Projector-based virtual reality dome environment for procedural pain and anxiety in young children with burn injuries: a pilot study.
ABSTRACT: Virtual reality (VR) is a non-pharmacological method to distract from pain during painful procedures. However, it was never tested in young children with burn injuries undergoing wound care.We aimed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the study process and the use of VR for procedural pain management.From June 2016 to January 2017, we recruited children from 2 months to 10 years of age with burn injuries requiring a hydrotherapy session in a pediatric university teaching hospital in Montreal. Each child received the projector-based VR intervention in addition to the standard pharmacological treatment. Data on intervention and study feasibility and acceptability in addition to measures on pain (Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability scale), baseline (Modified Smith Scale) and procedural (Procedure Behavior Check List) anxiety, comfort (OCCEB-BECCO [behavioral observational scale of comfort level for child burn victims]), and sedation (Ramsay Sedation Scale) were collected before, during, and after the procedure. Data analyses included descriptive and non-parametric inferential statistics.We recruited 15 children with a mean age of 2.2±2.1 years and a mean total body surface area of 5% (±4). Mean pain score during the procedure was low (2.9/10, ±3), as was the discomfort level (2.9/10, ±2.8). Most children were cooperative, oriented, and calm. Assessing anxiety was not feasible with our sample of participants. The prototype did not interfere with the procedure and was considered useful for procedural pain management by most health care professionals.The projector-based VR is a feasible and acceptable intervention for procedural pain management in young children with burn injuries. A larger trial with a control group is required to assess its efficacy.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The management of burn injuries is reported as painful, distressing and a cause of anxiety in children and their parents. Child's and parents' pain and anxiety, often contributes to extended time required for burns management procedures, in particular the process of changing dressings. The traditional method of pharmacologic analgesia is often insufficient to cover the burnt child's pain, and it can have deleterious side effects 12. Intervention with Virtual Reality (VR) games is based on distraction or interruption in the way current thoughts, including pain, are processed by the brain. Research on adults supports the hypothesis that virtual reality has a positive influence on burns pain modulation. METHODS: This study investigates whether playing a virtual reality game, decreases procedural pain in children aged 5-18 years with acute burn injuries. The paper reports on the findings of a pilot study, a randomised trial, in which seven children acted as their own controls though a series of 11 trials. Outcomes were pain measured using the self-report Faces Scale and findings of interviews with parent/carer and nurses. RESULTS: The average pain scores (from the Faces Scale) for pharmacological analgesia only was, 4.1 (SD 2.9), while VR coupled with pharmacological analgesia, the average pain score was 1.3 (SD 1.8) CONCLUSION: The study provides strong evidence supporting VR based games in providing analgesia with minimal side effects and little impact on the physical hospital environment, as well as its reusability and versatility, suggesting another option in the management of children's acute pain.
Project description:Nonpharmacological management remains one of the central pain interventional therapies in the burn unit. VR and other distraction treatments for adults have achieved great advantages in pain relief. A within-subject study was conducted to evaluate 54 participants aged from 3 to 7. In the control group, a standard analgesic, ibuprofen, was used over the period of dressing change, whereas animated cartoons were played simultaneously in the intervention-group condition. We adopted the Wong-Baker faces pain rating scale, COMFORT scale, FLACC scale and POCIS to assess the pain rating 5 min before, during and 5 min after dressing changes, respectively. Compared with the control group, FLACC scale and POCIS scores in the intervention group were not significantly different (P>0.05) throughout the observation period; outcomes measured using the Wong-Baker faces pain rating scale and COMFORT scale 5 min before and during dressing changes were also not different between the groups (P>0.05). Nevertheless, 5 min after that period, subjects in the intervention group had reduced pain behavior according to scores on the Wong-Baker faces pain rating scale (control-group scores: 7.231±0.403; intervention-group scores: 6.026±0.501, P<0.05) and COMFORT scale (control-group scores: 21.602±1.316; intervention-group scores: 19.040±1.204, P<0.05). This study supports that watching animated cartoons appears to be a practical way to ease the pain behavior of children in the burn unit after replacing wound dressings, although its effectiveness remains insufficient before and during the dressing change procedure. Conducting a thorough study and exploring the efficacy of animated cartoons in reducing the pain of dressing changes for pediatric patients may surely result in practical value, especially in developing countries.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Needles are frequently required for routine medical procedures. Children with severe hemophilia require intensive intravenous (IV) therapy to treat and prevent life-threatening bleeding and undergo hundreds of IV procedures. Fear of needle-related procedures may lead to avoidance of future health care and poor clinical outcomes. Virtual reality (VR) is a promising distraction technique during procedures, but barriers to commercially available VR platforms for pediatric health care purposes have prevented widespread use. OBJECTIVE:We hypothesized that we could create a VR platform that would be used for pediatric hemophilia care, allow clinician orchestration, and be safe and feasible to use for distraction during IV procedures performed as part of complex health care. METHODS:We created a VR platform comprising wireless, adjustable, disposable headsets and a suite of remotely orchestrated VR games. The platform was customized for a pediatric hemophilia population that required hands-free navigation to allow access to a child's hands or arms for procedures. A hemophilia nurse observing the procedure performed orchestration. The primary endpoint of the trial was safety. Preliminary feasibility and usability of the platform were assessed in a single-center, randomized clinical trial from June to December 2016. Participants were children with hemophilia aged 6-18 years. After obtaining informed consent, 25 patients were enrolled and randomized. Each subject, 1 caregiver, and 1 hemophilia nurse orchestrator assessed the degree of preprocedural nervousness or anxiety with an anchored, combined modified visual analog (VAS)/FACES scale. Each participant then underwent a timed IV procedure with either VR or standard of care (SOC) distraction. Each rater assessed the distraction methods using the VAS/FACES scale at the completion of the IV procedure, with questions targeting usability, engagement, impact on procedural anxiety, impact on procedural pain, and likability of the distraction technique. Participants, caregivers, and nurses also rated how much they would like to use VR for future procedures. To compare the length of procedure time between the groups, Mann-Whitney test was used. RESULTS:Of the 25 enrolled children, 24 were included in the primary analysis. No safety concerns or VR sickness occurred. The median procedure time was 10 (range 1-31) minutes in the VR group and was comparable to 9 (range 3-20) minutes in the SOC group (P=.76). Patients in both the groups reported a positive influence of distraction on procedural anxiety and pain. Overall, in 80% (34/45) of the VR evaluations, children, caregivers, and nurses reported that they would like to use VR for future procedures. CONCLUSIONS:We demonstrated that an orchestrated, VR environment could be developed and safely used during pediatric hemophilia care for distraction during IV interventions. This platform has the potential to improve patient experience during medical procedures. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinical Trials.gov NCT03507582; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03507582 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/73G75upA3).
Project description:Excessive pain during medical procedures is a widespread problem but is especially problematic during daily wound care of patients with severe burn injuries.Burn patients report 35-50% reductions in procedural pain while in a distracting immersive virtual reality, and fMRI brain scans show associated reductions in pain-related brain activity during VR. VR distraction appears to be most effective for patients with the highest pain intensity levels. VR is thought to reduce pain by directing patients' attention into the virtual world, leaving less attention available to process incoming neural signals from pain receptors.We review evidence from clinical and laboratory research studies exploring Virtual Reality analgesia, concentrating primarily on the work ongoing within our group. We briefly describe how VR pain distraction systems have been tailored to the unique needs of burn patients to date, and speculate about how VR systems could be tailored to the needs of other patient populations in the future.
Project description:Pain is a major problem after burns. Procedural pain evoked by burn dressing changes is common in patients, and its management is a critical part of treatment in acute burn injuries. Burn pain is very likely the most difficult form of acute pain to treat. ATP contributes to inflammation, and ATP is implicated in peripheral pain signaling via actions upon P2X(3) receptors. Puerarin is extracted from a traditional Chinese medicine and may act on P2X(3) receptor mechanisms. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) has been shown to be a sensitive indicator of pain intensity and treatment effects. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are involved in nociception or pain after burn injury. Burn patients were randomly divided into normal saline (NS) group (salt solution is saline) and puerarin-treated group and pain (Visual Analogue Scale scores) and inflammation (PBMCs) measured. Burn pain produces a stress response, so blood glucose, insulin, and cortisol levels in burn patients were determined. Furthermore, the expression of P2X(3) protein and mRNA in PBMCs was detected. The VAS scores in the puerarin-treated group were lower than those in NS group. The blood glucose, insulin, and cortisol levels in the puerarin-treated group at post-dressing changes were significantly decreased in comparison with those in NS group. The expression levels of P2X(3) protein and mRNA in PBMCs of burn patients in NS group were significantly increased in comparison with those in the puerarin-treated group. Puerarin can antagonize inflammatory factors (such as ATP) and decrease the upregulated expressions of P2X(3) protein and mRNA in PBMCs after burns to decrease VAS. Thus, puerarin had an analgesic effect on procedural pain in dressing changes of burn patients related to P2X(3) receptors.
Project description:Children must often endure painful procedures as part of their treatment for various medical conditions. Those with chronic pain endure frequent or constant discomfort in their daily lives, sometimes severely limiting their physical capacities. With the advent of affordable consumer-grade equipment, clinicians have access to a promising and engaging intervention for pediatric pain, both acute and chronic. In addition to providing relief from acute and procedural pain, virtual reality (VR) may also help to provide a corrective psychological and physiological environment to facilitate rehabilitation for pediatric patients suffering from chronic pain. The special qualities of VR such as presence, interactivity, customization, social interaction, and embodiment allow it to be accepted by children and adolescents and incorporated successfully into their existing medical therapies. However, the powerful and transformative nature of many VR experiences may also pose some risks and should be utilized with caution. In this paper, we review recent literature in pediatric virtual reality for procedural pain and anxiety, acute and chronic pain, and some rehabilitation applications. We also discuss the practical considerations of using VR in pediatric care, and offer specific suggestions and information for clinicians wishing to adopt these engaging therapies into their daily clinical practice.
Project description:Each year, approximately 265,000 deaths occur due to burns on a global scale. In Bangladesh, around 173,000 children under 18 sustain a burn injury. Since most epidemiological studies on burn injuries in low and middle-income countries are based on small-scale surveys or hospital records, this study aims to derive burn mortality and morbidity measures and risk factors at a population level in Bangladesh. A household survey was conducted in seven rural sub-districts of Bangladesh in 2013 to assess injury outcomes. Burn injuries were one of the external causes of injury. Epidemiological characteristics and risk factors were described using descriptive as well as univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The overall mortality and morbidity rates were 2 deaths and 528 injuries per 100,000 populations. Females had a higher burn rate. More than 50% of injuries were seen in adults 25 to 64 years of age. Most injuries occurred in the kitchen while preparing food. 88% of all burns occurred due to flame. Children 1 to 4 years of age were four times more likely to sustain burn injuries as compared to infants. Age-targeted interventions, awareness of first aid protocols, and improvement of acute care management would be potential leads to curb death and disability due to burn injuries.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Infants and children are frequently exposed to painful medical procedures such as immunisation, blood sampling and intravenous access. Over 40 scales for pain assessment are available, many designed for neonatal or postoperative pain. What is not well understood is how well these scales perform when used to assess procedural pain in infants and children. AIM:The aim of this study was to test the psychometric and practical properties of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability (FLACC) scale, the Modified Behavioural Pain Scale (MBPS) and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) observer pain scale to quantify procedural pain intensity in infants and children aged from 6-42 months to determine their suitability for clinical and research purposes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:A prospective observational non-interventional study conducted at a single centre. The psychometric and practical performance of the FLACC scale, MBPS and the VAS observer pain scale and VAS observer distress scale used to assess children experiencing procedural pain will be assessed. Infants and young children aged 6-42 months undergoing one of four painful and/or distressing procedures were recruited and the procedure digitally video recorded. Clinicians and psychologists will be recruited to independently apply the scales to these video recordings to establish intrarater and inter-rater reliability, convergent validity responsiveness and specificity. Pain score distributions will be presented descriptively; reliability will be assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plots. Spearman correlations will be used to assess convergence and linear mixed modelling to explore the responsiveness of the scales to pain and their capacity to distinguish between pain and distress. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Ethical approval was provided by the Royal Children's Hospital Human Research Ethics Committee, approval number 35220B. The findings of this study will be disseminated via peer-reviewed journals and presented at international conferences.
Project description:Virtual reality (VR) distraction is a nonpharmacological method to prevent acute pain that has not yet been thoroughly explored for anesthesiology. We present our experience using VR distraction to decrease routine intravenous sedation for patients undergoing preoperative perineural catheter insertion.This 1-month quality improvement project involved all elective unilateral primary total knee arthroplasty patients who received a preoperative adductor canal catheter. Clinical data were analyzed retrospectively. For the first half of the month, all patients received usual care; intravenous sedation was administered at the discretion of the regional anesthesiologist. For the second half of the month, patients were offered VR distraction with intravenous sedation upon request. The primary outcome was fentanyl dosage; other outcomes included midazolam dosage, procedure-related pain, procedural time, and blood pressure changes.Seven patients received usual care and seven used VR. In the VR group, 1/7 received intravenous sedation versus 6/7 who received usual care (P = 0.029). The fentanyl dose was lower (median [10th-90th percentiles]) in the VR group (0 [0-20] µg) versus the non-VR group (50 [30-100] µg; P = 0.008). Midazolam use was lower in the VR group (0 [0-0] mg) than in the non-VR group (1 [0-1] mg; P = 0.024). Procedure-related pain was lower in the VR group (1 [1-4] NRS) versus the non-VR group (3 [2-6] NRS; P = 0.032). There was no difference in other outcomes.VR distraction may provide an effective nonpharmacological alternative to intravenous sedation for the ultrasound-guided placement of certain perineural catheters.
Project description:External cephalic version (ECV) is associated with a moderate degree of pain. Virtual reality (VR) is a technology that has shown promise in offering procedural analgesia. We undertook a clinical pilot to assess the viability of VR to reduce pain during ECV. In an open randomised controlled trial (RCT), we randomised 50 women to either VR or standard care each (25 per group). Women receiving VR were administered VR content (Skylights) via a headset. Pre- and post-procedural measures of pain, anxiety, device experience and vital signs were measured. There were no significant differences between groups (VR/no VR) in pain scores (60.68 vs 49.76; p?=?0.2), ECV success rates (80% vs 76%; p?=?0.7) or anxiety levels. The women receiving VR had a significantly higher anticipation of pain pre-procedurally (70.0 vs 50.0; p?=?0.03). 20 (80%) of the VR women indicated that they would use VR again and 22 (88%) indicated they would recommend it to a friend having ECV. There were no significant differences between groups for side effects encountered or changes in vital signs. We have shown that using VR during ECV is feasible and appears safe. Our results inform the design of future RCTs.