Project description:Purpose: Identification of miRNAs that enable resistance to BRAF inhibitors in melanoma suggests a mechanism-based strategy to limit resistance and improve clinical outcomes. Methods: We generated A375 melanoma cells resistant to Vemurafenib (VMF) with the goal of investigating changes in miRNA expression patterns that might contribute to resistance. Results: Increased expression of miR-204-5p and miR-211-5p occurring in VMF-resistant cells was determined to impact VMF response. Overall design: miRNA profiles of parental and VMF-resistant melanoma cell lines were generated by deep sequencing, in duplicate, using Illumina HiSeq.
Project description:In this short report, we pinpoint some technical and conceptual flaws that we found in the article entitled "miR-204-5p and miR-211-5p contribute to BRAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma" (Díaz-Martínez et al., Cancer Research 2018). We also discuss how, in our opinion, these flaws led Díaz-Martínez and colleagues to incorrect conclusions about the biological role that miR-204 and miR-211 play in melanoma and about the terms of their involvement in the phenomenon of resistance to BRAF inhibitors.
Project description:Uncontrolled MAPK signaling is the main oncogenic driver in metastatic melanomas bearing mutations in BRAF kinase. These tumors are currently treated with the combination of BRAF/MEK inhibitors (MAPKi), but this therapy is plagued by drug resistance. In this context we recently discovered that several microRNAs are involved in the development of drug resistance. In particular miR-204-5p and miR-199b-5p were found to function as antagonists of resistance because their enforced overexpression is able to inhibit melanoma cell growth in vitro either alone or in combination with MAPKi. However, the use of miRNAs in therapy is hampered by their rapid degradation in serum and biological fluids, as well as by the poor intracellular uptake. Here, we developed lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) encapsulating miR-204-5p, miR-199b-5p individually or in combination. We obtained LNPs with mean diameters < 200 nm and high miRNA encapsulation efficiency. These formulations were tested in vitro on several melanoma cell lines sensitive to MAPKi or rendered drug resistant. Our results show that LNPs encapsulating combinations of the two oncosuppressor miRNAs are highly efficient in impairing melanoma cell proliferation and viability, affect key signaling pathways involved in melanoma cell survival, and potentiate the efficacy of drugs inhibiting BRAF and MEK. These results warrant further assessment of the anti-tumor efficacy of oncosuppressor miRNAs encapsulating LNPs in in vivo tumor models.
Project description:The clinical management of malignant melanoma remains a challenge because these tumors are intrinsically aggressive and prone to therapeutic resistance. MicroRNA (miR)-211 is an emerging melanoma oncogene. Melanoma metabolism adapts to promote survival, including in response to BRAFV600E inhibition, but how miR-211 participates in this process is unknown. Here, we generated miR-211 loss-of-function cell lines using CRISPR/Cas9 technology and show that miR-211 loss slowed growth and invasion in vitro, inhibited phosphoinositol-3-kinase signaling, and inhibited melanoma growth in vivo. miR-211 deficiency rendered melanoma cells metabolically vulnerable by attenuating mitochondrial respiration and tricarboxylic acid cycling. miR-211 was up-regulated by the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib and in vemurafenib-resistant melanoma cells, with miR-211 loss rendering them more drug sensitive. miR-211 loss represents a "two-pronged" anticancer strategy by inhibiting both critical growth-promoting cell signaling pathways and rendering cells metabolically vulnerable, making it an extremely attractive and specific candidate combinatorial therapeutic target in melanoma.
Project description:Although evidence has emerged to suggest that YAP overexpression is a crucial factor for tumor progression and resistance to targeted drugs in multiple cancers, the miRNA-mediated YAP regulation is still unclear. Here we show that the novel miR-550a-3-5p acts as a tumor suppressor and reverses BRAF inhibitor resistance through the direct targeting of YAP. Our data showed that the miR-550a-3-5p suppressed cell proliferation, metastasis, and tumor sphere formation through the direct inhibition of YAP and its oncogenic pathway in various cancer cell types. In addition, we showed that the YAP signature was associated with poor survival of colon cancer and identified an inverse correlation between miR-550a-3-5p and YAP in colon cancer tissues. Interestingly, this inverse correlation was regulated in a density-dependent manner. Furthermore, high levels of miR-550a-3-5p were associated with a good prognosis of esophageal cancer, which was suggestive of the clinical relevance of miR-550a-3-5p-mediated YAP regulation in multiple cancers. Importantly, we demonstrated that miR-550a-3-5p treatment sensitized vemurafenib-resistant colon and melanoma cells through YAP inhibition with reduced AKT activity. Moreover, the tumor-suppressive activity of miR-550a-3-5p and its sensitization effect for vemurafenib resistance were also observed in tumor xenograft models. Collectively, our data suggest that miR-550a-3-5p acts as a tumor suppressor through the targeting of oncogenic YAP and may be a new therapeutic tool for YAP-mediated BRAF inhibitor resistance in BRAF-mutant cancer cells.
Project description:BRAF inhibitors were approved for the treatment of BRAF-mutant melanoma. However, most patients acquire the resistance to BRAF inhibitors after several months of treatment. miR-524-5p is considered as a tumor suppressor in many cancers, including melanoma. In this study, we investigated the biological functions of miR-524-5p in melanoma with acquired resistance to BRAF inhibitor and evaluated the endogenous miR-524-5p expression as a biomarker for melanoma. The results showed that the expression of miR-524-5p was 0.481-fold lower in melanoma tissues (n?=?117) than in nevus tissues (n?=?40). Overexpression of miR-524-5p significantly reduced proliferative, anchorage-independent growth, migratory and invasive abilities of BRAF inhibitor-resistant melanoma cells. Moreover, the introduction of miR-524-5p led to a reduced development of BRAF inhibitor-resistant melanoma in vivo. Remarkably, the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway was decreased after treatment with miR-524-5p. Furthermore, next-generation sequencing analysis implied that the complement system, leukocyte extravasation, liver X receptor/retinoid-X-receptor activation, and cAMP-mediated signaling may be related to miR-524-5p-induced pathways in the resistant cells. The miR-524-5p level was higher on average in complete response and long-term partial response patients than in progressive disease and short-term partial response patients treated with BRAF inhibitors. Our results proposed that miR-524-5p could be considered as a target for treatment BRAF inhibitor-resistant melanoma and a prognostic marker in the response of patients to BRAF inhibitors for melanoma.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Targeted therapy with BRAF and MEK inhibitors has improved the survival of patients with BRAF-mutated metastatic melanoma, but most patients relapse upon the onset of drug resistance induced by mechanisms including genetic and epigenetic events. Among the epigenetic alterations, microRNA perturbation is associated with the development of kinase inhibitor resistance. Here, we identified and studied the role of miR-146a-5p dysregulation in melanoma drug resistance. METHODS:The miR-146a-5p-regulated NFkB signaling network was identified in drug-resistant cell lines and melanoma tumor samples by expression profiling and knock-in and knock-out studies. A bioinformatic data analysis identified COX2 as a central gene regulated by miR-146a-5p and NFkB. The effects of miR-146a-5p/COX2 manipulation were studied in vitro in cell lines and with 3D cultures of treatment-resistant tumor explants from patients progressing during therapy. RESULTS:miR-146a-5p expression was inversely correlated with drug sensitivity and COX2 expression and was reduced in BRAF and MEK inhibitor-resistant melanoma cells and tissues. Forced miR-146a-5p expression reduced COX2 activity and significantly increased drug sensitivity by hampering prosurvival NFkB signaling, leading to reduced proliferation and enhanced apoptosis. Similar effects were obtained by inhibiting COX2 by celecoxib, a clinically approved COX2 inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS:Deregulation of the miR-146a-5p/COX2 axis occurs in the development of melanoma resistance to targeted drugs in melanoma patients. This finding reveals novel targets for more effective combination treatment. Video Abstract.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are attractive therapeutic targets for various therapy-resistant tumors. However, the association between miRNA and BRAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma remains to be elucidated. We used microarray analysis to comprehensively study the miRNA expression profiling of vemurafenib resistant (VemR) A375 melanoma cells in relation to parental A375 melanoma cells. MicroRNA-7 (miR-7) was identified to be the most significantly down-regulated miRNA in VemR A375 melanoma cells. We also found that miR-7 was down-regulated in Mel-CVR cells (vemurafenib resistant Mel-CV melanoma cells). Reestablishment of miR-7 expression could reverse the resistance of both cells to vemurafenib. We showed that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and CRAF were over-expressed in VemR A375 melanoma cells. Introduction of miR-7 mimics could markedly decrease the expressions of EGFR, IGF-1R and CRAF and further suppressed the activation of MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathway in VemR A375 melanoma cells. Furthermore, tumor growth was inhibited in an in vivo murine VemR A375 melanoma tumor model transfected with miR-7 mimics. Collectively, our study demonstrated that miR-7 could reverse the resistance to BRAF inhibitors in certain vemurafenib resistant melanoma cell lines. It could advance the field and provide the basis for further studies in BRAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma.
Project description:miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease characterized by insulitis (islets inflammation) and pancreatic beta cell destruction. The pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1 beta (IL1B) and interferon gamma (IFNG) are released during insulitis and trigger endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and expression of pro-apoptotic members of the BCL2 protein family in beta cells, thus contributing to their death. The nature of miRNAs that regulate ER stress and beta cell apoptosis remains to be elucidated. We have performed a global miRNA expression profile on cytokine-treated human islets and observed a marked downregulation of miR-211-5p. By real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, we confirmed cytokine-induced changes in the expression of miR-211-5p and the closely related miR-204-5p and downstream ER stress related genes in human beta cells. Blocking of endogenous miRNA-211-5p and miR-204-5p by the same inhibitor (it is not possible to block separately these two miRs) increased human beta cell apoptosis, as measured by Hoechst/propidium Iodide staining and by determination of cleaved caspase-3 activation. Interestingly, miRs-211-5p and 204-5p regulate the expression of several ER stress markers downstream of PERK, particularly the pro-apoptotic protein DDIT3 (also known as CHOP). Blocking CHOP expression by a specific siRNA partially prevented the increased apoptosis observed following miR-211-5p/miR-204-5p inhibition. These observations identify a novel crosstalk between miRNAs, ER stress and beta cell apoptosis in early type 1 diabetes.