term protection against dengue virus infection is needed. Here we describe the construction, immunogenicity, and preliminary information on the protective capacity of recombinant, replication-competent rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV), a persisting herpesvirus. One RRV construct expressed nonstructural protein 5 (NS5), while a second recombinant expressed a soluble variant of the E protein (E85) of dengue virus 2 (DENV2). Four rhesus macaques received a single vaccination with a mixture of both recombinant RRVs and were subsequently challenged 19 weeks later with 1 × 105 PFU of DENV2. During the vaccine phase, plasma of all vaccinated monkeys showed neutralizing activity against DENV2. Cellular immune responses against NS5 were also elicited, as evidenced by major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) tetramer staining in the one vaccinated monkey that was Mamu-A*01 positive. Unlike two of two unvaccinated controls, two of the four vaccinated monkeys showed no detectable viral RNA sequences in plasma after challenge. One of these two monkeys also showed no anamnestic increases in antibody levels following challenge and thus appeared to be protected against the acquisition of DENV2 following high-dose challenge. Continued study will be needed to evaluate the performance of herpesviral and other persisting vectors for achieving long-term protection against dengue virus infection.IMPORTANCE Continuing studies of vaccine approaches against dengue virus (DENV) infection are warranted, particularly ones that may provide long-term immunity against all four serotypes. Here we investigated whether recombinant rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV) could be used as a vaccine against DENV2 infection in rhesus monkeys. Upon vaccination, all animals generated antibodies capable of neutralizing DENV2. Two of four vaccinated monkeys showed no detectable viral RNA after subsequent high-dose DENV2 challenge at 19 weeks postvaccination. Furthermore, one of these vaccinated monkeys appeared to be protected against the acquisition of DENV2 infection on the basis of undetectable viral loads and the lack of an anamnestic antibody response. These findings underscore the potential utility of recombinant herpesviruses as vaccine vectors.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Dengue virus (DENV) infection is the most common arthropod-borne viral disease in man and there are approximately 100 million infections annually. Despite the global burden of DENV infections many important questions regarding DENV pathogenesis remain unaddressed due to the lack of appropriate animal models of infection and disease. A major problem is the fact that no non-human species naturally develop disease similar to human dengue fever (DF) or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Apart from other risk factors for severe dengue such as host genetics and secondary infection with a heterologous DENV, virus virulence is a risk factor that is not well characterized. RESULTS: Three clinical DENV-1 isolates from Cambodian patients experiencing the various forms of dengue disease (DF, DHF, and DSS) were inoculated in BALB/c mice at three different concentrations. The DENV-1 isolates had different organ and cell tropism and replication kinetics. The DENV-1 isolate from a DSS patient infected the largest number of mice and was primarily neurotropic. In contrast, the DENV-1 isolates from milder clinical dengue cases infected predominantly lungs and liver, and to a lesser extent brain. In addition, infection with the DENV isolate derived from a DSS patient persisted for more than two weeks in a majority of mice compared to the other DENV-1 isolates that peaked during the first week. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm the in vitro findings of the same DENV-1 isolates, that showed that the isolate derived from a DSS patient can be distinguished based on phenotypic characteristics that differ from the isolates derived from a DF and DHF case 1. We observed in this study that the DSS virus isolate persist longer in vivo with extensive neuroinvasion in contrast to the other DENV-1 isolates originating in milder human cases. Genomic characterization of the three clinical isolates identified six amino acid substitutions unique for the DSS isolates that were located both in structural genes (M and E) and in non-structural genes (NS1, NS3, and NS5). The characterization of these clinically distinct DENV-1 isolates highlight that DENVs within the same genotype may have different in vivo phenotypes. HIGHLIGHTS: • Clinical DENV-1 isolates have different organ tropism in BALB/c mice.• The isolate from a DSS patient is primarily neurotropic compared to the other isolates.• The DENV-1 isolates have different in vivo replication kinetics.• The isolate from a DSS patient persists longer compared to the other isolates.• These phenotypic differences confirm our earlier in vitro findings with the same DENV-1 isolates. Thus, DENVs within the same serotype and genotype may differ enough to affect clinical conditions in vivo.
Project description:Flavivirus nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) contains an N-terminal methyltransferase (MTase) domain and a C-terminal polymerase (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase [RdRp]) domain fused through a 9-amino-acid linker. While the individual NS5 domains are structurally conserved, in the full-length protein, their relative orientations fall into two classes: the NS5 proteins from Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) adopt one conformation, while the NS5 protein from dengue virus serotype 3 (DENV3) adopts another. Here, we report a crystallographic structure of NS5 from DENV2 in a conformation similar to the extended one seen in JEV and ZIKV NS5 crystal structures. Replacement of the DENV2 NS5 linker with DENV1, DENV3, DENV4, JEV, and ZIKV NS5 linkers had modest or minimal effects on in vitro DENV2 MTase and RdRp activities. Heterotypic DENV NS5 linkers attenuated DENV2 replicon growth in cells, while the JEV and ZIKV NS5 linkers abolished replication. Thus, the JEV and ZIKV linkers likely hindered essential DENV2 NS5 interactions with other viral or host proteins within the virus replicative complex. Overall, this work sheds light on the dynamics of the multifunctional flavivirus NS5 protein and its interdomain linker. Targeting the NS5 linker is a possible strategy for producing attenuated flavivirus strains for vaccine design.IMPORTANCE Flaviviruses include important human pathogens, such as dengue virus and Zika virus. NS5 is a nonstructural protein essential for flavivirus RNA replication with dual MTase and RdRp enzyme activities and thus constitutes a major drug target. Insights into NS5 structure, dynamics, and evolution should inform the development of antiviral inhibitors and vaccine design. We found that NS5 from DENV2 can adopt a conformation resembling that of NS5 from JEV and ZIKV. Replacement of the DENV2 NS5 linker with the JEV and ZIKV NS5 linkers abolished DENV2 replication in cells, without significantly impacting in vitro DENV2 NS5 enzymatic activities. We propose that heterotypic flavivirus NS5 linkers impede DENV2 NS5 protein-protein interactions that are essential for virus replication.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Although the role of dengue virus (DENV)-specific T cells in the pathogenesis of acute dengue infection is emerging, the functionality of virus-specific T cells associated with milder clinical disease has not been well studied. We sought to investigate how the functionality of DENV-NS3 and DENV-NS5 protein-specific T cells differ in patients with dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). METHODS:Using intracellular cytokine assays, we assessed the production of interferon ? (IFN?), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP-1?), and CD107a expression in adult patients with acute DF (n?=?21) and DHF (n?=?22). RESULTS:Quadruple cytokine-producing, polyfunctional DENV-NS3- and DENV-NS5-specific T cells were more frequent in those with DF when compared to those with DHF. While DENV-NS3- and DENV-NS5-specific T cells in patients with DF expressed IFN??>?TNF-??>?MIP-??>?CD107a, T cells of those with DHF predominantly expressed CD107a?>?MIP-1??>?IFN??>?TNF-?. Overall production of IFN? or TNF-? by DENV-NS3- and DENV-NS5-specific T cells was significantly higher in patients with DF. The majority of NS3-specific T cells in patients with DF (78.6%) and DHF (68.9%) were single-cytokine producers; 76.6% of DENV-NS5-specific T cells in those with DF and 77.1% of those with DHF, produced only a single cytokine. However, no significant association was found with polyfunctional T-cell responses and the degree of viraemia. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that the functional phenotype of DENV-specific T cells are likely to associate with clinical disease severity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Genetic risk factors for dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS) and dengue fever (DF) are limited, in particular there are sparse data on genetic risk across diverse populations. METHODS:We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a derivation and validation sample of 7, 460 participants of Latin American, South Asian, and South East Asian ancestries. We then developed a weighted polygenic risk score (PRS) for each participant in each of the validation cohorts of the three ancestries to predict the risk of DHF/DSS compared to DF, DHF/DSS compared to controls, and, DF compared to controls. FINDINGS:The risk of DHF/DSS was significantly increased, odds ratio [OR] 1.84 (95%CI 1.47 to 2.31) (195 SNPs), compared to DF, fourth PRS quartile versus first quartile, in the validation cohort. The risk of DHF/DSS compared to controls was increased (OR=3.94; 95% CI 2.84 to 5.45) (278 SNPs), as was the risk of DF compared to controls (OR=1.97; 95%CI 1.63 to 2.39) (251 SNPs). Risk increased in a dose-dependent manner with increase in quartiles of PRS across comparisons. Significant associations persisted for PRS built within ancestries and applied to the same or different ancestries as well as for PRS built for one outcome (DHF/DSS or DF) and applied to the other. INTERPRETATION:There is a strong genetic effect that predisposes to risk of DHF/DSS and DF. The genetic risk for DHF/DSS is higher than that for DF when compared to controls, and this effect persists across multiple ancestries.
Project description:The exact mechanisms of interplay between host and viral factors leading to severe dengue are yet to be fully understood. Even though previous studies have implicated specific genetic differences of Dengue virus (DENV) in clinical severity and virus attenuation, similar studies with large-scale, whole genome screening of monophyletic virus populations are limited. Therefore, in the present study, we compared 89 whole genomes of DENV-2 cosmopolitan clade III isolates obtained from patients diagnosed with dengue fever (DF, n = 58), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, n = 30) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS, n = 1) in Singapore between July 2010 and January 2013, in order to determine the correlation of observed viral genetic differences with clinical outcomes. Our findings showed no significant difference between the number of primary and secondary infections that progressed to DHF and DSS (p>0.05) in our study cohort. Despite being highly homogenous, study isolates possessed 39 amino acid substitutions of which 10 substitutions were fixed in three main groups of virus isolates. None of those substitutions were specifically associated with DHF and DSS. Notably, two evolutionarily unique virus groups possessing C-P43T+NS1-S103T+NS2A-V83I+NS3-R337K+ NS3-I600T+ NS5-P136S and NS2A-T119N mutations were exclusively found in patients with DF, the benign form of DENV infections. Those mutants were significantly associated with mild disease outcome. These observations indicated that disease progression into DHF and DSS within our patient population was more likely to be due to host than virus factors. We hypothesize that selection for potentially less virulent groups of DENV-2 in our study cohort may be an evolutionary adaptation of viral strains to extend their survival in the human-mosquito transmission cycle.
Project description:Dengue virus (DENV) infection usually presents with mild self-limiting dengue fever (DF). Few however, would present with the more severe form of the disease, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). In the present study, the association between IL-12B, IL-10 and TNF-? gene polymorphisms and dengue severity was investigated.A case-control study was performed on a total of 120 unrelated controls, 86 DF patients and 196 DHF/DSS patients. The polymorphisms in IL-12B, IL-10 and TNF-? genes were genotyped using PCR-RFLP and PCR-sequencing methods.A protective association of TNF-? -308A allele and -308GA genotype against DHF/DSS was observed, while TNF-? -238A allele and -238GA genotype were associated with DHF/DSS. A combination of TNF-? -308GA+AA genotype and IL-10 non-GCC haplotypes, IL-12B pro homozygotes (pro1/pro1, pro2/pro2) and IL-12B 3'UTR AC were significantly correlated with protective effects against DHF/DSS. An association between the cytokine gene polymorphisms and protection against the clinical features of severe dengue including thrombocytopenia and increased liver enzymes was observed in this study.The overall findings of the study support the correlation of high-producer TNF-? genotypes combined with low-producer IL-10 haplotypes and IL-12B genotypes in reduced risk of DHF/DSS.
Project description:PUFA might modulate inflammatory responses involved in the development of severe dengue. We aimed to examine whether serum PUFA concentrations in patients diagnosed with dengue fever (DF) were related to the risk of progression to dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). A secondary aim was to assess correlations between fatty acids (FA) and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with DF. We conducted a prospective case-control study nested within a cohort of patients who were diagnosed with DF and followed during the acute episode. We compared the distribution of individual FA (% of total FA) at onset of fever between 109 cases who progressed to DHF/DSS and 235 DF non-progressing controls using unconditional logistic regression. We estimated correlations between baseline FA and cytokine concentrations and compared FA concentrations between the acute episode and >1 year post-convalescence in a subgroup. DHA was positively related to progression to DHF/DSS (multivariable adjusted OR (AOR) for DHA in quintile 5 v. 1=5·34, 95 % CI 2·03, 14·1; P trend=0·007). Dihomo-?-linolenic acid (DGLA) was inversely associated with progression (AOR for quintile 5 v. 1=0·30, 95 % CI 0·13, 0·69; P trend=0·007). Pentadecanoic acid concentrations were inversely related to DHF/DSS. Correlations of PUFA with cytokines at baseline were low. PUFA were lower during the acute episode than in a disease-free period. In conclusion, serum DHA in patients with DF predicts higher odds of progression to DHF/DSS whereas DGLA and pentadecanoic acid predict lower odds.
Project description:The role of NS1-specific antibodies in the pathogenesis of dengue virus infection is poorly understood. Here we investigate the immunoglobulin responses of patients with dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) to NS1. Antibody responses to recombinant-NS1 are assessed in serum samples throughout illness of patients with acute secondary DENV1 and DENV2 infection by ELISA. NS1 antibody titres are significantly higher in patients with DHF compared to those with DF for both serotypes, during the critical phase of illness. Furthermore, during both acute secondary DENV1 and DENV2 infection, the antibody repertoire of DF and DHF patients is directed towards distinct regions of the NS1 protein. In addition, healthy individuals, with past non-severe dengue infection have a similar antibody repertoire as those with mild acute infection (DF). Therefore, antibodies that target specific NS1 epitopes could predict disease severity and be of potential benefit in aiding vaccine and treatment design.