Anesthesia and bariatric surgery gut preparation alter plasma acylcarnitines reflective of mitochondrial fat and branched-chain amino acid oxidation.
ABSTRACT: The period around bariatric surgery offers a unique opportunity to characterize metabolism responses to dynamic shifts in energy, gut function, and anesthesia. We analyzed plasma acylcarnitines in obese women (n = 17) sampled in the overnight fasted/postabsorptive state approximately 1-2 wk before surgery (condition A), the morning of surgery (prior restriction to a 48-h clear liquid diet coupled in some cases a standard polyethylene glycol gut evacuation: condition B), and following induction of anesthesia (condition C). Comparisons tested if 1) plasma acylcarnitine derivatives reflective of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and xenometabolism would be significantly increased and decreased, respectively, by preoperative gut preparation/negative energy balance (condition A vs. B), and 2) anesthesia would acutely depress markers of FAO. Acylcarnitines associated with fat mobilization and FAO were significantly increased in condition B: long-chain acylcarnitines (i.e., C18:1, ~70%), metabolites from active but incomplete FAO [i.e., C14:1 (161%) and C14:2 (102%)] and medium- to short-chain acylcarnitines [i.e., C2 (91%), R-3-hydroxybutyryl-(245%), C6 (45%), and cis-3,4-methylene-heptanoyl-(17%), etc.]. Branched-chain amino acid markers displayed disparate patterns [i.e., isobutyryl-(40% decreased) vs. isovaleryl carnitine (51% increased)]. Anesthesia reduced virtually every acylcarnitine. These results are consistent with a fasting-type metabolic phenotype coincident with the presurgical "gut preparation" phase of bariatric surgery, and a major and rapid alteration of both fat and amino acid metabolism with onset of anesthesia. Whether presurgical or anesthesia-associated metabolic shifts in carnitine and fuel metabolism impact patient outcomes or surgical risks remains to be evaluated experimentally.
Project description:What is the central question of this study? Does improved metabolic health and insulin sensitivity following a weight-loss and fitness intervention in sedentary, obese women alter exercise-associated fuel metabolism and incomplete mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO), as tracked by blood acylcarnitine patterns? What is the main finding and its importance? Despite improved fitness and blood sugar control, indices of incomplete mitochondrial FAO increased in a similar manner in response to a fixed load acute exercise bout; this indicates that intramitochondrial muscle FAO is inherently inefficient and is tethered directly to ATP turnover. With insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus, mismatches between mitochondrial fatty acid fuel delivery and oxidative phosphorylation/tricarboxylic acid cycle activity may contribute to inordinate accumulation of short- or medium-chain acylcarnitine fatty acid derivatives [markers of incomplete long-chain fatty acid oxidation (FAO)]. We reasoned that incomplete FAO in muscle would be ameliorated concurrent with improved insulin sensitivity and fitness following a ?14 week training and weight-loss intervention in obese, sedentary, insulin-resistant women. Contrary to this hypothesis, overnight-fasted and exercise-induced plasma C4-C14 acylcarnitines did not differ between pre- and postintervention phases. These metabolites all increased robustly with exercise (?45% of pre-intervention peak oxygen consumption) and decreased during a 20 min cool-down. This supports the idea that, regardless of insulin sensitivity and fitness, intramitochondrial muscle ?-oxidation and attendant incomplete FAO are closely tethered to absolute ATP turnover rate. Acute exercise also led to branched-chain amino acid acylcarnitine derivative patterns suggestive of rapid and transient diminution of branched-chain amino acid flux through the mitochondrial branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. We confirmed our prior novel observation that a weight-loss/fitness intervention alters plasma xenometabolites [i.e. cis-3,4-methylene-heptanoylcarnitine and ?-butyrobetaine (a co-metabolite possibly derived in part from gut bacteria)], suggesting that host metabolic health regulated gut microbe metabolism. Finally, we considered whether acylcarnitine metabolites signal to muscle-innervating afferents; palmitoylcarnitine at concentrations as low as 1-10 ?m activated a subset (?2.5-5%) of these neurons ex vivo. This supports the hypothesis that in addition to tracking exercise-associated shifts in fuel metabolism, muscle acylcarnitines act as signals of exertion to short-loop somatosensory-motor circuits or to the brain.
Project description:Large for gestational age (LGA) newborns have an increased risk of obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Acylcarnitine profiles in obese children and adults are characterized by increased levels of C3, C5, and certain medium-chain (C12) and long-chain (C14:1 and C16) acylcarnitines. C2 is also increased in insulin-resistant states. In this 1-year observational study of 2514 newborns (246 LGA newborns, 250 small for gestational age (GA) newborns, and 2018 appropriate for GA newborns), we analyzed and compared postnatal acylcarnitine profiles in LGA newborns with profiles described for obese individuals. Acylcarnitine analysis was performed by tandem mass spectrometry on dried-blood spots collected on day 3 of life. LGA newborns had higher levels of total short-chain acylcarnitines (p?<?0.001), C2 (p?<?0.01) and C3 (p?<?0.001) acylcarnitines, and all C12, C14, and C16 acylcarnitines except C12:1. They also had a higher tendency towards carnitine insufficiency (p?<?0.05) and carnitine deficiency (p?<?0.001). No significant differences were observed between LGA newborns born to mothers with or without a history of gestational diabetes. This novel study describes a postnatal acylcarnitine profile in LGA with higher levels of C2, C3, total acylcarnitines, and total short-chain acylcarnitines that is characteristic of childhood and adult obesity and linked to an unhealthy metabolic phenotype.
Project description:Insulin resistance may be linked to incomplete fatty acid ?-oxidation and the subsequent increase in acylcarnitine species in different tissues including skeletal muscle. It is not known if acylcarnitines participate in muscle insulin resistance or simply reflect dysregulated metabolism. The aims of this study were to determine whether acylcarnitines can elicit muscle insulin resistance and to better understand the link between incomplete muscle fatty acid ?-oxidation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and insulin-resistance development. Differentiated C2C12, primary mouse, and human myotubes were treated with acylcarnitines (C4:0, C14:0, C16:0) or with palmitate with or without carnitine acyltransferase inhibition by mildronate. Treatment with C4:0, C14:0, and C16:0 acylcarnitines resulted in 20-30% decrease in insulin response at the level of Akt phosphorylation and/or glucose uptake. Mildronate reversed palmitate-induced insulin resistance concomitant with an ?25% decrease in short-chain acylcarnitine and acetylcarnitine secretion. Although proinflammatory cytokines were not affected under these conditions, oxidative stress was increased by 2-3 times by short- or long-chain acylcarnitines. Acylcarnitine-induced oxidative stress and insulin resistance were reversed by treatment with antioxidants. Results are consistent with the conclusion that incomplete muscle fatty acid ?-oxidation causes acylcarnitine accumulation and associated oxidative stress, raising the possibility that these metabolites play a role in muscle insulin resistance.
Project description:To test whether follow-up testing for very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency uncovers a diagnosis in patients with elevations of C14:1 and C14:2 plasma acylcarnitines after a controlled fasting study performed for clinically suspected hypoglycemia and to compare the acylcarnitine profiles from fasted patients without VLCAD deficiency vs patients with known VLCAD deficiency to determine whether metabolite testing distinguishes these groups.We performed a retrospective chart review and identified 17 patients with elevated C14:1 and C14:2 plasma acylcarnitine levels after a controlled fast and with testing for VLCAD deficiency (ACADVL sequencing or fibroblast fatty acid oxidation studies). The follow-up testing in all patients was inconsistent with a diagnosis of VLCAD deficiency. We compared the plasma acylcarnitine profiles from these fasted patients vs patients with VLCAD deficiency.C14:1/C12:1 was significantly lower (P < .001) in fasted patients vs patients with VLCAD deficiency. Metabolomics analysis performed in 2 fasted patients and 1 patient with VLCAD deficiency demonstrated evidence for up-regulated lipolysis and ?-oxidation in the fasted state.Elevations of plasma C14:1 and C14:2 acylcarnitines appear to be a physiologic result of lipolysis that occurs with fasting. Both metabolomics analysis and/or C14:1/C12:1 may distinguish C14:1 elevations from physiologic fasting-induced lipolysis vs VLCAD deficiency.
Project description:Inefficient muscle long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) combustion is associated with insulin resistance, but molecular links between mitochondrial fat catabolism and insulin action remain controversial. We hypothesized that plasma acylcarnitine profiling would identify distinct metabolite patterns reflective of muscle fat catabolism when comparing individuals bearing a missense G304A uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3 g/a) polymorphism to controls, because UCP3 is predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle and g/a individuals have reduced whole-body fat oxidation. MS analyses of 42 carnitine moieties in plasma samples from fasting type 2 diabetics (n = 44) and nondiabetics (n = 12) with or without the UCP3 g/a polymorphism (n = 28/genotype: 22 diabetic, 6 nondiabetic/genotype) were conducted. Contrary to our hypothesis, genotype had a negligible impact on plasma metabolite patterns. However, a comparison of nondiabetics vs. type 2 diabetics revealed a striking increase in the concentrations of fatty acylcarnitines reflective of incomplete LCFA beta-oxidation in the latter (i.e. summed C10- to C14-carnitine concentrations were approximately 300% of controls; P = 0.004). Across all volunteers (n = 56), acetylcarnitine rose and propionylcarnitine decreased with increasing hemoglobin A1c (r = 0.544, P < 0.0001; and r = -0.308, P < 0.05, respectively) and with increasing total plasma acylcarnitine concentration. In proof-of-concept studies, we made the novel observation that C12-C14 acylcarnitines significantly stimulated nuclear factor kappa-B activity (up to 200% of controls) in RAW264.7 cells. These results are consistent with the working hypothesis that inefficient tissue LCFA beta-oxidation, due in part to a relatively low tricarboxylic acid cycle capacity, increases tissue accumulation of acetyl-CoA and generates chain-shortened acylcarnitine molecules that activate proinflammatory pathways implicated in insulin resistance.
Project description:Left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) represents the interventional alternative to oral anticoagulation for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF). The metabolism of acylcarnitines was shown to affect cardiovascular diseases. This study evaluates the influence of successful LAAC on the metabolism of acylcarnitines.Patients undergoing successful LAAC were enrolled prospectively. Peripheral blood samples for metabolomics measurements were collected immediately before (i.e., index) and six months after LAAC (i.e., mid-term). A targeted metabolomics analysis based on electrospray ionization-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (ESI-LC-MS/MS) and MS/MS measurements was performed.44 patients with non-valvular AF (median CHA?DS?-VASc score 4, median HAS-BLED score 4) and successful LAAC were included. Significant changes in acylcarnitine levels were found in the total cohort, which were mainly attributed to patients with impaired left ventricular and renal function, elevated amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and diabetes mellitus. Adjusted multivariable regression models revealed significant changes of five metabolites over mid-term follow-up: C2, C14:1, C16, and C18:1 decreased significantly (each p < 0.05); short-chain C5 acylcarnitine plasma levels increased significantly (p < 0.05).This study demonstrates that successful LAAC affects the metabolism of acylcarnitines at mid-term follow-up.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02985463.
Project description:Because tandem mass spectrometry- (MS/MS-) based newborn screening identifies many suspicious cases of fatty acid oxidation and carnitine cycle disorders, a simple, noninvasive test is required to confirm the diagnosis. We have developed a novel method to evaluate the metabolic defects in peripheral blood mononuclear cells loaded with deuterium-labeled fatty acids directly using the ratios of acylcarnitines determined by flow injection MS/MS. We have identified diagnostic indices for the disorders as follows: decreased ratios of d27-C14-acylcarnitine/d31-C16-acylcarnitine and d23-C12-acylcarnitine/d31-C16-acylcarnitine for carnitine palmitoyltransferase-II (CPT-II) deficiency, decreased ratios of d23-C12-acylcarnitine/d27-C14-acylcarnitine for very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency, and increased ratios of d29-C16-OH-acylcarnitine/d31-C16-acylcarnitine for trifunctional protein (TFP) deficiency, together with increased ratios of d7-C4-acylcarnitine/d31-C16-acylcarnitine for carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I deficiency. The decreased ratios of d1-acetylcarnitine/d31-C16-acylcarnitine could be indicative of ?-oxidation ability in patients with CPT-II, VLCAD, and TFP deficiencies. Overall, our data showed that the present method was valuable for establishing a rapid diagnosis of fatty acid oxidation disorders and carnitine cycle disorders and for complementing gene analysis because our diagnostic indices may overcome the weaknesses of conventional enzyme activity measurements using fibroblasts or mononuclear cells with assumedly uncertain viability.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate plasma acylcarnitine profiles and their relationships with progression of carotid artery atherosclerosis among individuals with and without HIV infection. DESIGN:Prospective cohort studies of 499 HIV-positive and 206 HIV-negative individuals from the Women's Interagency HIV Study and the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. METHODS:Twenty-four acylcarnitine species were measured in plasma samples of participants at baseline. Carotid artery plaque was assessed using repeated B-mode carotid artery ultrasound imaging in 2004-2013. We examined the associations of individual and aggregate short-chain (C2-C7), medium-chain (C8-C14) and long-chain acylcarnitines (C16-C26) with incident carotid artery plaque over 7 years. RESULTS:Among 24 acylcarnitine species, C8-carnitines and C20?:?4-carnitines showed significantly lower levels comparing HIV-positive to HIV-negative individuals (false discovery rate adjusted P?<?0.05); and C20-carnitines and C26-carnitines showed significantly higher levels in HIV positive using antiretroviral therapy than those without antiretroviral therapy (false discovery rate adjusted P?<?0.05). In the univariate analyses, higher aggregated short-chain and long-chain acylcarnitine scores were associated with increased risk of carotid artery plaque [risk ratios (RRs)?=?1.22 (95% confidence interval 1.02-1.45) and 1.20 (1.02-1.41) per SD increment, respectively]. The association for the short-chain acylcarnitine score remained significant [RR?=?1.23 (1.05-1.44)] after multivariate adjustment (including traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors). This association was more evident in HIV-positive individuals without persistent viral suppression [RR?=?1.37 (1.11-1.69)] compared with those with persistent viral suppression during follow-up [RR?=?1.03 (0.76-1.40)] or HIV-negative individuals [RR?=?1.02 (0.69-1.52)]. CONCLUSION:In two HIV cohorts, plasma levels of most acylcarnitines were not significantly different between HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals. However, higher levels of aggregated short-chain acylcarnitines were associated with progression of carotid artery atherosclerosis.
Project description:The Native American Pima population has the highest incidence of insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) of any reported population, but the pathophysiologic mechanism is unknown. Genetic studies in Pima Indians have linked acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 10 (ACAD10) gene polymorphisms, among others, to this predisposition. The gene codes for a protein with a C-terminus region that is structurally similar to members of a family of flavoenzymes-the acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs)-that catalyze ?,?-dehydrogenation reactions, including the first step in mitochondrial FAO (FAO), and intermediary reactions in amino acids catabolism. Dysregulation of FAO and an increase in plasma acylcarnitines are recognized as important in the pathophysiology of IR and T2DM. To investigate the deficiency of ACAD10 as a monogenic risk factor for T2DM in human, an Acad-deficient mouse was generated and characterized. The deficient mice exhibit an abnormal glucose tolerance test and elevated insulin levels. Blood acylcarnitine analysis shows an increase in long-chain species in the older mice. Nonspecific variable pattern of elevated short-terminal branch-chain acylcarnitines in a variety of tissues was also observed. Acad10 mice accumulate excess abdominal adipose tissue, develop an early inflammatory liver process, exhibit fasting rhabdomyolysis, and have abnormal skeletal muscle mitochondria. Our results identify Acad10 as a genetic determinant of T2DM in mice and provide a model to further investigate genetic determinants for insulin resistance in humans.
Project description:Peroxisomes are essential organelles for the specialized oxidation of a wide variety of fatty acids, but they are also able to degrade fatty acids that are typically handled by mitochondria. Using a combination of pharmacological inhibition and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR associated protein 9 genome editing technology to simultaneously manipulate peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid ?-oxidation (FAO) in HEK-293 cells, we identified essential players in the metabolic crosstalk between these organelles. Depletion of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)2 activity through pharmacological inhibition or knockout (KO) uncovered a significant residual peroxisomal oxidation of lauric and palmitic acid, leading to the production of peroxisomal acylcarnitine intermediates. Generation and analysis of additional single- and double-KO cell lines revealed that the D-bifunctional protein (HSD17B4) and the peroxisomal ABC transporter ABCD3 are essential in peroxisomal oxidation of lauric and palmitic acid. Our results indicate that peroxisomes not only accept acyl-CoAs but can also oxidize acylcarnitines in a similar biochemical pathway. By using an Hsd17b4 KO mouse model, we demonstrated that peroxisomes contribute to the plasma acylcarnitine profile after acute inhibition of CPT2, proving in vivo relevance of this pathway. We summarize that peroxisomal FAO is important when mitochondrial FAO is defective or overloaded.-Violante, S., Achetib, N., van Roermund, C. W. T., Hagen, J., Dodatko, T., Vaz, F. M., Waterham, H. R., Chen, H., Baes, M., Yu, C., Argmann, C. A., Houten, S. M. Peroxisomes can oxidize medium- and long-chain fatty acids through a pathway involving ABCD3 and HSD17B4.