Loss of the homeostatic protein BPIFA1, leads to exacerbation of otitis media severity in the Junbo mouse model.
ABSTRACT: Otitis Media (OM) is characterized by epithelial abnormalities and defects in innate immunity in the middle ear (ME). Although, BPIFA1, a member of the BPI fold containing family of putative innate defence proteins is abundantly expressed by the ME epithelium and SNPs in Bpifa1 have been associated with OM susceptibility, its role in the ME is not well characterized. We investigated the role of BPIFA1 in protection of the ME and the development of OM using murine models. Loss of Bpifa1 did not lead to OM development. However, deletion of Bpifa1 in Evi1Jbo/+ mice, a model of chronic OM, caused significant exacerbation of OM severity, thickening of the ME mucosa and increased collagen deposition, without a significant increase in pro-inflammatory gene expression. Our data suggests that BPIFA1 is involved in maintaining homeostasis within the ME under steady state conditions and its loss in the presence of inflammation, exacerbates epithelial remodelling leading to more severe OM.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by a progressive decline in lung function due to airway obstruction, infection, and inflammation. CF patients are particularly susceptible to respiratory infection by a variety of pathogens, and the inflammatory response in CF is dysregulated and prolonged. BPI fold containing family A, member 1 (BPIFA1) and BPIFB1 are proteins expressed in the upper airways that may have innate immune activity. We previously identified polymorphisms in the BPIFA1/BPIFB1 region associated with CF lung disease severity. METHODS:We evaluated whether the BPIFA1/BPIFB1 associations with lung disease severity replicated in individuals with CF participating in the International CF Gene Modifier Consortium (n = 6,365). Furthermore, we investigated mechanisms by which the BPIFA1 and BPIFB1 proteins may modify lung disease in CF. RESULTS:The association of the G allele of rs1078761 with reduced lung function was replicated in an independent cohort of CF patients (p = 0.001, n = 2,921) and in a meta-analysis of the full consortium (p = 2.39x10-5, n = 6,365). Furthermore, we found that rs1078761G which is associated with reduced lung function was also associated with reduced BPIFA1, but not BPIFB1, protein levels in saliva from CF patients. Functional assays indicated that BPIFA1 and BPIFB1 do not have an anti-bacterial role against P. aeruginosa but may have an immunomodulatory function in CF airway epithelial cells. Gene expression profiling using RNAseq identified Rho GTPase signaling pathways to be altered in CF airway epithelial cells in response to treatment with recombinant BPIFA1 and BPIFB1 proteins. CONCLUSIONS:BPIFA1 and BPIFB1 have immunomodulatory activity and genetic variation associated with low levels of these proteins may increase CF lung disease severity.
Project description:Bpifa1 (BPI fold-containing group A member 1) is an airway host-protective protein with immunomodulatory properties that binds to LPS and is regulated by infectious and inflammatory signals. Differential expression of Bpifa1 has been widely reported in lung disease, yet the biological significance of this observation is unclear. We sought to understand the role of Bpifa1 fluctuations in modulating lung inflammation. We treated wild-type (WT) and Bpifa1-/- mice with intranasal LPS and performed immunological and transcriptomic analyses of lung tissue to determine the immune effects of Bpifa1 deficiency. We show that neutrophil (polymorphonuclear cells, PMNs) lung recruitment and transmigration to the airways in response to LPS is impaired in Bpifa1-/- mice. Transcriptomic analysis revealed a signature of 379 genes that differentiated Bpifa1-/- from WT mice. During acute lung inflammation, the most downregulated genes in Bpifa1-/- mice were Cxcl9 and Cxcl10. Bpifa1-/- mice had lower bronchoalveolar lavage concentrations of C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (Cxcl10) and Cxcl9, interferon-inducible PMN chemokines. This was consistent with lower expression of IFN?, IFN?, downstream IFN-stimulated genes, and IFN-regulatory factors, which are important for the innate immune response. Administration of Cxcl10 before LPS treatment restored the inflammatory response in Bpifa1-/- mice. Our results identify a novel role for Bpifa1 in the regulation of Cxcl10-mediated PMN recruitment to the lungs via IFN? and -? signaling during acute inflammation.
Project description:BPIFA1 (BPI-fold containing group A member 1) is an airway host-protective protein with immunomodulatory properties that binds to LPS and is regulated by infectious and inflammatory signals. Differential expression of BPIFA1 has been widely reported in lung disease, yet the biological significance of this observation is unclear. We sought to understand the role of BPIFA1 fluctuations in modulating lung inflammation. We treated WT and bpifa1-/- mice with intranasal LPS and performed transcriptomic analyses to determine the immune effects of BPIFA1 deficiency. Transcriptomic analysis revealed a signature of 379 genes that differentiated bpifa1-/- mice from WT. During acute lung inflammation, the most strongly downregulated innate immunity genes in bpifa1-/- mice were cxcl9 and cxcl10. This was consistent with significantly decreased expression of IFN-g, IFN-l and downstream IFN-stimulated genes (ISG) and IFN-regulatory factors (IRF) important for innate immune responses. Overall design: BPIFA1-/- and WT controls were treated with 5 micrograms of intranasal LPS and gene expression analysis was performed at 0, 8, and 24 hours. Controls received intranasal PBS. Groups: WT at 0 hours (n=6), bpifa1-/- at 0 hours (n=6), WT at 8 hours (n=6), bpifa1-/- at 0 hours (n=5), WT at 24 hours (n=5), bpifa1-/- at 0 hours (n=5)
Project description:Asthma is a chronic airway disease characterized by inflammation, mucus hypersecretion and abnormal airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction. Bacterial permeability family member A1, BPIFA1, is a secreted innate defence protein. Here we show that BPIFA1 levels are reduced in sputum samples from asthmatic patients and that BPIFA1 is secreted basolaterally from healthy, but not asthmatic human bronchial epithelial cultures (HBECs), where it suppresses ASM contractility by binding to and inhibiting the Ca2+ influx channel Orai1. We have localized this effect to a specific, C-terminal ?-helical region of BPIFA1. Furthermore, tracheas from Bpifa1-/- mice are hypercontractile, and this phenotype is reversed by the addition of recombinant BPIFA1. Our data suggest that BPIFA1 deficiency in asthmatic airways promotes Orai1 hyperactivity, increased ASM contraction and airway hyperresponsiveness. Strategies that target Orai1 or the BPIFA1 deficiency in asthma may lead to novel therapies to treat this disease.
Project description:Aims:To explore the differences in salivary BPI fold containing family A, member 1 (BPIFA1) concentration among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects with various severities of chronic periodontitis and to determine whether BPIFA1 in saliva can be used as a potential biomarker of T2DM. Methods:Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from 44 subjects with T2DM and 44 without T2DM (NDM). Additionally, demographic data and general health parameters, including fasting blood glucose (FBG) and body mass index (BMI), were collected. We also detected full-mouth clinical periodontal parameters including probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding index (BI), and plaque index (PLI). Salivary BPIFA1, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations were also detected. Results:BPIFA1 in saliva was detected at relatively high levels. T2DM subjects had decreased salivary BPIFA1 concentrations (P = 0.031). In T2DM subjects with nonperiodontitis or severe periodontitis, the level of BPIFA1 was significantly lower compared with that of NDM. Salivary TNF-? concentration displayed a similar trend to BPIFA1 in the NDM group. Conclusions:BPIFA1 protein is rich in saliva and might be used as a potential predictive biomarker of T2DM, especially in patients with severe periodontitis and nonperiodontitis. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-ROC-17010310.
Project description:Despite being initially identified in mice, little is known about the sites of production of members of the BPI fold (BPIF) containing (PLUNC) family of putative innate defence proteins in this species. These proteins have largely been considered to be specificaly expressed in the respiratory tract, and we have recently shown that they exhibit differential expression in the epithelium of the proximal airways. In this study, we have used species-specific antibodies to systematically localize two members of this protein family; BPIFA1 (PLUNC/SPLUNC1) and BPIFB1 (LPLUNC1) in adult mice. In general, these proteins exhibit distinct and only partially overlapping localization. BPIFA1 is highly expressed in the respiratory epithelium and Bowman's glands of the nasal passages, whereas BPIFB1 is present in small subset of goblet cells in the nasal passage and pharynx. BPIFB1 is also present in the serous glands in the proximal tongue where is co-localised with the salivary gland specific family member, BPIFA2E (parotid secretory protein) and also in glands of the soft palate. Both proteins exhibit limited expression outside of these regions. These results are consistent with the localization of the proteins seen in man. Knowledge of the complex expression patterns of BPIF proteins in these regions will allow the use of tractable mouse models of disease to dissect their function.
Project description:Otitis media (OM), inflammation of the middle ear, remains the most common cause of hearing impairment in children. It is also the most common cause of surgery in children in the developed world. There is evidence from studies of the human population and mouse models that there is a significant genetic component predisposing to OM, yet nothing is known about the underlying genetic pathways involved in humans. We identified an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced dominant mouse mutant Junbo with hearing loss due to chronic suppurative OM and otorrhea. This develops from acute OM that arises spontaneously in the postnatal period, with the age of onset and early severity dependent on the microbiological status of the mice and their air quality. We have identified the causal mutation, a missense change in the C-terminal zinc finger region of the transcription factor Evi1. This protein is expressed in middle ear basal epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and neutrophil leukocytes at postnatal day 13 and 21 when inflammatory changes are underway. The identification and characterization of the Junbo mutant elaborates a novel role for Evi1 in mammalian disease and implicates a new pathway in genetic predisposition to OM.
Project description:Short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1) protein is expressed in human nasopharyngeal and respiratory epithelium and has demonstrated antimicrobial activity. SPLUNC1 is now referred to as bactericidal/permeability-increasing fold containing family A, member 1 (BPIFA1). Reduced BPIFA1 expression is associated with bacterial colonization in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Interleukin 13 (IL-13), predominately secreted by T helper 2 (TH2) cells, has been found to contribute to airway allergies and suppress BPIFA1 expression in nasal epithelial cells. However, the molecular mechanism of IL-13 perturbation of bacterial infection and BPIFA1 expression in host airways remains unclear. In this study, we found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BPIFA1 expression in nasal epithelial cells was mediated through the JNK/c-Jun signaling pathway and AP-1 activation. We further demonstrated that IL-13 downregulated the LPS-induced activation of phosphorylated JNK and c-Jun, followed by attenuation of BPIFA1 expression. Moreover, the immunohistochemical analysis showed that IL-13 prominently suppressed BPIFA1 expression in eosinophilic CRSwNP patients with bacterial infection. Taken together, these results suggest that IL-13 plays a critical role in attenuation of bacteria-induced BPIFA1 expression that may result in eosinophilic CRSwNP.
Project description:Bacterial permeability family member A1 (BPIFA1), also known as short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1), is a protein involved in the antiinflammatory response. The goal of this study was to determine whether BPIFA1 expression in asthmatic airways is regulated by genetic variations, altering epithelial responses to type 2 cytokines (e.g., IL-13). Nasal epithelial cells from patients with mild to severe asthma were collected from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Severe Asthma Research Program centers, genotyped for rs750064, and measured for BPIFA1. To determine the function of rs750064, cells were cultured at air-liquid interface and treated with IL-13 with or without recombinant human BPIFA1 (rhBPIFA1). Noncultured nasal cells with the rs750064 CC genotype had significantly less BPIFA1 mRNA expression than the CT and TT genotypes. Cultured CC versus CT and TT cells without stimulation maintained less BPIFA1 expression. With IL-13 treatment, CC genotype cells secreted more eotaxin-3 than CT and TT genotype cells. Also, rhBPIFA1 reduced IL-13-mediated eotaxin-3. BPIFA1 mRNA levels negatively correlated with serum IgE and fractional exhaled nitric oxide. Baseline FEV1% levels were lower in the asthma patients with the CC genotype (n = 1,016). Our data suggest that less BPIFA1 in asthma patients with the CC allele may predispose them to greater eosinophilic inflammation, which could be attenuated by rhBPIFA1 protein therapy.
Project description:Murine ?-herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) infection of Mus musculus-derived strains of mice is an established model of ?-herpesvirus infection. We have previously developed an alternative system using a natural host, the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus), and shown that the MHV-68 M3 chemokine-binding protein contributes significantly to MHV-68 pathogenesis. Here we demonstrate in A. sylvaticus using high-density micro-arrays that M3 influences the expression of genes involved in the host response including Scgb1a1 and Bpifa1 that encode potential innate defense proteins secreted into the respiratory tract. Further analysis of MHV-68-infected animals showed that the levels of both protein and RNA for SCGB1A1 and BPIFA1 were decreased at day 7 post infection (p.i.) but increased at day 14 p.i. as compared with M3-deficient and mock-infected animals. The modulation of expression was most pronounced in bronchioles but was also present in the bronchi and trachea. Double staining using RNA in situ hybridization and immunohistology demonstrated that much of the BPIFA1 expression occurs in club cells along with SCGB1A1 and that BPIFA1 is stored within granules in these cells. The increase in SCGB1A1 and BPIFA1 expression at day 14 p.i. was associated with the differentiation of club cells into mucus-secreting cells. Our data highlight the role of club cells and the potential of SCGB1A1 and BPIFA1 as innate defense mediators during respiratory virus infection.