Glucose transporter 4-deficient hearts develop maladaptive hypertrophy in response to physiological or pathological stresses.
ABSTRACT: Pathological cardiac hypertrophy may be associated with reduced expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in contrast to exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy, where GLUT4 levels are increased. However, mice with cardiac-specific deletion of GLUT4 (G4H-/-) have normal cardiac function in the unstressed state. This study tested the hypothesis that cardiac GLUT4 is required for myocardial adaptations to hemodynamic demands. G4H-/- and control littermates were subjected to either a pathological model of left ventricular pressure overload [transverse aortic constriction (TAC)] or a physiological model of endurance exercise (swim training). As predicted after TAC, G4H-/- mice developed significantly greater hypertrophy and more severe contractile dysfunction. Somewhat surprisingly, after exercise training, G4H-/- mice developed increased fibrosis and apoptosis that was associated with dephosphorylation of the prosurvival kinase Akt in concert with an increase in protein levels of the upstream phosphatase protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Exercise has been shown to decrease levels of ceramide; G4H-/- hearts failed to decrease myocardial ceramide in response to exercise. Furthermore, G4H-/- hearts have reduced levels of the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1, lower carnitine palmitoyl-transferase activity, and reduced hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity. These basal changes may also contribute to the impaired ability of G4H-/- hearts to adapt to hemodynamic stresses. In conclusion, GLUT4 is required for the maintenance of cardiac structure and function in response to physiological or pathological processes that increase energy demands, in part through secondary changes in mitochondrial metabolism and cellular stress survival pathways such as Akt.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) is required for myocardial adaptations to exercise, and its absence accelerates heart dysfunction after pressure overload. The requirement for GLUT4 may extend beyond glucose uptake to include defects in mitochondrial metabolism and survival signaling pathways that develop in its absence. Therefore, GLUT4 is critical for responses to hemodynamic stresses.
Project description:Mechanical unloading (MU) by implantation of left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) has become clinical routine. This procedure has been shown to reverse cardiac pathological remodeling, with the underlying molecular mechanisms incompletely understood. Most studies thus far were performed in non-standardized human specimens or MU of healthy animal hearts. Our study investigates cardiac remodeling processes in sham-operated healthy rat hearts and in hearts subjected to standardized pathological pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) prior to MU by heterotopic heart transplantation (hHTx/MU). Rats underwent sham or TAC surgery. Disease progression was monitored by echocardiography prior to MU by hHTx/MU. Hearts after TAC or TAC combined with hHTx/MU were removed and analyzed by histology, western immunoblot and gene expression analysis. TAC surgery resulted in cardiac hypertrophy and impaired cardiac function. TAC hearts revealed significantly increased cardiac myocyte diameter and mild fibrosis. Expression of hypertrophy associated genes after TAC was higher compared to hearts after hHTx/MU. While cardiac myocyte cell diameter regressed to the level of sham-operated controls in all hearts subjected to hHTx/MU, fibrotic remodeling was significantly exacerbated. Transcription of pro-fibrotic and apoptosis-related genes was markedly augmented in all hearts after hHTx/MU. Sarcomeric proteins involved in excitation-contraction coupling displayed significantly lower phosphorylation levels after TAC and significantly reduced total protein levels after hHTx/MU. Development of myocardial fibrosis, cardiac myocyte atrophy and loss of sarcomeric proteins was observed in all hearts that underwent hHTX/MU regardless of the disease state. These results may help to explain the clinical experience with low rates of LVAD removal due to lack of myocardial recovery.
Project description:The aim of this study was to determine whether endogenous GLUT1 induction and the increased glucose utilization that accompanies pressure overload hypertrophy (POH) are required to maintain cardiac function during hemodynamic stress, and to test the hypothesis that lack of GLUT1 will accelerate the transition to heart failure. To determine the contribution of endogenous GLUT1 to the cardiac adaptation to POH, male mice with cardiomyocyte-restricted deletion of the GLUT1 gene (G1KO) and their littermate controls (Cont) were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC). GLUT1 deficiency reduced glycolysis and glucose oxidation by 50%, which was associated with a reciprocal increase in fatty acid oxidation (FAO) relative to controls. Four weeks after TAC, glycolysis increased and FAO decreased by 50% in controls, but were unchanged in G1KO hearts relative to shams. G1KO and controls exhibited equivalent degrees of cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and capillary density loss after TAC. Following TAC, in vivo left ventricular developed pressure was decreased in G1KO hearts relative to controls, but+dP/dt was equivalently reduced in Cont and G1KO mice. Mitochondrial function was equivalently impaired following TAC in both Cont and G1KO hearts. GLUT1 deficiency in cardiomyocytes alters myocardial substrate utilization, but does not substantially exacerbate pressure-overload induced contractile dysfunction or accelerate the progression to heart failure.
Project description:Recent studies have unveiled that myocardial hypertrophic preconditioning (HP), which is produced by de-banding (De-TAC) of short-term transverse aortic constriction (TAC), protects the heart against hypertrophic responses caused by subsequent re-constriction (Re-TAC) in mice. Although cardiac substrate metabolism is impaired in heart failure, it remains unclear about the role of HP-driven energetics in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Here, we investigated energy metabolism, cardiac hypertrophy, and function following variational loading conditions, as well as their relationships in HP. Male C57BL/6J mice (10–12 weeks old) were randomly subjected to Sham, HP [TAC for 3days (TAC 3d), de-banding the aorta for 4 days (De-TAC 4d), and then re-banding the aorta for 4 weeks (Re-TAC 4W)], and TAC (TAC for 4 weeks without de-banding). Cardiac echocardiography, hemodynamics, and histology were utilized to evaluate cardiac remodeling and function. The mRNA expression levels of fetal genes (ANP and BNP), glucose metabolism-related genes (glut4, pdk4), and fatty acid oxidation-related genes (mcad, pgc1?, mcd, ppar?) were quantitated by real-time quantitative PCR. Activation of hypertrophy regulators ERK1/2, a metabolic stress kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and its downstream target acetyl-coA carboxylase (ACC) were explored by western blot. Compared with TAC 4W mice, Re-TAC 4W mice showed less impairment in glucose and fatty acid metabolism, as well as less cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction. Moreover, no significant difference was found in myocardial hypertrophy, fibrosis, and cardiac function in TAC 3d and De-TAC 4d groups compared with Sham group. However, glut4, pdk4, mcad, pgc1?, mcd, and ppar? were all decreased, while AMPK and ACC were activated in TAC 3d and returned to Sham level in De-TAC 4d, suggesting that the change in myocardial energy metabolism in HP mice was earlier than that in cardiac structure and function. Collectively, HP improves energy metabolism and delays cardiac remodeling, highlighting that early metabolic improvements drive a potential beneficial effect on structural and functional restoration in cardiac hypertrophy.
Project description:RATIONALE:Decreased fatty acid oxidation (FAO) with increased reliance on glucose are hallmarks of metabolic remodeling that occurs in pathological cardiac hypertrophy and is associated with decreased myocardial energetics and impaired cardiac function. To date, it has not been tested whether prevention of the metabolic switch that occurs during the development of cardiac hypertrophy has unequivocal benefits on cardiac function and energetics. OBJECTIVE:Because malonyl CoA production via acetyl CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) inhibits the entry of long chain fatty acids into the mitochondria, we hypothesized that mice with a cardiac-specific deletion of ACC2 (ACC2H-/-) would maintain cardiac FAO and improve function and energetics during the development of pressure-overload hypertrophy. METHODS AND RESULTS:ACC2 deletion led to a significant reduction in cardiac malonyl CoA levels. In isolated perfused heart experiments, left ventricular function and oxygen consumption were similar in ACC2H-/- mice despite an ?60% increase in FAO compared with controls (CON). After 8 weeks of pressure overload via transverse aortic constriction (TAC), ACC2H-/- mice exhibited a substrate utilization profile similar to sham animals, whereas CON-TAC hearts had decreased FAO with increased glycolysis and anaplerosis. Myocardial energetics, assessed by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and cardiac function were maintained in ACC2H-/- after 8 weeks of TAC. Furthermore, ACC2H-/--TAC demonstrated an attenuation of cardiac hypertrophy with a significant reduction in fibrosis relative to CON-TAC. CONCLUSIONS:These data suggest that reversion to the fetal metabolic profile in chronic pathological hypertrophy is associated with impaired myocardial function and energetics and maintenance of the inherent cardiac metabolic profile and mitochondrial oxidative capacity is a viable therapeutic strategy.
Project description:Different kinds of mechanical stimuli acting on the heart lead to different myocardial phenotypes. Physiological stress, such as exercise, leads to adaptive cardiac hypertrophy, which is characterized by a normal cardiac structure and improved cardiac function. Pathological stress, such as sustained cardiac pressure overload, causes maladaptive cardiac remodeling and, eventually, heart failure. Casein kinase-2 interacting protein-1 (CKIP-1) is an important regulator of pathological cardiac remodeling. However, the role of CKIP-1 in physiological cardiac hypertrophy is unknown. We subjected wild-type (WT) mice to a swimming exercise program for 21 days, which caused an increase in myocardial CKIP-1 protein and mRNA expression. We then subjected CKIP-1 knockout (KO) mice and myocardial-specific CKIP-1-overexpressing mice to the 21-day swimming exercise program. Histological and echocardiography analyses revealed that CKIP-1 KO mice underwent pathological cardiac remodeling after swimming, whereas the CKIP-1-overexpressing mice had a similar cardiac phenotype to the WT controls. Histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) is a key molecule in the signaling cascade associated with pathological hypertrophy; the phosphorylation levels of HDAC4 were markedly higher in CKIP-1 KO mouse hearts after the swimming exercise program. The phosphorylation levels of HDAC4 did not change after swimming in the hearts of CKIP-1-overexpressing or WT mice. Our results indicate that swimming, a mechanical stress that leads to physiological hypertrophy, triggers pathological cardiac remodeling in CKIP-1 KO mice. CKIP-1 is necessary for physiological cardiac hypertrophy <i>in vivo</i>, and for modulating the phosphorylation level of HDAC4 after physiological stress. Genetically engineering CKIP-1 expression affected heart health in response to exercise.
Project description:<h4>Rationale</h4>Cardiac CITED4 (CBP/p300-interacting transactivators with E [glutamic acid]/D [aspartic acid]-rich-carboxylterminal domain4) is induced by exercise and is sufficient to cause physiological hypertrophy and mitigate adverse ventricular remodeling after ischemic injury. However, the role of endogenous CITED4 in response to physiological or pathological stress is unknown.<h4>Objective</h4>To investigate the role of CITED4 in murine models of exercise and pressure overload.<h4>Methods and results</h4>We generated cardiomyocyte-specific CITED4 knockout mice (C4KO) and subjected them to an intensive swim exercise protocol as well as transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Echocardiography, Western blotting, qPCR, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and transcriptional profiling for mRNA and miRNA (microRNA) expression were performed. Cellular crosstalk was investigated in vitro. CITED4 deletion in cardiomyocytes did not affect baseline cardiac size or function in young adult mice. C4KO mice developed modest cardiac dysfunction and dilation in response to exercise. After TAC, C4KOs developed severe heart failure with left ventricular dilation, impaired cardiomyocyte growth accompanied by reduced mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) activity and maladaptive cardiac remodeling with increased apoptosis, autophagy, and impaired mitochondrial signaling. Interstitial fibrosis was markedly increased in C4KO hearts after TAC. RNAseq revealed induction of a profibrotic miRNA network. miR30d was decreased in C4KO hearts after TAC and mediated crosstalk between cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts to modulate fibrosis. miR30d inhibition was sufficient to increase cardiac dysfunction and fibrosis after TAC.<h4>Conclusions</h4>CITED4 protects against pathological cardiac remodeling by regulating mTOR activity and a network of miRNAs mediating cardiomyocyte to fibroblast crosstalk. Our findings highlight the importance of CITED4 in response to both physiological and pathological stimuli.
Project description:A vital step in the development of heart failure is the transition from compensatory cardiac hypertrophy to decompensated dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) during cardiac remodeling under mechanical or pathological stress. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of DCM and heart failure remain incompletely understood. In the present study, we investigate whether Gab1, a scaffolding adaptor protein, protects against hemodynamic stress-induced DCM and heat failure. We first observed that the protein levels of Gab1 were markedly reduced in hearts from human patients with DCM and from mice with experimental viral myocarditis in which DCM developed. Next, we generated cardiac-specific Gab1 knockout mice (Gab1-cKO) and found that Gab-cKO mice developed DCM in hemodynamic stress-dependent and age-dependent manners. Under transverse aorta constriction (TAC), Gab1-cKO mice rapidly developed decompensated DCM and heart failure, whereas Gab1 wild-type littermates exhibited adaptive left ventricular hypertrophy without changes in cardiac function. Mechanistically, we showed that Gab1-cKO mouse hearts displayed severe mitochondrial damages and increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Loss of cardiac Gab1 in mice impaired Gab1 downstream MAPK signaling pathways in the heart under TAC. Gene profiles further revealed that ablation of Gab1 in heart disrupts the balance of anti- and pro-apoptotic genes in cardiomyocytes. These results demonstrate that cardiomyocyte Gab1 is a critical regulator of the compensatory cardiac response to aging and hemodynamic stress. These findings may provide new mechanistic insights and potential therapeutic target for DCM and heart failure.
Project description:Cyclic GMP (cGMP)-specific phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibition by sildenafil (SIL) activates myocardial cGMP-dependent protein kinase G (PKG) and blunts cardiac hypertrophy. To date, the only documented target of PKG in myocardium is the serine-threonine phosphatase calcineurin (Cn), which is central to pathological cardiac hypertrophy. We tested whether Cn suppression is necessary in order to observe anti-hypertrophic effects of SIL.Mice lacking the Cn-Abeta subunit (CnAbeta(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) controls were subjected to transverse aorta constriction (TAC) with or without SIL (200 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 3 weeks. TAC-induced elevation of Cn expression and activity in WT was absent in CnAbeta(-/-) hearts, and the latter accordingly developed less cardiac hypertrophy (50 vs. 100% increase in heart weight/tibia length, P < 0.03) and chamber dilation. SIL remained effective in CnAbeta(-/-) mice, increasing PKG activity similarly as in WT, suppressing hypertrophy and fetal gene expression, and enhancing heart function without altering afterload. TAC-stimulated calcium-calmodulin kinase II, Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta in both groups (the first rising more in CnAbeta(-/-) hearts), and SIL also suppressed these similarly. Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase observed in WT-TAC but not CnAbeta(-/-) hearts was also suppressed by SIL.PDE5A inhibition and its accompanying PKG activation blunt hypertrophy and improve heart function even without Cn activation. This occurs by its modulation of several alternative pathways which may result from concomitant distal targeting, or activity against a common proximal node.
Project description:The aim of the current study was to determine whether ventricular hypertrophy affects the delayed isoflurane preconditioning against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Transverse aortic constriction (TAC) was performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats to induce left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, then sham-operated or hypertrophied rat hearts were subjected to isoflurane preconditioning (2.1% v/v, 1 h). 24 h after exposure, the hearts were isolated and perfused retrogradely by the Langendorff for 30 min (equilibration) followed by 40 min of ischemia and then 120 min of reperfusion. The hemodynamics, infarct size, apoptosis, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), Cleaved Caspase-3 and production of NO were determined. We found that the hemodynamic parameters were all markedly improved during the reperfusion period and the myocardial infarct size and apoptosis was significantly reduced by delayed isoflurane preconditioning in sham-operated rats. However, such cardiac improvement induced by delayed isoflurane preconditioning was not observed in hypertrophied hearts. The expression of iNOS, COX-2 and NO was markedly enhanced, whereas Cleaved Caspase-3 activity was inhibited by delayed isoflurane preconditioning in sham-operated rats, a phenomenon was not found in TAC-control groups pretreated with isoflurane. Our results demonstrated that ventricular hypertrophy abrogated isoflurane-induced delayed cardioprotection by alteration of iNOS/COX-2 pathway.
Project description:RATIONALE:The role of interleukin (IL)-6 in the pathogenesis of cardiac myocyte hypertrophy remains controversial. OBJECTIVE:To conclusively determine whether IL-6 signaling is essential for the development of pressure overload-induced left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and to elucidate the underlying molecular pathways. METHODS AND RESULTS:Wild-type and IL-6 knockout (IL-6(-/-)) mice underwent sham surgery or transverse aortic constriction (TAC) to induce pressure overload. Serial echocardiograms and terminal hemodynamic studies revealed attenuated LV hypertrophy and superior preservation of LV function in IL-6(-/-) mice after TAC. The extents of LV remodeling, fibrosis, and apoptosis were reduced in IL-6(-/-) hearts after TAC. Transcriptional and protein assays of myocardial tissue identified Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation as important underlying mechanisms during cardiac hypertrophy induced by TAC. The involvement of these pathways in myocyte hypertrophy was verified in isolated cardiac myocytes from wild-type and IL-6(-/-) mice exposed to prohypertrophy agents. Furthermore, overexpression of CaMKII in H9c2 cells increased STAT3 phosphorylation, and exposure of H9c2 cells to IL-6 resulted in STAT3 activation that was attenuated by CaMKII inhibition. Together, these results identify the importance of CaMKII-dependent activation of STAT3 during cardiac myocyte hypertrophy via IL-6 signaling. CONCLUSIONS:Genetic deletion of IL-6 attenuates TAC-induced LV hypertrophy and dysfunction, indicating a critical role played by IL-6 in the pathogenesis of LV hypertrophy in response to pressure overload. CaMKII plays an important role in IL-6-induced STAT3 activation and consequent cardiac myocyte hypertrophy. These findings may have significant therapeutic implications for LV hypertrophy and failure in patients with hypertension.