Comparative immunogenicity of preparations of yeast-derived dengue oral vaccine candidate.
ABSTRACT: Dengue is listed as a neglected tropical disease by the Center for Disease Control and Preservation, as there are insufficient integrated surveillance strategies, no effective treatment, and limited licensed vaccines. Consisting of four genetically distinct serotypes, dengue virus (DENV) causes serious life-threatening infections due to its complexity. Antibody-dependent enhancement by pre-existing cross-reactive as well as homotypic antibodies further worsens the clinical symptoms of dengue. Thus, a vaccine conferring simultaneous and durable immunity to each of the four DENV serotypes is essential to restrict its escalation. In deeply affected resource-limited countries, oral vaccination using food-grade organisms is considered to be a beneficial approach in terms of costs, patient comfort, and simple logistics for mass immunization. The current study used a mouse model to explore the immunogenicity of an oral dengue vaccine candidate prepared using whole recombinant yeast cells (WC) and cell-free extracts (CFE) from cells expressing recombinant Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin protein B-subunit (LTB) fused to the consensus dengue envelope domain III (scEDIII). Mice were treated orally with recombinant WC and CFE vaccines in 2-week intervals for 4 weeks and changes in systemic and mucosal immune responses were monitored.Both WC and CFE dosage applications of LTB-scEDIII stimulated a systemic humoral immune response in the form of dengue-specific serum IgG as well as mucosal immune response in the form of secretory sIgA. Antigen-specific B cell responses in isolated lymphoid cells from the spleen and Peyer's patches further indicated an elevated mucosal immune response. Cellular immune response estimated through lymphocyte proliferation assay indicated higher levels in CFE than WC dosage. Furthermore, sera obtained after both oral administrations successfully neutralized DENV-1, whereas CFE formulation only neutralized DENV-2 serotype, two representative serotypes which cause severe dengue infection. Sera from mice that were fed CFE preparations demonstrated markedly higher neutralizing titers compared to those from WC-fed mice. However, WC feeding elicited strong immune responses, which were similar to the levels induced by CFE feeding after intraperitoneal booster with purified scEDIII antigen.CFE preparations of LTB-scEDIII produced strong immunogenicity with low processing requirements, signifying that this fusion protein shows promise as a potent oral vaccine candidate against dengue viral infection.
Project description:Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a key soluble pathogen recognition protein of the innate immune system that binds specific mannose-containing glycans on the surfaces of microbial agents and initiates complement activation via the lectin pathway. Prior studies showed that MBL-dependent activation of the complement cascade neutralized insect cell-derived West Nile virus (WNV) in cell culture and restricted pathogenesis in mice. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of MBL in infection by dengue virus (DENV), a related flavivirus. Using a panel of naïve sera from mouse strains deficient in different complement components, we showed that inhibition of infection by insect cell- and mammalian cell-derived DENV was primarily dependent on the lectin pathway. Human MBL also bound to DENV and neutralized infection of all four DENV serotypes through complement activation-dependent and -independent pathways. Experiments with human serum from naïve individuals with inherent variation in the levels of MBL in blood showed a direct correlation between the concentration of MBL and neutralization of DENV; samples with high levels of MBL in blood neutralized DENV more efficiently than those with lower levels. Our studies suggest that allelic variation of MBL in humans may impact complement-dependent control of DENV pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus that causes a spectrum of clinical disease in humans ranging from subclinical infection to dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Four serotypes of DENV exist, and severe illness is usually associated with secondary infection by a different serotype. Here, we show that mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a pattern recognition molecule that initiates the lectin pathway of complement activation, neutralized infection of all four DENV serotypes through complement activation-dependent and -independent pathways. Moreover, we observed a direct correlation with the concentration of MBL in human serum and neutralization of DENV infection. Our studies suggest that common genetic polymorphisms that result in disparate levels and function of MBL in humans may impact DENV infection, pathogenesis, and disease severity.
Project description:Sanofi Pasteur has developed a chimeric yellow fever-dengue, live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) that is currently approved for use in several countries. In clinical trials, CYD-TDV was efficacious at reducing laboratory-confirmed cases of dengue disease. Efficacy varied by dengue virus (DENV) serotype and prevaccination dengue immune status. We compared the properties of antibodies in naive and DENV-exposed individuals who received CYD-TDV. We depleted specific populations of DENV-reactive antibodies from immune serum samples to estimate the contribution of serotype-cross-reactive and type-specific antibodies to neutralization. Subjects with no preexisting immunity to DENV developed neutralizing antibodies to all 4 serotypes of DENV. Further analysis demonstrated that DENV4 was mainly neutralized by type-specific antibodies whereas DENV1, DENV2, and DENV3 were mainly neutralized by serotype cross-reactive antibodies. When subjects with preexisting immunity to DENV were vaccinated, they developed higher levels of neutralizing antibodies than naive subjects who were vaccinated. In preimmune subjects, CYD-TDV boosted cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies while maintaining type-specific neutralizing antibodies acquired before vaccination. Our results demonstrate that the quality of neutralizing antibodies induced by CYD-TDV varies depending on DENV serotype and previous immune status. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding vaccine efficacy.
Project description:Antibodies protect against homologous Dengue virus (DENV) infection but can precipitate severe dengue by promoting heterotypic virus entry via Fc? receptors (Fc?R). We immortalized memory B cells from individuals after primary or secondary infection and analyzed anti-DENV monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) thus generated. MAbs to envelope (E) protein domain III (DIII) were either serotype specific or cross-reactive and potently neutralized DENV infection. DI/DII- or viral membrane protein prM-reactive mAbs neutralized poorly and showed broad cross-reactivity with the four DENV serotypes. All mAbs enhanced infection at subneutralizing concentrations. Three mAbs targeting distinct epitopes on the four DENV serotypes and engineered to prevent Fc?R binding did not enhance infection and neutralized DENV in vitro and in vivo as postexposure therapy in a mouse model of lethal DENV infection. Our findings reveal an unexpected degree of cross-reactivity in human antibodies against DENV and illustrate the potential for an antibody-based therapy to control severe dengue.
Project description:The interaction of antibodies, dengue virus (DENV), and monocytes can result in either immunity or enhanced virus infection. These opposing outcomes of dengue antibodies have hampered dengue vaccine development. Recent studies have shown that antibodies neutralize DENV by either preventing virus attachment to cellular receptors or inhibiting viral fusion intracellularly. However, whether the antibody blocks attachment or fusion, the resulting immune complexes are expected to be phagocytosed by Fc gamma receptor (Fc?R)-bearing cells and cleared from circulation. This suggests that only antibodies that are able to block fusion intracellularly would be able to neutralize DENV upon Fc?R-mediated uptake by monocytes whereas other antibodies would have resulted in enhancement of DENV replication. Using convalescent sera from dengue patients, we observed that neutralization of the homologous serotypes occurred despite Fc?R-mediated uptake. However, Fc?R-mediated uptake appeared to be inhibited when neutralized heterologous DENV serotypes were used instead. We demonstrate that this inhibition occurred through the formation of viral aggregates by antibodies in a concentration-dependent manner. Aggregation of viruses enabled antibodies to cross-link the inhibitory Fc?RIIB, which is expressed at low levels but which inhibits Fc?R-mediated phagocytosis and hence prevents antibody-dependent enhancement of DENV infection in monocytes.
Project description:Here; we have described and tested a microarray based-method for the screening of dengue virus (DENV) serotypes. This DNA microarray assay is specific and sensitive and can detect dual infections with two dengue virus serotypes and single-serotype infections. Other methodologies may underestimate samples containing more than one serotype. This technology can be used to discriminate between the four DENV serotypes. Single-stranded DNA targets were covalently attached to glass slides and hybridised with specific labelled probes. DENV isolates and dengue samples were used to evaluate microarray performance. Our results demonstrate that the probes hybridized specifically to DENV serotypes; with no detection of unspecific signals. This finding provides evidence that specific probes can effectively identify single and double infections in DENV samples. Background Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection causing a major public health problem globally. Dengue virus (DENV) is the causative agent of dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and includes four distinct serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4). DENV-2 and DENV-3 have been associated with severe dengue disease, consequently, laboratory testing for DENV is needed to confirm the diagnosis of DENV infection, serotype and to differentiate dengue from other febrile tropical illnesses. In addition, surveillance of mosquitoes infected with DENV is needed to monitor the infection rates within vector mosquito populations harboring specific serotype to provide an early warning sign to predict epidemics. Results In this work we have applied microarray analysis to simultaneously determine the serotype of multiple RNA samples from human or mosquitoes. The proposed microarray method can be used for i) rapid and reliable dengue diagnosis; ii) serotyping and iii) surveillance of mosquitoes infected with dengue. These microarrays were useful to confirm the presence of DENV-2 in 94 serum samples, DENV-3 in three samples from Juchitan, Oaxaca and one case from Juchitan, Oaxaca contained DENV-2 and -3. Moreover by using these microarrays we also determined DENV in pools of gravid females mosquitoes collected in several sites of nineteen Mexican states in 2005. Mosquito pools from 31 cities in the states of Yucatan, Campeche, Tabasco, Chiapas, Veracruz, Oaxaca, Guerrero, Tamaulipas and Colima were infected with DENV-2, six cities in Yucatán, Tabasco, Morelos, Tamaulipas, Colima, and Nayarit with DENV-1, three from Tabasco, Veracruz and Oaxaca with DENV 3 and two with two serotypes simultaneously (Ciudad Mante with DENV-1 and DENV-2, and Tavela with DENV-2 and DENV-3). Conclusion Here we show the success of applying microarrays assay to provide a consistently robust qualitative detection of dengue serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4) in serum samples from patients or in pools of gravid female mosquitoes collected in the field of nineteen Mexican states. Interestingly, we did not detect any mosquito or serum sample containing DENV-4. Overall design: Three replicates (Experiment 1 to 3) were performed, each one hybridized with four specific primers obtained from different serotpyes of dengue virus.
Project description:Dengue is the most widespread vector-borne viral disease caused by dengue virus (DENV) for which there are no safe, effective drugs approved for clinical use. Here, by using sequential antigen panning of a yeast antibody library derived from healthy donors against the DENV envelop protein domain III (DIII) combined with depletion by an entry defective DIII mutant, we identified a cross-reactive human monoclonal antibody (mAb), m366.6, which bound with high affinity to DENV DIII from all four DENV serotypes. Immunogenetic analysis indicated that m366.6 is a germline-like mAb with very few somatic mutations from the closest VH and V? germline genes. Importantly, we demonstrated that it potently neutralized DENV both in vitro and in the mouse models of DENV infection without detectable antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) effect. The epitope of m366.6 was mapped to the highly conserved regions on DIII, which may guide the design of effective dengue vaccine immunogens. Furthermore, as the first germline-like mAb derived from a naïve antibody library that could neutralize all four DENV serotypes, the m366.6 can be a tool for exploring mechanisms of DENV infection, and is a promising therapeutic candidate.
Project description:Dengue fever is a mosquito (Aedes aegypti) -transmitted viral disease that is endemic in more than 125 countries around the world. There are four serotypes of the dengue virus (DENV 1-4) and a safe and effective dengue vaccine must provide protection against all four serotypes. To date, the first vaccine, Dengvaxia (CYD-TDV), is available after many decades' efforts, but only has moderate efficacy. More effective and affordable vaccines are hence required. Plants offer promising vaccine production platforms and food crops offer additional advantages for the production of edible human and animal vaccines, thus eliminating the need for expensive fermentation, purification, cold storage and sterile delivery. Oral vaccines can elicit humoural and cellular immunity via both the mucosal and humoral immune systems. Here, we report the production of tetravalent EDIII antigen (EDIII-1-4) in stably transformed lettuce chloroplasts. Transplastomic EDIII-1-4-expressing lettuce lines were obtained and homoplasmy was verified by Southern blot analysis. Expression of EDIII-1-4 antigens was demonstrated by immunoblotting, with the EDIII-1-4 antigen accumulating to 3.45% of the total protein content. Immunological assays in rabbits showed immunogenicity of EDIII-1-4. Our in vitro gastrointestinal digestion analysis revealed that EDIII-1-4 antigens are well protected when passing through the oral and gastric digestion phases but underwent degradation during the intestinal phase. Our results demonstrate that lettuce chloroplast engineering is a promising approach for future production of an affordable oral dengue vaccine.
Project description:The Zika virus outbreak in Latin America resulted in congenital malformations, called congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). For unknown reasons, CZS incidence was highest in northeastern Brazil; one potential explanation is that dengue virus (DENV)-mediated immune enhancement may promote CZS development. In contrast, our analyses of historical DENV genomic data refuted the hypothesis that unique genome signatures for northeastern Brazil explain the uneven dispersion of CZS cases. To confirm our findings, we performed serotype-specific DENV neutralization tests in a case-control framework in northeastern Brazil among 29 Zika virus-seropositive mothers of neonates with CZS and 108 Zika virus-seropositive control mothers. Neutralization titers did not differ significantly between groups. In contrast, DENV seroprevalence and median number of neutralized serotypes were significantly lower among the mothers of neonates with CZS. Supported by model analyses, our results suggest that multitypic DENV infection may protect from, rather than enhance, development of CZS.
Project description:Exposure to dengue virus (DENV) is thought to elicit lifelong immunity, mediated by DENV-neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). However, Abs generated by primary infections confer serotype-specific protection, and immunity against other serotypes develops only after subsequent infections. Accordingly, the induction of these nAb responses acquired after serial DENV infections has been a long-sought-after goal for vaccination. Nonetheless, it is still unclear if tetravalent vaccines can elicit or recall nAbs. In this study, we have characterized the responses from a volunteer who had been previously exposed to DENV and was immunized with the live attenuated tetravalent vaccine Butantan-DV, developed by the NIH and Butantan Institute. Eleven days after vaccination, we observed an ?70-fold expansion of the plasmablast population. We generated 21 monoclonal Abs (MAbs) from singly sorted plasmablasts. These MAbs were the result of clonal expansions and had significant levels of somatic hypermutation (SHM). Nineteen MAbs (90.5%) neutralized at least one DENV serotype at concentrations of 1 ?g/ml or less; 6 of the 21 MAbs neutralized three or more serotypes. Despite the tetravalent composition of the vaccine, we observed a neutralization bias in the induced repertoire: DENV3 was targeted by 18 of the 19 neutralizing MAbs (nMAbs). Furthermore, the P3D05 nMAb neutralized DENV3 with extraordinary potency (concentration to achieve half-maximal neutralization [Neut50] = 0.03 ?g/ml). Thus, the Butantan-DV vaccine engendered a mature, antigen-selected B cell repertoire. Our results suggest that preexisting responses elicited by a previous DENV3 infection were recalled by immunization.IMPORTANCE The dengue epidemic presents a global public health challenge that causes widespread economic burden and remains largely unchecked by existing control strategies. Successful control of the dengue epidemic will require effective prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. Several vaccine clinical efficacy trials are approaching completion, and the chances that one or more live attenuated tetravalent vaccines (LATVs) will be introduced worldwide is higher than ever. While it is widely accepted that dengue virus (DENV)-neutralizing antibody (nAb) titers are associated with protection, the Ab repertoire induced by LATVs remain uncharacterized. Here, we describe the isolation of potent (Neut50 < 0.1 ?g/ml) nAbs from a DENV-seropositive volunteer immunized with the tetravalent vaccine Butantan-DV, which is currently in phase III trials.
Project description:Dengue viruses (DENV) are considered one of the most important emerging pathogens and dengue disease is a global health threat. The geographic expansion of dengue viruses has led to co-circulation of all four dengue serotypes making it imperative that new DENV control strategies be devised.Here we characterize dengue serotype-specific innate immune responses in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus using DENV from Puerto Rico (PR).Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were infected with dengue serotype 1 and 2 isolated from Puerto Rico. DENV infected mosquito samples were collected and temporal change in expression of selected innate immune response pathway genes analyzed by quantitative real time PCR.The Toll pathway is involved in anti-dengue response in Ae. aegypti, and Ae. albopictus. Infections with PR DENV- 1 elicited a stronger response from genes of the Toll immune pathway than PR DENV-2 in Ae. aegypti but in infected Ae. albopictus expression of Toll pathway genes tended to be similar between the serotypes. Two genes (a ribosomal S5 protein gene and a nimrod-like gene) from Ae. albopictus were expressed in response to DENV.These studies revealed a role for antiviral genes in DENV serotype-specific interactions with DENV vectors, demonstrated that infections with DENV-2 can modulate the Toll immune response pathway in Ae. aegypti and elucidated candidate molecules that might be used to interfere with serotype specific vector-virus interactions.