Autophagy Is Required for Sortilin-Mediated Degradation of Apolipoprotein B100.
ABSTRACT: RATIONALE:Genome-wide association studies identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms near the SORT1 locus strongly associated with decreased plasma LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) levels and protection from atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and myocardial infarction. The minor allele of the causal SORT1 single-nucleotide polymorphism locus creates a putative C/EBP? (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ?)-binding site in the SORT1 promoter, thereby increasing in homozygotes sortilin expression by 12-fold in liver, which is rich in this transcription factor. Our previous studies in mice have showed reductions in plasma LDL-C and its principal protein component, apoB (apolipoprotein B) with increased SORT1 expression, and in vitro studies suggested that sortilin promoted the presecretory lysosomal degradation of apoB associated with the LDL precursor, VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein). OBJECTIVE:To determine directly that SORT1 overexpression results in apoB degradation and to identify the mechanisms by which this reduces apoB and VLDL secretion by the liver, thereby contributing to understanding the clinical phenotype of lower LDL-C levels. METHODS AND RESULTS:Pulse-chase studies directly established that SORT1 overexpression results in apoB degradation. As noted above, previous work implicated a role for lysosomes in this degradation. Through in vitro and in vivo studies, we now demonstrate that the sortilin-mediated route of apoB to lysosomes is unconventional and intersects with autophagy. Increased expression of sortilin diverts more apoB away from secretion, with both proteins trafficking to the endosomal compartment in vesicles that fuse with autophagosomes to form amphisomes. The amphisomes then merge with lysosomes. Furthermore, we show that sortilin itself is a regulator of autophagy and that its activity is scaled to the level of apoB synthesis. CONCLUSIONS:These results strongly suggest that an unconventional lysosomal targeting process dependent on autophagy degrades apoB that was diverted from the secretory pathway by sortilin and provides a mechanism contributing to the reduced LDL-C found in individuals with SORT1 overexpression.
Project description:Recent GWAS have identified SNPs at a human chromosom1 locus associated with coronary artery disease risk and LDL cholesterol levels. The SNPs are also associated with altered expression of hepatic sortilin-1 (SORT1), which encodes a protein thought to be involved in apoB trafficking and degradation. Here, we investigated the regulation of Sort1 expression in mouse models of obesity. Sort1 expression was markedly repressed in both genetic (ob/ob) and high-fat diet models of obesity; restoration of hepatic sortilin-1 levels resulted in reduced triglyceride and apoB secretion. Mouse models of obesity also exhibit increased hepatic activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and ER stress, and we found that administration of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin to ob/ob mice reduced ER stress and increased hepatic sortilin-1 levels. Conversely, genetically increased hepatic mTORC1 activity was associated with repressed Sort1 and increased apoB secretion. Treating WT mice with the ER stressor tunicamycin led to marked repression of hepatic sortilin-1 expression, while administration of the chemical chaperone PBA to ob/ob mice led to amelioration of ER stress, increased sortilin-1 expression, and reduced apoB and triglyceride secretion. Moreover, the ER stress target Atf3 acted at the SORT1 promoter region as a transcriptional repressor, whereas knockdown of Atf3 mRNA in ob/ob mice led to increased hepatic sortilin-1 levels and decreased apoB and triglyceride secretion. Thus, in mouse models of obesity, induction of mTORC1 and ER stress led to repression of hepatic Sort1 and increased VLDL secretion via Atf3. This pathway may contribute to dyslipidemia in metabolic disease.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a genetic variant at a locus on chromosome 1p13 that is associated with reduced risk of myocardial infarction, reduced plasma levels of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), and markedly increased expression of the gene sortilin-1 (SORT1) in liver. Sortilin is a lysosomal sorting protein that binds ligands both in the Golgi apparatus and at the plasma membrane and traffics them to the lysosome. We previously reported that increased hepatic sortilin expression in mice reduced plasma LDL-C levels. Here we show that increased hepatic sortilin not only reduced hepatic apolipoprotein B (APOB) secretion, but also increased LDL catabolism, and that both effects were dependent on intact lysosomal targeting. Loss-of-function studies demonstrated that sortilin serves as a bona fide receptor for LDL in vivo in mice. Our data are consistent with a model in which increased hepatic sortilin binds intracellular APOB-containing particles in the Golgi apparatus as well as extracellular LDL at the plasma membrane and traffics them to the lysosome for degradation. We thus provide functional evidence that genetically increased hepatic sortilin expression both reduces hepatic APOB secretion and increases LDL catabolism, providing dual mechanisms for the very strong association between increased hepatic sortilin expression and reduced plasma LDL-C levels in humans.
Project description:<b>Rationale</b>: Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). As a standard-of-care approach for hyperlipidemia, statins only reduce the risk of coronary artery disease by 20-40%, underscoring the importance of identifying molecular pathways for the design of drugs against this disorder. Alterations in microRNA (miRNA) expression have been reported in patients with hyperlipidemia and CVD. This study was designed to determine the mechanism of dysregulated miR-378a-3p under the status of hyperlipidemia and evaluate how miR-378a-3p regulates hepatic secretion of VLDL. <b>Methods</b>: Wild-type mice kept on a high fat diet were injected with miR-378a-3p inhibitor or a mini-circle expression system containing miR-378a precursor to study loss and gain-of functions of miR-378a-3p. Mice were treated with Triton WR1339 and <sup>35</sup>S-methionine/cysteine to determine the effect of miR-378a-3p on hepatic secretion of VLDL. Database mining, luciferase assay, and ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) were used to study the mechanism of dysregulated miR-378a-3p biogenesis. <b>Results</b>: miR-378a-3p expression is significantly increased in livers of hyperlipidemic mice. <i>Sort1</i> (sortilin 1) was identified as a direct target of miR-378a-3p. By inhibiting the function of sortilin 1 as a transmembrane trafficking receptor, miR-378a-3p stabilized ApoB100 and promoted ApoB100 secretion <i>in vitro</i>. Liver-specific expression of miR-378a-3p stabilized ApoB100 and facilitated hepatic secretion of VLDL, which subsequently increased levels of VLDL/LDL cholesterol as well as triglycerides. In contrast, antagonizing miR-378a-3p using its inhibitor increased hepatic expression of <i>Sort1</i> and reduced hepatic export of VLDL with its consequent effects of serum lipid levels. Additional knockdown of up-regulated <i>Sort1</i> in livers of mice offset the effects of miR-378a-3p inhibitor, suggesting that <i>Sort1</i> was indispensable for miR-378a-3p to promote secretion of VLDL and thereby high levels of circulating VLDL/LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. Furthermore, oncogenic E2F1 (E2F transcription factor 1) was identified as a transcriptional activator of miR-378a-3p. <i>E2f1</i> knockdown, through reducing miR-378a-3p, impaired secretion of VLDL and reduced levels of VLDL/LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. <b>Conclusions</b>: This study defines a novel pathway of E2F1-miR-378a-3p-SORT1-ApoB100 that controls levels of circulating VLDL/LDL cholesterol and triglycerides by modulating degradation and secretion of ApoB100, and suggests the use of miR-378a-3p as a potential therapeutic target for dyslipidemia.
Project description:Noncoding gene variants at the SORT1 locus are strongly associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, as well as with coronary artery disease. SORT1 encodes a protein called sortilin, and hepatic sortilin modulates LDL metabolism by targeting apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins to the lysosome. Sortilin is also expressed in macrophages, but its role in macrophage uptake of LDL and in atherosclerosis independent of plasma LDL-C levels is unknown.To determine the effect of macrophage sortilin expression on LDL uptake, foam cell formation, and atherosclerosis.We crossed Sort1(-/-) mice onto a humanized Apobec1(-/-); hAPOB transgenic background and determined that Sort1 deficiency on this background had no effect on plasma LDL-C levels but dramatically reduced atherosclerosis in the aorta and aortic root. To test whether this effect was a result of macrophage sortilin deficiency, we transplanted Sort1(-/-);LDLR(-/-) or Sort1(+/+);LDLR(-/-) bone marrow into Ldlr(-/-) mice and observed a similar reduction in atherosclerosis in mice lacking hematopoetic sortilin without an effect on plasma LDL-C levels. In an effort to determine the mechanism by which hematopoetic sortilin deficiency reduced atherosclerosis, we found no effect of sortilin deficiency on macrophage recruitment or lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine release in vivo. In contrast, sortilin-deficient macrophages had significantly reduced uptake of native LDL ex vivo and reduced foam cell formation in vivo, whereas sortilin overexpression in macrophages resulted in increased LDL uptake and foam cell formation.Macrophage sortilin deficiency protects against atherosclerosis by reducing macrophage uptake of LDL. Sortilin-mediated uptake of native LDL into macrophages may be an important mechanism of foam cell formation and contributor to atherosclerosis development.
Project description:Hepatic VLDL overproduction is a characteristic feature of diabetes and an important contributor to diabetic dyslipidemia. Hepatic sortilin 1 (Sort1), a cellular trafficking receptor, is a novel regulator of plasma lipid metabolism and reduces plasma cholesterol and triglycerides by inhibiting hepatic apolipoprotein B production. Elevated circulating free fatty acids play key roles in hepatic VLDL overproduction and the development of dyslipidemia. This study investigated the regulation of hepatic Sort1 in obesity and diabetes and the potential implications in diabetic dyslipidemia. Results showed that hepatic Sort1 protein was markedly decreased in mouse models of type I and type II diabetes and in human individuals with obesity and liver steatosis, whereas increasing hepatic Sort1 expression reduced plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in mice. Mechanistic studies showed that the saturated fatty acid palmitate activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and inhibited Sort1 protein by mechanisms involving Sort1 protein ubiquitination and degradation. Consistently, hepatic ERK signaling was activated in diabetic mice, whereas blocking ERK signaling by an ERK inhibitor increased hepatic Sort1 protein in mice. These results suggest that increased saturated fatty acids downregulate liver Sort1 protein, which may contribute to the development of dyslipidemia in obesity and diabetes.
Project description:In isolated rat hepatocytes electroloaded with [14C]sucrose, autophaged sugar accumulated in lysosomes under control conditions, and in prelysosomal autophagic vacuoles (amphisomes) in the presence of asparagine, an inhibitor of autophagic-lysosomal fusion. Endocytic uptake of the sucrose-cleaving enzyme invertase resulted in rapid and complete degradation of autophaged sucrose in both amphisomes and lysosomes. Pre-accumulated sucrose was degraded equally well in both compartments, regardless of amphisomal-lysosomal flux inhibition by asparagine, suggesting that endocytic entry into the autophagic pathway can take place both at the lysosomal and at the amphisomal level. The completeness of sucrose degradation by endocytosed invertase furthermore indicates that all lysosomes involved in autophagy can also engage in endocytosis. Endocytosed invertase reached the amphisomes even when autophagy was blocked by 3-methyladenine, and autophaged sucrose reached this compartment even when endocytic influx was blocked by vinblastine, suggesting that amphisomes may exhibit some degree of permanence independently of either pathway.
Project description:Lipid esters stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLDs) of hepatocytes are used to synthesize very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs), into which apolipoprotein B (ApoB) is integrated cotranslationally. In the present study, by using Huh7 cells, derived from human hepatoma and competent for VLDL secretion, we found that ApoB is highly concentrated around CLDs to make "ApoB-crescents." ApoB-crescents were seen in <10% of Huh7 cells under normal conditions, but the ratio increased to nearly 50% after 12 h of proteasomal inhibition by N-acetyl-L-leucinyl-L-leucinyl-L-norleucinal. Electron microscopy showed ApoB to be localized to a cluster of electron-lucent particles 50-100 nm in diameter adhering to CLDs. ApoB, proteasome subunits, and ubiquitinated proteins were detected in the CLD fraction, and this ApoB was ubiquitinated. Interestingly, proteasome inhibition also caused increases in autophagic vacuoles and ApoB in lysosomes. ApoB-crescents began to decrease after 12-24 h of proteasomal inhibition, but the decrease was blocked by an autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine. Inhibition of autophagy alone caused an increase in ApoB-crescents. These observations indicate that both proteasomal and autophagy/lysosomal degradation of ApoB occur around CLDs and that the CLD surface functions as a unique platform for convergence of the two pathways.
Project description:The most common inherited form of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD) known stems from Progranulin (GRN) mutation and exhibits TDP-43 plus ubiquitin aggregates. Despite the causative role of GRN haploinsufficiency in FTLD-TDP, the neurobiology of this secreted glycoprotein is unclear. Here, we examined PGRN binding to the cell surface. PGRN binds to cortical neurons via its C terminus, and unbiased expression cloning identifies Sortilin (Sort1) as a binding site. Sort1?/? neurons exhibit reduced PGRN binding. In the CNS, Sortilin is expressed by neurons and PGRN is most strongly expressed by activated microglial cells after injury. Sortilin rapidly endocytoses and delivers PGRN to lysosomes. Mice lacking Sortilin have elevations in brain and serum PGRN levels of 2.5- to 5-fold. The 50% PGRN decrease causative in FTLD-TDP cases is mimicked in GRN+/? mice, and is fully normalized by Sort1 ablation. Sortilin-mediated PGRN endocytosis is likely to play a central role in FTLD-TDP pathophysiology.
Project description:Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) interacts directly with cytoplasmic apoB and prevents its degradation via the autophagosome/lysosome pathway. This process affects VLDL and LDL production and influences atherogenesis. Here, we investigated the molecular machinery by which PCSK9 modulates autophagy and affects atherogenesis. We backcrossed Pcsk9-/- mice with atherosclerosis-prone Ldlr-/-Apobec1-/- (LDb) mice to generate Ldlr-/-Apobec1-/-Pcsk9-/- (LTp) mice. Deletion of PCSK9 resulted in decreased hepatic apoB secretion, increased autophagic flux, and decreased plasma levels of IDL and LDL particles. The LDLs from LTp mice (LTp-LDLs) were less atherogenic and contained less cholesteryl ester and phospholipids than LDb-LDLs. Moreover LTp-LDLs induced lower endothelial expression of the genes encoding TLR2, Lox-1, ICAM-1, CCL2, CCL7, IL-6, IL-1?, Beclin-1, p62, and TRAF6 Collectively, these effects were associated with substantially less atherosclerosis development (>4-fold) in LTp mice. The absence of PCSK9 in LDb mice results in decreased lipid and apoB levels, fewer atherogenic LDLs, and marked reduction of atherosclerosis. The effect on atherogenesis may be mediated in part by the effects of modified LDLs on endothelial cell receptors and proinflammatory and autophagy molecules. These findings suggest that there may be clinical benefits of PCSK9 inhibition due to mechanisms unrelated to increased LDL receptor activity.
Project description:Mipomersen is a 20mer antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) that inhibits apolipoprotein B (apoB) synthesis; its low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-lowering effects should therefore result from reduced secretion of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). We enrolled 17 healthy volunteers who received placebo injections weekly for 3 weeks followed by mipomersen weekly for 7 to 9 weeks. Stable isotopes were used after each treatment to determine fractional catabolic rates and production rates of apoB in VLDL, IDL (intermediate-density lipoprotein), and LDL, and of triglycerides in VLDL. Mipomersen significantly reduced apoB in VLDL, IDL, and LDL, which was associated with increases in fractional catabolic rates of VLDL and LDL apoB and reductions in production rates of IDL and LDL apoB. Unexpectedly, the production rates of VLDL apoB and VLDL triglycerides were unaffected. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of apoB expression in human liver cells demonstrated preservation of apoB secretion across a range of apoB synthesis. Titrated ASO knockdown of apoB mRNA in chow-fed mice preserved both apoB and triglyceride secretion. In contrast, titrated ASO knockdown of apoB mRNA in high-fat-fed mice resulted in stepwise reductions in both apoB and triglyceride secretion. Mipomersen lowered all apoB lipoproteins without reducing the production rate of either VLDL apoB or triglyceride. Our human data are consistent with long-standing models of posttranscriptional and posttranslational regulation of apoB secretion and are supported by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Targeting apoB synthesis may lower levels of apoB lipoproteins without necessarily reducing VLDL secretion, thereby lowering the risk of steatosis associated with this therapeutic strategy.