Effect of Electroacupuncture on Urinary Leakage Among Women With Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
ABSTRACT: Importance:Electroacupuncture involving the lumbosacral region may be effective for women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI), but evidence is limited. Objective:To assess the effect of electroacupuncture vs sham electroacupuncture for women with SUI. Design, Setting, and Participants:Multicenter, randomized clinical trial conducted at 12 hospitals in China and enrolling 504 women with SUI between October 2013 and May 2015, with data collection completed in December 2015. Interventions:Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 18 sessions (over 6 weeks) of electroacupuncture involving the lumbosacral region (n = 252) or sham electroacupuncture (n = 252) with no skin penetration on sham acupoints. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was change from baseline to week 6 in the amount of urine leakage, measured by the 1-hour pad test. Secondary outcomes included mean 72-hour urinary incontinence episodes measured by a 72-hour bladder diary (72-hour incontinence episodes). Results:Among the 504 randomized participants (mean [SD] age, 55.3 [8.4] years), 482 completed the study. Mean urine leakage at baseline was 18.4 g for the electroacupuncture group and 19.1 g for the sham electroacupuncture group. Mean 72-hour incontinence episodes were 7.9 for the electroacupuncture group and 7.7 for the sham electroacupuncture group. At week 6, the electroacupuncture group had greater decrease in mean urine leakage (-9.9 g) than the sham electroacupuncture group (-2.6 g) with a mean difference of 7.4 g (95% CI, 4.8 to 10.0; P < .001). During some time periods, the change in the mean 72-hour incontinence episodes from baseline was greater with electroacupuncture than sham electroacupuncture with between-group differences of 1.0 episode in weeks 1 to 6 (95% CI, 0.2-1.7; P = .01), 2.0 episodes in weeks 15 to 18 (95% CI, 1.3-2.7; P < .001), and 2.1 episodes in weeks 27 to 30 (95% CI, 1.3-2.8; P < .001). The incidence of treatment-related adverse events was 1.6% in the electroacupuncture group and 2.0% in the sham electroacupuncture group, and all events were classified as mild. Conclusions and Relevance:Among women with stress urinary incontinence, treatment with electroacupuncture involving the lumbosacral region, compared with sham electroacupuncture, resulted in less urine leakage after 6 weeks. Further research is needed to understand long-term efficacy and the mechanism of action of this intervention. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01784172.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Acupuncture is a potential conservative therapy for women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). There is limited evidence to support its effectiveness due to the poor quality of existing studies. METHODS:We performed a pilot randomized, controlled trial to preliminarily assess the efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA) in women with pure SUI. A total of 80 women with pure SUI were randomly assigned to receive EA with deep needling at BL33 and BL35 (n = 40) or sham EA with non-penetrating needling at sham acupoints (n = 40) three sessions per week for 6 weeks. The women were followed for 24 weeks. The primary outcome was the change from baseline in the amount of urine leakage measured by a 1-hour pad test after 6 weeks. The secondary outcomes included the 72-hour incontinence episode frequency (IEF), International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF) score, and patient self-evaluation of therapeutic effect. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored throughout the trial. RESULTS:The median decrease from baseline of urine leakage measured by the 1-hour pad test was 2.5 g [interquartile range (IQR): 1.80-14.6 in the EA group, which was greater than the median decrease of 0.05 g (IQR: -2.80-+0.50) in the sham EA group after 6 weeks (p<0.01). The differences between groups in the decrease from baseline of 72-hour IEF became statistically significant at week 30 with a median decrease of 3.25 g (IQR: 1.25-5.69) in the EA group, and a median decrease of 1.00 g (IQR: -0.69-+2.88) in the sham EA group (p = 0.01). The participants in the EA group showed greater decreases in ICIQ-SF score and higher ratings in the help they received from the treatment than those in the sham EA group at weeks 6,18 and 30 (all p<0.05). No obvious AEs were observed in either group. CONCLUSION:EA may effectively and safely relieve urinary incontinence symptoms and improve quality of life in women with pure SUI. EA demonstrated more than a placebo effect. Since this is a pilot study, results should be interpreted with caution. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02445573.
Project description:Although available evidence relating to its effectiveness is weak, acupuncture is used as an alternative therapy for stress urinary incontinence. We report a protocol of a randomized controlled trial using electroacupuncture (the passing of a weak current between inserted acupuncture needles) to treat women with pure stress urinary incontinence.This is a large-scale multicenter subject-blinded randomized controlled trial. A total of 500 women with pure stress urinary incontinence will be randomly assigned to two groups: a treatment group and a control group. The treatment group will receive electroacupuncture with deep needling at acupuncture points BL33 and BL35. The control group will receive sham electroacupuncture with non-penetrating needling at sham locations for the acupuncture points of BL33 and BL35. Participants will be given three sessions a week for 6 weeks. A 24-week-long follow-up will be conducted. The primary outcome will be the change in amount of urine leakage at the sixth week from a baseline measured by a 1-h pad test. The secondary outcomes include: the 72-h incontinence episode frequency based on a 72-h bladder diary; the score of International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form; the degree of urinary incontinence based on a 72-h bladder diary; self-assessment of the therapeutic effect; weekly consumption of pads; application of other treatments for stress urinary incontinence; and subgroup analysis stratified by incontinence severity. The safety of electroacupuncture will also be assessed.This trial will help to identify whether electroacupuncture is effective for stress urinary incontinence, and, if so, whether it is a therapeutic effect rather than a placebo effect.Clinical Trials.gov NCT01784172.
Project description:Postmenopausal women are at a higher risk of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). In a previous trial, electroacupuncture (EA) was shown to be an effective treatment for women with SUI. Here we present a secondary analysis to investigate the specific factors associated with response to acupuncture therapy among postmenopausal women with SUI.We conducted secondary analysis of data from a multicenter randomized controlled trial. This trial included a baseline period of 1 week and a treatment period of 6 weeks with electroacupuncture (EA) or sham electroacupuncture (SA). The patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups (EA group or SA group). Participants who showed a decrease in urine leakage by at least 50% from baseline level, as measured by 1-hour pad at week 6, were defined as responders. Baseline characteristics associated with response to acupuncture therapy (e.g., demographic, comorbidities, and lifestyle-related factors) were identified by logistic regression analysis and the interactions between treatment assignment and baseline characteristics assessed.This analysis included a total of 349 postmenopausal women, of whom 137 (39.3%) were classified as responders. Response rate in the EA group was significantly higher than that in the SA group (60.9% vs 18.9%, respectively; P < .001). On multivariable logistic regression analysis, only "mean number of urine pads used before treatment" remained a significant predictor of response to therapy (EA or SA). Greater weekly mean number of urine pads used before treatment showed a correlation with non-response to therapy, as the likelihood of clinical response reduced by 5.26% with increase in the weekly mean number of urine pads used (odds ratio 0.947, 95% confidence interval 0.902-0.993; P = .020). The interaction terms were not statistically significant.Postmenopausal women with SUI who used fewer number of pads per week before treatment were more likely to respond to therapy. This study provides valuable insights for pretreatment selection of women with SUI. Specific factors related to the therapeutic effects of acupuncture were not identified and need to be explored in future studies.Trial registration: Clinical Trials.gov: NCT01784172.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In women with mixed urinary incontinence, pelvic floor muscle training and solifenacin is the recommended conservative treatment, while electroacupuncture is a safe, economical and effective option. METHODS/DESIGN: In this prospective, multi-center, randomized controlled trial, five hundred women with mixed urinary incontinence, from 10 centers will be randomized to receive either electroacupuncture or pelvic floor muscle training plus solifenacin. Women in the acupuncture group will receive electroacupuncture for 3 sessions per week, over 12 weeks, while women in the control group will receive pelvic floor muscle training plus solifenacin (5 mg once daily) for 36 weeks. The primary outcome measure is the proportion of change in 72-hour incontinence episode frequency from baseline to week 12. The secondary outcome measures include eleven items, including proportion of participants with ≥50% decrease in average 72-h incontinence episode frequency, change from baseline in the amount of urine leakage and proportion of change from baseline in 72-h incontinence episode frequency in week 25-36, and so forth. Statistical analysis will include covariance analysis, nonparametric tests and t tests. DISCUSSION: The objective of this trial is to compare the efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture versus pelvic floor muscle training plus solifenacin in women with moderate and severe mixed urinary incontinence. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02047032.
Project description:Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a widespread complaint in the adult women. Electroacupuncture has been widely applied in the treatment of SUI. But its efficacy has not been evaluated scientifically and systematically. Therefore, we provide a protocol of systematic evaluation to assess the effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture treatment on women with SUI.The retrieved databases include 3 English literature databases, namely PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library, and 3 Chinese literature databases, namely Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Database. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of the electroacupuncture treatment on women with SUI will be searched in the above-mentioned databases from the time when the respective databases were established to December 2017. The change from baseline in the amount of urine leakage measured by the 1-hour pad test will be accepted as the primary outcomes. We will use RevMan V.5.3 software as well to compute the data synthesis carefully when a meta-analysis is allowed.This study will provide a high-quality synthesis to assess the effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture treatment on women with SUI.The conclusion of our systematic review will provide evidence to judge whether electroacupuncture is an effective intervention for women with SUI.PROSPERO CRD42017070947.
Project description:Previous research has shown that electroacupuncture therapy has a potential therapeutic effect for simple female stress urinary incontinence. In this study, pelvic floor muscle training, the first-line treatment for stress urinary incontinence in women based on meta-analysis of numerous randomized control trials and recommended by international clinical practice, is used as a control group to demonstrate whether electroacupuncture therapy is a better method for female stress urinary incontinence.A randomized controlled trial has been designed to evaluate the therapeutic benefit of electroacupuncture for female stress urinary incontinence compared with pelvic floor muscle training. The safety of electroacupuncture and patient compliance will also be evaluated. Untoward reaction to the electroacupuncture, including a broken needle, fainting on acupuncture, or pain during acupuncture, will be recorded and the therapy will be stopped if an untoward reaction occurs. After we have received full ethical approval and patient consent, participants will be randomized to receive a series of 24 electroacupuncture or pelvic floor muscle training interventions. The frequency and amount of leakage will be measured as the primary outcome parameters. Secondary outcome parameters include the 1-hour pad test, the short-form of the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire, patient subjective effectiveness evaluation, weekly usage of pad, and usage of specialty therapy for female stress urinary incontinence.This trial will help to determine whether electroacupuncture is a more effective treatment than pelvic floor muscle training for patients with female stress urinary incontinence.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01940432 (12 September 2013).
Project description:The aim of this study was to compare the two types of mid-urethral slings for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) with intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD).This retrospective study included patients who underwent tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure or transobturator tape (TOT) procedure by a single surgeon for SUI with ISD, defined as Valsalva leak point pressure (VLPP) < 60 cmH2O in a urodynamic study. Cases of neurogenic bladder, previous SUI surgery, and concomitant cystocele repair were excluded. The primary outcome was treatment success at 12 months, defined by self-reported absence of symptoms, no leakage episodes recorded, and no retreatment.Among the 157 women who were included in the final analysis, 105 patients received TVT and 52 patients received TOT. Age, underlying diseases, Stamey grade, cystocele grade, and presence of urge incontinence were not significantly different between the two groups. Urodynamic parameters including maximal urethral closing pressure, detrusor overactivity, VLPP, urethral hypermobility (Q-tip ? 30°), were also comparable between the two groups. Success rate was significantly higher in the TVT group than in the TOT group (95.2% vs. 82.7%, p = 0.009). On multivariate analysis, only TOT surgery (OR = 3.922, 95%CI = 1.223-12.582, p = 0.022) was a risk factor for failure following surgical treatment.TVT is more effective than TOT in treatment of female SUI with ISD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Among women suffering from urinary incontinence (UI), about one-third are diagnosed with mixed urinary incontinence (MUI), among which urgency-predominant MUI causes more shame and inconvenience to patients. The treatments for urgency-predominant MUI have limited guidelines and previous studies have indicated that electroacupuncture (EA) might be a safe and effective option. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of EA on women with urgency-predominant MUI. METHODS:The study is a multicentered, three-armed, non-inferiority randomized clinical trial. A total of 282 female patients with urgency-predominant MUI will be randomly divided into three groups, namely the EA group, sham electroacupuncture (SA) group, and solifenacin treatment group at a ratio of 1:1:1. Thirty-six sessions of acupuncture treatment over 12?weeks and solifenacin treatment over 36?weeks will be provided. The primary outcome will be the decrease of urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) episodes after 12-week treatment. Secondary outcomes will include changes in incontinence episodes, urinary frequency, urgency, severity of symptoms, and influence on quality of life, assessed using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form (ICIQ SF) and Overactive Bladder Questionnaire Short Form (OAB-q SF). All patients will be continuously followed up until week 36 and their allocations will be statistically analyzed. DISCUSSION:Though placebo of solifenacin is rather difficult to access and all patients in the trial cannot be fully blinded, the present study will serve as an introduction of three-armed, randomized, non-inferiority, and sham acupuncture-controlled clinical trials to the acupuncture field, in an attempt to compare the effects of EA and solifenacin for treating women with urgency-predominant MUI. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03787654. Registered on 25 December, 2018.
Project description:WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) affects 10-35% of women, and it is sometimes very distressful. Pelvic floor exercises are the first line of treatment, but access barriers or embarrassment may prevent women from seeking help. There is a need for new, simple, and effective ways to deliver treatment. Management of SUI without face-to-face contact is possible, and Internet-based treatment is a new, promising treatment alternative.To compare two treatment programmes for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) without face-to-face contact: one Internet-based and one sent by post.Randomised, controlled trial conducted in Sweden 2009-2011. Computer-generated block-randomisation, allocation by independent administrator. No 'blinding'. The study included 250 community-dwelling women aged 18-70 years, with SUI ≥1 time/week. Consecutive online recruitment. The women had 3 months of either; (i) An Internet-based treatment programme (124 women), including e-mail support and cognitive behavioural therapy assignments or (ii) A treatment programme sent by post (126). Both programmes focused mainly on pelvic floor muscle training.symptom-score (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form, ICIQ-UI SF) and condition-specific quality of life (ICIQ-Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Quality of Life, ICIQ-LUTSQoL).(i) Patient Global Impression of Improvement, (ii) Incontinence aids, (iii) Patient satisfaction, (iv) Health-specific QoL (EQ5D-Visual Analogue Scale), and (v) Incontinence episode frequency. Follow-up after 4 months via self-assessed postal questionnaires.In all, 12% (30 women) were lost to follow-up. Intention-to-treat analysis showed highly significant improvements (P < 0.001) with large effect sizes (>0.8) with both interventions, but there were no significant differences between groups in primary outcomes. The mean (sd) changes in symptom-score were: Internet 3.4 (3.4), Postal 2.9 (3.1) (P = 0.27). The mean (sd) changes in condition-specific QoL were: Internet 4.8 (6.1), Postal 4.6 (6.7) (P = 0.52). Compared with the postal-group, more participants in the Internet-group perceived they were much or very much improved (40.9% (43/105) vs 26.5% (30/113), P = 0.01), reported reduced usage of incontinence aids (59.5% (47/79) vs 41.4% (34/82), P = 0.02) and were satisfied with the treatment programme (84.8% (89/105) vs 62.9% (71/113), P < 0.001). Health-specific QoL improved in the Internet-group (mean change 3.7 (10.9), P = 0.001), but not in the postal-group (1.9 (13.0), P = 0.13). Overall, 69.8% (120/172) of participants reported complete lack of leakage or reduced number of leakage episodes by >50%.Concerning primary outcomes, treatment effects were similar between groups whereas for secondary outcomes the Internet-based treatment was more effective. Internet-based treatment for SUI is a new, promising treatment alternative.
Project description:Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) are associated with physical and psychological morbidity, and large societal costs. The long-term effects of delivery modes on each kind of incontinence remain uncertain.To investigate the long-term impact of delivery mode on SUI and UUI.We searched Medline, Scopus, CINAHL, and relevant major conference abstracts up to October 31, 2014, including any observational study with adjusted analyses or any randomized trial addressing the association between delivery mode and SUI or UUI ?1 yr after delivery. Two reviewers extracted data, including incidence/prevalence of SUI and UUI by delivery modes, and assessed risk of bias.Pooled estimates from 15 eligible studies demonstrated an increased risk of SUI after vaginal delivery versus cesarean section (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56-2.19; I(2)=57%; risk difference: 8.2%). Metaregression demonstrated a larger effect of vaginal delivery among younger women (p=0.005). Four studies suggested no difference in the risk of SUI between spontaneous vaginal and instrumental delivery (aOR: 1.11; 95% CI, 0.84-1.45; I(2)=50%). Eight studies suggested an elevated risk of UUI after vaginal delivery versus cesarean section (aOR: 1.30; 95% CI, 1.02-1.65; I(2)=37%; risk difference: 2.6%).Compared with cesarean section, vaginal delivery is associated with an almost twofold increase in the risk of long-term SUI, with an absolute increase of 8%, and an effect that is largest in younger women. There is also an increased risk of UUI, with an absolute increase of approximately 3%.In this systematic review we looked for the long-term effects of childbirth on urinary leakage. We found that vaginal delivery is associated with an almost twofold increase in the risk of developing leakage with exertion, compared with cesarean section, with a smaller effect on leakage in association with urgency.