Outcome of elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP: results from the UK NCRI R-CHOP14v21 trial with combined analysis of molecular characteristics with the DSHNHL RICOVER-60 trial.
ABSTRACT: Background:There is an on-going debate whether 2- or 3-weekly administration of R-CHOP is the preferred first-line treatment for elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The UK NCRI R-CHOP14v21 randomized phase 3 trial did not demonstrate a difference in outcomes between R-CHOP-14 and R-CHOP-21 in newly diagnosed DLBCL patients aged 19-88 years, but data on elderly patients have not been reported in detail so far. Here, we provide a subgroup analysis of patients??60 years treated on the R-CHOP14v21 trial with extended follow-up. Patients and methods:Six hundred and four R-CHOP14v21 patients??60 years were included in this subgroup analysis, with a median follow-up of 77.7?months. To assess the impact of MYC rearrangements (MYC-R) and double-hit-lymphoma (DHL) on outcome in elderly patients, we performed a joint analysis of cases with available molecular data from the R-CHOP14v21 (N?=?217) and RICOVER-60 (N?=?204) trials. Results:Elderly DLBCL patients received high dose intensities with median total doses of??98% for all agents. Toxicities were similar in both arms with the exception of more grade??3 neutropenia (P?
Project description:Double hit lymphomas (DHL) and double expresser lymphomas (DEL) are subsets of diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL) which are being increasingly recognised as cause of treatment failure. This emphasizes the need for their separation from other DLBCL cases in order to prognosticate and administer more aggressive treatment to this set of patients. The present study was conducted with the aim to identify the DHL/DEL patients and study their distinctive clinicopathological profile and overall survival. This retrospective analysis involved 172 cases of DLBCL sub-classified on the basis of cell of origin. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis for <i>MYC, BCL2, BCL6, MUM1</i> and CD10 was performed. Rearrangement studies were performed using break apart Fluorescent in situ hybridization. Overall survival (OS) was also evaluated. Distinctive clinical and pathological features of DHL and DEL were identified. Rearrangement study by FISH revealed seven cases of DHL (<i>MYC </i>+ <i>BCL2</i> &/or <i>BCL6</i> rearrangement). Also, 20 patients (11.6%) showed a concurrent expression of <i>BCL2</i> and <i>MYC</i> oncoproteins (DEL) on IHC. Most (6/7) DHL patients were double expressors also. The DHL patients demonstrated a significant association with female gender, high serum LDH levels (> 750 U/L) and GCB phenotype. DEL patients contrarily predominated amongst males, had intermediate LDH levels (251-500 U/L) and non GCB phenotype. The OS of the patients was 63.8% at 4 years. The OS of the DLBCL, DEL and DHL patients was 71.9%, 46.9%, and 0%, respectively at 4 years (<i>p</i> value 0.010). In case of DEL subtype, factors such as age < 60 years (66.7%), male sex (60.8%), nodal localization (52.5%), early disease stage (84.6%), low IPI score (60%), absence of B symptoms (50%), LDH < 250 U/L (80%) and GCB phenotype (53.3%) were associated with better OS. Further, the OS of DHL cases was 0% at 4 years. Double hit and double expresser lymphomas have poor prognostic outcomes and should be separated from DLBCL. All DELs should be tested for DHLs and especially those with immunoblastic morphology. DHL and DEL subtypes delineate the subtypes with inferior OS and reinstate the need for aggressive interventions.
Project description:High-grade B-cell lymphoma (HGBL) with translocations involving MYC and BCL2 or BCL6 comprises ?10% of cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and carries a poor prognosis. The incidence, prognosis, and optimal therapy for DLBCL harboring extra copies of the genes MYC, BCL2, and BCL6, rather than their genetic translocations, are unknown. In this retrospective, single-center study we identified 144 DLBCL cases including 46 patients with classic HGBL with double-hit or triple-hit chromosomal translocations (DHL), 55 with extra copies of MYC in addition to aberrations (extra copies or translocations) of BCL2 and/or BCL6 but did not meet the criteria for HGBL (EC group), and 43 without any aberrations of MYC, BCL2, or BCL6 (wild type [WT]). Unfavorable baseline characteristics had similar frequency in the EC and WT groups, but were significantly more prevalent in the DHL group. With a median follow-up of 36 months, the 2-year event-free survival (EFS) was similar between the WT and EC groups at 77% (95% confidence interval [CI], 65-90) and 82% (95% CI, 72-93), respectively. In contrast, the 2-year EFS of the DHL group was 63% (95% CI, 51-79). The 2-year overall survival in the WT, EC, and DHL groups was 86% (95% CI, 76-97), 89% (95% CI, 81-98), and 74% (95% CI, 62-88), respectively. Among patients treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone), the EC group had outcomes similar to those of the WT group. Our results indicate that patients with DLBCL with extra gene copies of MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 fare differently from those with HGBL and respond well to standard R-CHOP therapy.
Project description:There is a paucity of data regarding outcomes and response to standard therapy in patients with limited-stage (LS) agressive B-cell lymphoma (LS-ABCL) who harbor MYC rearrangement (MYC-R) with or without BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study of MYC-R LS-ABCL patients who received either rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP), or more intensive immunochemotherapy (IIC) plus or minus consolidative involved-field radiation therapy (IFRT). One hundred four patients from 15 academic centers were included. Forty four patients (42%) received R-CHOP, of whom 52% had IFRT. Sixty patients (58%) received IIC, of whom 40% had IFRT. Overall response rate was 91% (84% complete response [CR]; 7% partial response). Patients with double-hit lymphoma (DHL; n = 40) had a lower CR rate compared with patients with MYC-R only (75% vs 98%; P = .003). CR rate was higher in the IFRT vs no-IFRT group (98% vs 72%; P < .001). Median follow-up was 3.2 years; 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overal survival (OS) were 78% and 86% for the entire cohort, and 74% and 81% for the DHL patients, respectively. PFS and OS were similar across treatment groups (IFRT vs no IFRT, R-CHOP vs IIC) in the entire cohort and in DHL patients. Our data provide a historical benchmark for MYC-R LS-ABCL and LS-DHL patients and show that outcomes for this population may be better than previously recognized. There was no benefit of using IIC over R-CHOP in patients with MYC-R LS-ABCL and LS-DHL.
Project description:Double/triple-hit lymphomas (DHL/THL) account for 5-10% of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with rearrangement of MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 resulting in MYC overexpression. Despite the poor prognosis of DHL, R-CHOP chemotherapy remains the treatment backbone and new targeted therapy is needed. We performed comprehensive cytogenetic studies/fluorescence in situ hybridization on DLBCL and Burkitt lymphoma cell lines (n = 11) to identify the DHL/THL DLBCL in vitro model. We identified MYC/IG in Raji and Ramos (single hit); MYC/IG-BCL2 (DHL) in DOHH2, OCI-LY1, SUDHL2, and OCI-LY10; MYC/IG-BCL2/BCL6 (THL) in VAL; and no MYC rearrangement in U2932 and HBL1 (WT-MYC). Targeting MYC in the DHL/THL DLBCLs through bromodomain extra-terminal inhibitors (BETi) (JQ1, I-BET, and OTX015) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced proliferation, similar to WT-MYC cells, accompanied by decreased MYC but not BCL2 protein. Moreover, BETi suppressed MYC transcription and decreased BRD4 binding to MYC promoter in DHL cells. CD47 and PD-L1 are immunoregulatory molecules often expressed on tumors and regulated by MYC. High levels of surface CD47 but not surface PD-L1 was observed in DHL/THL, which was reduced by JQ1 treatment. BETi in combination with Pan-HDAC inhibitor had a limited effect on survival of DHL/THL, while combination of BETi and BCL2 inhibitor (ABT-199) had a significant (p < 0.005) inhibitory effect on survival followed by BCL-XL inhibition. Overall, the data suggests that MYC-expressing DLBCLs are probably addicted to the MYC-oncogenic effect regardless of MYC rearrangements. In summary, we identified an in vitro model for DHL/THL DLBCLs and provide evidence for the therapeutic potential of BET inhibitor alone or in combination with BCL2 inhibitor.
Project description:MYC and BCL2 translocations as well as TP53 deletion/mutation are known risk factors in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) but their interplay is not well understood.In this retrospective cohort study, we evaluated the combined prognostic impact of TP53 deletion and mutation status, MYC and BCL2 genomic breaks in tumor samples of 101 DLBCL patients. The cohort included 53 cases with MYC rearrangements (MYC+).TP53 deletions/mutations (TP53+) were found in 32 of 101 lymphomas and were equally distributed between MYC+ and MYC- cases (35.8% vs. 27.1%). TP53+ lymphomas had lower responses to treatment than TP53- (complete remission 34.4% vs. 60.9%; P?=?0.01). TP53 alteration was the dominant independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis (P?=?0.01). Overall survival (OS) varied considerably between subgroups with different genomic alterations: Patients with sole MYC translocation, and interestingly, with triple MYC+/BCL2+/TP53+ aberration had favorable outcomes (median OS not reached) similar to patients without genomic alterations (median OS 65 months). In contrast, patients with MYC+/BCL2+/TP53- double-hit lymphomas (DHL) (28 months), MYC+/BCL2-/TP53+ lymphomas (10 months) or sole TP53 mutation/deletion (12 months) had a poor median OS. Our findings demonstrate differences in OS of DLBCL patients depending on absence or presence of single or combined genetic alterations of MYC, BCL2, and TP53. Cooccurrence of TP53 and BCL2 aberrations ameliorated the poor prognostic impact of single TP53+ or BCL2+ in MYC positive patients.This pilot study generates evidence for the complex interplay between the alterations of genetic pathways in DLBCL, which goes beyond the concept of DHL. The variable survival of DLBCL patients dependent on single or combined alterations in the TP53, MYC, and BCL2 genes indicates the need for comprehensive genomic diagnosis.
Project description:Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), representing approximately 25% of diagnosed NHL. DLBCL is heterogeneous disease both clinically and genetically. The 3 most common chromosomal translocations in DLBCL involve the oncogenes BCL2, BCL6, and MYC. Double hit (DH) DLBCL is an aggressive form in which MYC rearrangement is associated with either BCL2 or BCL6 rearrangement. Patients typically present with a rapidly growing mass, often with B symptoms. Extranodal disease is often present. Though there is a paucity of prospective trials in this subtype, double hit lymphoma (DHL) has been linked to very poor outcomes when patients are treated with standard R-CHOP. There is, therefore, a lack of consensus regarding the standard treatment for DHL. Several retrospective analyses have been conducted to help guide treatment of this disease. These suggest that DA EPOCH-R may be the most promising regimen and that achievement of complete resolution predicts better long-term outcomes.
Project description:Genomic alterations and protein expression levels have been established as prognostic factors for survival in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In particular, double-hit DLBCL (DHL), which exhibits translocations in MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6, is known to be associated with a poor prognosis. However, the clinical significance of gene alterations and protein expression levels for MYC, B-cell lymphoma (BCL)2, and BCL6 are unclear. In this study, we analyzed 61 adult patients diagnosed with DLBCL without DHL, who were treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone, or similar regimens. There were no differences in the distribution of MYC expression rates among the different MYC gene statuses. In log-rank tests, MYC translocation was a prognostic factor for overall survival (OS; P = 0.011), whereas BCL2 and BCL6 translocation were not prognostic indicators (P = 0.999 and P = 0.925, respectively). Although the expression levels of MYC and BCL6 were not significantly associated with OS, the expression of BCL2 was a prognostic factor for OS (P = 0.027). Furthermore, copy number gains in the MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 genes did not affect OS. MYC translocation (hazard ratio, 4.769; range, 1.518-14.98; P = 0.007) and BCL2 protein expression (hazard ratio, 3.072; range, 1.002-9.413; P = 0.049) were independent prognostic factors for survival in multivariate analyses. In conclusion, MYC translocation and BCL2 expression may need to be investigated at the initial diagnosis to predict prognosis in patients with DLBCL.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The poor outcome of high-grade B-cell lymphoma, with rearrangements of MYC, BCL2 and/or BCL6, also known as double-hit lymphoma or triple-hit lymphoma (DHL or THL), has been well documented, while the clinical significance of extra copies of MYC, BCL2 or BCL6 are still less well known. METHODS:In total, 130 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (DLBCL-NOS) were included in our study. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were performed in all cases to evaluate the genetic status and protein expression levels of MYC, BCL2 and BCL6. RESULTS:Among the 130 cases of DLBCL, the prevalence rates of extra copies of MYC, BCL2 and BCL6 were 10.8, 20.0 and 14.6%, respectively, and the corresponding rates of gene rearrangement were 10.0, 14.6 and 16.9%, respectively. In total, 7.7% (10/130) of patients were DHL/THL; 9.2% (12/130) of patients were DLBCL with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 gene abnormalities including rearrangements or extra copies, while excluded DHL/THL. The positive protein expression rates of MYC, BCL2 and BCL6 were 46.9% (61), 75.4% (98) and 70.0% (91), respectively. Among the 51 cases with MYC/BCL2 co-expression, 14 cases showed concurrence of MYC, BCL2 and/or BCL6 genetic abnormalities, and the remaining 37 cases were classified as double-expressor lymphoma (DEL). MYC and BCL2 rearrangement and BCL2 extra copies were all associated with upregulated protein expression. Cases with concurrence of MYC, BCL2 and/or BCL6 genetic abnormalities were both associated with MYC/BCL2 co-expression. Patients with concurrence of MYC, BCL2 and/or BCL6 genetic abnormalities excluded DHL/THL had shorter OS (P?<?0.001) than patients with DLBCL with no genetic change, and showed no statistical different with patients with DHL/THL (P?=?0.419). Extra copies of MYC was independent prognostic factors for DLBCL. CONCLUSIONS:Patients with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 gene extra copies might show a trend towards poor prognosis, and the detection of extra copies of MYC, BCL2 and BCL6 might deserve more attention.
Project description:Background:The standard frontline therapy for patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is R-CHOP. However, patients older than 80?years are excluded from clinical trials. The importance of rituximab and anthracycline remains unknown in extremely elderly DLBCL patients. Here, we incorporated data from the Taiwan Cancer Registry Database (TCRD), National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), and National Death Registry to evaluate the clinical benefits of rituximab and anthracycline in elderly patients. From the TCRD and NHIRD, we included DLBCL patients aged older than 60?years who received R-CHOP, R-CVP, CHOP, or CVP between 2010 and 2015. Results:Of the 3228 eligible patients, 2559 were between 60 and 79?years (the 60-79 group), and 669 were older than 80?years (the 80+ group). The proportions of patients in the different Ann Arbor stages and the practice settings were similar in both groups. The male-to-female ratio and the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) scores in the 80+ group were higher than those in the 60-79 group. Patients in the 60-79 group received R-CHOP more frequently than those in the 80+ group. In the 60-79 group, the median age of the patients receiving R-CVP or CVP was older than those receiving R-CHOP or CHOP. In the analysis of overall survival (OS) and time to treatment failure (TTF), R-CHOP, female sex, younger age, lower Ann Arbor stage, lower CCI score, and care at a medical center predicted a favorable prognosis in the 60-79 group. However, only R-CHOP, younger age, and lower Ann Arbor stage remained independent favorable prognostic factors in the 80+ group. Conclusions:Our population-based study demonstrated the clinical benefits of rituximab and anthracycline in extremely elderly Asian patients with DLBCL.
Project description:While MYC translocations in B-cell lymphoma (BCL) have been extensively studied, the significance of MYC amplification (MYC amp) is poorly understood. This study characterizes BCL showing MYC amp, defined as uncountable FISH signals. Retrospective analysis of all BCL FISH for MYC aberrations performed at our institution (1/2010-2/2018) identified 44/9715 (0.45%) cases with MYC amp. MYC amp probe signals appeared in a cloud-like distribution (70%) or in a single homogenous-staining-region (30%). In total 59% also had MYC separation by breakapart probe indicating concurrent MYC translocation. The most common morphology was large cell (82%) and diagnosis was diffuse large BCL (DLBCL, 50%). In total 88% were germinal center B-cell-like by Hans algorithm. In total 12/42 (29%) cases were "double-hit" by WHO criteria (DHL/THL) in addition to having MYC amp. The estimated 2-year overall survival (OS) of DLBCL cases with MYC amp was 80%. There was no significant difference in OS between DLBCL and DHL/THL among cases with MYC amp, suggesting a poor prognostic impact of MYC amp. However, when compared to a larger cohort of DLBCL and DHL/THL, MYC amp did not have prognostic significance. In summary, MYC amp in BCL is rare, most commonly occurs in DLBCL, and was not associated with survival in our cohort.