Amino acid residues in HIV-2 reverse transcriptase that restrict the development of nucleoside analogue resistance through the excision pathway.
ABSTRACT: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NRTIs) are the backbone of current antiretroviral treatments. However, the emergence of viral resistance against NRTIs is a major threat to their therapeutic effectiveness. In HIV-1, NRTI resistance-associated mutations either reduce RT-mediated incorporation of NRTI triphosphates (discrimination mechanism) or confer an ATP-mediated nucleotide excision activity that removes the inhibitor from the 3' terminus of DNA primers, enabling further primer elongation (excision mechanism). In HIV-2, resistance to zidovudine (3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT)) and other NRTIs is conferred by mutations affecting nucleotide discrimination. Mutations of the excision pathway such as M41L, D67N, K70R, or S215Y (known as thymidine-analogue resistance mutations (TAMs)) are rare in the virus from HIV-2-infected individuals. Here, we demonstrate that mutant M41L/D67N/K70R/S215Y HIV-2 RT lacks ATP-dependent excision activity, and recombinant virus containing this RT remains susceptible to AZT inhibition. Mutant HIV-2 RTs were tested for their ability to unblock and extend DNA primers terminated with AZT and other NRTIs, when complexed with RNA or DNA templates. Our results show that Met73 and, to a lesser extent, Ile75 suppress excision activity when TAMs are present in the HIV-2 RT. Interestingly, recombinant HIV-2 carrying a mutant D67N/K70R/M73K RT showed 10-fold decreased AZT susceptibility and increased rescue efficiency on AZT- or tenofovir-terminated primers, as compared with the double-mutant D67N/K70R. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that Met73influences β3-β4 hairpin loop conformation, whereas its substitution affects hydrogen bond interactions at position 70, required for NRTI excision. Our work highlights critical HIV-2 RT residues impeding the development of excision-mediated NRTI resistance.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) develops resistance to 3'-azido-2',3'-deoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine) by acquiring mutations in reverse transcriptase that enhance the ATP-mediated excision of AZT monophosphate from the 3' end of the primer. The excision reaction occurs at the dNTP-binding site, uses ATP as a pyrophosphate donor, unblocks the primer terminus and allows reverse transcriptase to continue viral DNA synthesis. The excision product is AZT adenosine dinucleoside tetraphosphate (AZTppppA). We determined five crystal structures: wild-type reverse transcriptase-double-stranded DNA (RT-dsDNA)-AZTppppA; AZT-resistant (AZTr; M41L D67N K70R T215Y K219Q) RT-dsDNA-AZTppppA; AZTr RT-dsDNA terminated with AZT at dNTP- and primer-binding sites; and AZTr apo reverse transcriptase. The AMP part of AZTppppA bound differently to wild-type and AZTr reverse transcriptases, whereas the AZT triphosphate part bound the two enzymes similarly. Thus, the resistance mutations create a high-affinity ATP-binding site. The structure of the site provides an opportunity to design inhibitors of AZT-monophosphate excision.
Project description:Recent work indicates that mutations in the C-terminal domains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) increase 3'-azido-3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT) resistance. Because it is not known whether AZT selects for mutations outside of the polymerase domain of RT, we carried out in vitro experiments in which HIV-1(LAI) or AZT-resistant HIV-1(LAI) (M41L/L210W/T215Y) was passaged in MT-2 cells in increasing concentrations of AZT. The first resistance mutations to appear in HIV-1(LAI) were two polymerase domain thymidine analog mutations (TAMs), D67N and K70R, and two novel mutations, A371V in the connection domain and Q509L in the RNase H domain, that together conferred up to 90-fold AZT resistance. Thereafter, the T215I mutation appeared but was later replaced by T215F, resulting in a large increase in AZT resistance ( approximately 16,000-fold). Mutations in the connection and RNase H domains were not selected starting with AZT-resistant virus (M41L/L210W/T215Y). The roles of A371V and Q509L in AZT resistance were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis: A371V and Q509L together increased AZT resistance approximately 10- to 50-fold in combination with TAMs (M41L/L210W/T215Y or D67N/K70R/T215F) but had a minimal effect without TAMs (1.7-fold). A371V and Q509L also increased cross-resistance with TAMs to lamivudine and abacavir, but not stavudine or didanosine. These results provide the first evidence that mutations in the connection and RNase H domains of RT can be selected in vitro by AZT and confer greater AZT resistance and cross-resistance to nucleoside RT inhibitors in combination with TAMs in the polymerase domain.
Project description:Single amino acid deletions in the ?3-?4 hairpin loop of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) have been identified in heavily treated patients. The deletion of Asp-67 together with mutations T69G and K70R (?67 complex) are usually associated with thymidine analog resistance mutations (TAMs) (e.g. M41L, T215Y, etc.) while the deletion of Thr-69 (?69) is rarely found in isolates containing TAMs. Here, we show that the complex ?67/T69G/K70R enhances ATP-dependent phosphorolytic activity on primers terminated with 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) or 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (d4T) both in the presence or absence of TAMs (i.e. M41L/T215Y), while ?69 (or the complex S68G/?69/K70G) antagonize the effects of TAMs in ATP-mediated excision. These effects are consistent with AZT susceptibility data obtained with recombinant HIV-1 bearing the relevant RTs. Molecular dynamics studies based on models of wild-type HIV-1 RT and mutant ?69, ?67/T69G/K70R, and D67N/K70R RTs support a relevant role for Lys/Arg-70 in the excision reaction. In ?69 RT, the side chain of Lys-70 locates away from the putative pyrophosphate binding site. Therefore, its participation in interactions required for the excision reaction is unlikely. Our theoretical studies also suggest a role for Lys-219 in thymidine analog excision/discrimination. However, pre-steady-state kinetics revealed only minor differences in selectivity of AZT-triphosphate versus dTTP between deletion-containing RTs and their homologous enzymes having the K219E mutation. K219E reduced both ATP- and pyrophosphate-mediated excision of primers terminated with thymidine analogues, only when introduced in RTs bearing ?69 or S68G/?69/K70G, providing further biochemical evidence that explains the lack of association of ?69 and TAMs in HIV-1 isolates.
Project description:Six structures of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) containing combinations of resistance mutations for zidovudine (AZT) (M41L and T215Y) or lamivudine (M184V) have been determined as inhibitor complexes. Minimal conformational changes in the polymerase or nonnucleoside RT inhibitor sites compared to the mutant RTMC (D67N, K70R, T215F, and K219N) are observed, indicating that such changes may occur only with certain combinations of mutations. Model building M41L and T215Y into HIV-1 RT-DNA and docking in ATP that is utilized in the pyrophosphorolysis reaction for AZT resistance indicates that some conformational rearrangement appears necessary in RT for ATP to interact simultaneously with the M41L and T215Y mutations.
Project description:Long-term use of combination therapy against human immunodeficiency virus type (HIV-1) provides strong selective pressure on the virus, and HIV-1 variants that are resistant to multiple inhibitors have been isolated. HIV-1 variants containing amino acid substitutions within the coding region of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), such as the 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT)-resistant variant AZT-R (M41L/D67N/K70R/T215Y/K219Q) and a variant containing an insertion in the fingers domain (S69SGR70/T215Y), are resistant to the nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI) AZT because of an increase in the level of excision of AZT monophosphate (AZTMP) from the primer. While rare, variants have also been isolated which contain deletions in the RT coding region. One such virus, described by Imamichi et al. (J. Virol 74:10958-10964, 2000; J. Virol. 74:1023-1028, 2000; J. Virol. 75:3988-3992, 2001), contains numerous amino acid substitutions and a deletion of codon 67, which we have designated the Delta67 complex of mutations. We have expressed and purified HIV-1 RT containing these mutations. We compared the polymerase and pyrophosphorolysis (excision) activity of an RT with the Delta67 complex of mutations to wild-type RT and the two other AZT-resistant variants described above. All of the AZT-resistant variants we tested excise AZTMP and 9-[2-(R)-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine (PMPA [tenofovir]) from the end of a primer more efficiently than wild-type RT. Although the variant RTs excised d4TMP less efficiently than AZTMP and PMPA, they were able to excise d4TMP more efficiently than wild-type RT. HIV-1 RT containing the Delta67 complex of mutations was not able to excise as broad a range of NRTIs as the fingers insertion variant SSGR/T215Y, but it was able to polymerize efficiently with low concentrations of deoxynucleoside triphosphates and seems to be able to excise AZTMP and PMPA at lower ATP concentrations than AZT-R or SSGR/T215Y, suggesting that a virus containing the Delta67 complex of mutations would replicate reasonably well in quiescent cells, even in the presence of AZT.
Project description:We analyzed a multi-drug resistant (MR) HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), subcloned from a patient-derived subtype CRF02_AG, harboring 45 amino acid exchanges, amongst them four thymidine analog mutations (TAMs) relevant for high-level AZT (azidothymidine) resistance by AZTMP excision (M41L, D67N, T215Y, K219E) as well as four substitutions of the AZTTP discrimination pathway (A62V, V75I, F116Y and Q151M). In addition, K65R, known to antagonize AZTMP excision in HIV-1 subtype B was present. Although MR-RT harbored the most significant amino acid exchanges T215Y and Q151M of each pathway, it exclusively used AZTTP discrimination, indicating that the two mechanisms are mutually exclusive and that the Q151M pathway is obviously preferred since it confers resistance to most nucleoside inhibitors. A derivative was created, additionally harboring the TAM K70R and the reversions M151Q as well as R65K since K65R antagonizes excision. MR-R65K-K70R-M151Q was competent of AZTMP excision, whereas other combinations thereof with only one or two exchanges still promoted discrimination. To tackle the multi-drug resistance problem, we tested if the MR-RTs could still be inhibited by RNase H inhibitors. All MR-RTs exhibited similar sensitivity toward RNase H inhibitors belonging to different inhibitor classes, indicating the importance of developing RNase H inhibitors further as anti-HIV drugs.
Project description:We characterized 16 additional mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) whose role in drug resistance is still unknown by analyzing 1,906 plasma-derived HIV-1 subtype B pol sequences from 551 drug-naïve patients and 1,355 nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI)-treated patients. Twelve mutations positively associated with NRTI treatment strongly correlated both in pairs and in clusters with known NRTI resistance mutations on divergent evolutionary pathways. In particular, T39A, K43E/Q, K122E, E203K, and H208Y clustered with the nucleoside analogue mutation 1 cluster (NAM1; M41L+L210W+T215Y). Their copresence in this cluster was associated with an increase in thymidine analogue resistance. Moreover, treatment failure in the presence of K43E, K122E, or H208Y was significantly associated with higher viremia and lower CD4 cell count. Differently, D218E clustered with the NAM2 pathway (D67N+K70R+K219Q+T215F), and its presence in this cluster determined an increase in zidovudine resistance. In contrast, three mutations (V35I, I50V, and R83K) negatively associated with NRTI treatment showed negative correlations with NRTI resistance mutations and were associated with increased susceptibility to specific NRTIs. In particular, I50V negatively correlated with the lamivudine-selected mutation M184V and was associated with a decrease in M184V/lamivudine resistance, whereas R83K negatively correlated with both NAM1 and NAM2 clusters and was associated with a decrease in thymidine analogue resistance. Finally, the association pattern of the F214L polymorphism revealed its propensity for the NAM2 pathway and its strong negative association with the NAM1 pathway. Our study provides evidence of novel RT mutational patterns that regulate positively and/or negatively NRTI resistance and strongly suggests that other mutations beyond those currently known to confer resistance should be considered for improved prediction of clinical response to antiretroviral drugs.
Project description:Although anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) therapies have become more sophisticated and more effective, drug resistance continues to be a major problem. Zidovudine (azidothymidine; AZT) was the first nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor (NRTI) approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infections and is still being used, particularly in the developing world. This drug targets the conversion of single-stranded RNA to double-stranded DNA by HIV-1 RT. However, resistance to the drug quickly appeared both in viruses replicating in cells in culture and in patients undergoing AZT monotherapy. The primary resistance pathway selects for mutations of T215 that change the threonine to either a tyrosine or a phenylalanine (T215Y/F); this resistance pathway involves an ATP-dependent excision mechanism. The pseudo-sugar ring of AZT lacks a 3' OH; RT incorporates AZT monophosphate (AZTMP), which blocks the end of the viral DNA primer. AZT-resistant forms of HIV-1 RT use ATP in an excision reaction to unblock the 3' end of the primer strand, allowing its extension by RT. The T215Y AZT resistance mutation is often accompanied by two other mutations, M41L and L210W. In this study, the roles of these mutations, in combination with T215Y, were examined to determine whether they affect polymerization and excision by HIV-1 RT. The M41L mutation appears to help restore the DNA polymerization activity of RT containing the T215Y mutation and also enhances AZTMP excision. The L210W mutation plays a similar role, but it enhances excision by RTs that carry the T215Y mutation when ATP is present at a low concentration.
Project description:We previously demonstrated in vitro that zidovudine (AZT) selects for A371V in the connection domain and Q509L in ribonuclease H (RNase H) domain of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) which, together with the thymidine analog mutations D67N, K70R and T215F, confer greater than 100-fold AZT resistance. The goal of the current study was to determine whether AZT monotherapy in HIV-1 infected patients also selects the A371V, Q509L or other mutations in the C-terminal domains of HIV-1 RT.Full-length RT sequences in plasma obtained pre- and post-therapy were compared in 23 participants who received AZT monotherapy from the AIDS Clinical Trials Group study 175. Five of the 23 participants reached a primary study endpoint. Mutations significantly associated with AZT monotherapy included K70R (p?=?0.003) and T215Y (p?=?0.013) in the polymerase domain of HIV-1 RT, and A360V (p?=?0.041) in the connection domain of HIV-1 RT. HIV-1 drug susceptibility assays demonstrated that A360V, either alone or in combination with thymidine analog mutations, decreased AZT susceptibility in recombinant viruses containing participant-derived full-length RT sequences or site-directed mutant RT. Biochemical studies revealed that A360V enhances the AZT-monophosphate excision activity of purified RT by significantly decreasing the frequency of secondary RNase H cleavage events that reduce the RNA/DNA duplex length and promote template/primer dissociation.The A360V mutation in the connection domain of RT was selected in HIV-infected individuals that received AZT monotherapy and contributed to AZT resistance.
Project description:Both foscarnet (PFA) and zidovudine (AZT) select for drug-resistant variants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), but the interactions between the mutations causing such resistance are unknown. The introduction of the previously identified PFA resistance mutation W to G at codon 88 (W88G), E89K, L92I, or Q161L into an HIV-1 strain having the four known AZT resistance mutations completely reversed high-level AZT resistance. Two additional PFA resistance mutations, W88S and S156A, partially suppressed AZT resistance. Phenotypic reversion of AZT resistance by W88S, W88G, E89K, L921, and S156A was associated with a concomitant suppression of PFA resistance. The degree to which PFA resistance mutations reversed AZT resistance was directly correlated with each mutation's ability to confer high-level PFA resistance (> or = 5.0-fold) and AZT hypersusceptibility in a wild-type genetic background. Highly PFA-resistant HIV- 1 strains were hypersusceptible to AZT; conversely, AZT-resistant strains with M41L and T215Y; M41L, L210W, and T215Y; or M41L, D67N, K70R, and T215Y mutations were 2.2- to 2.5-fold hypersusceptible to PFA. Prolonged in vitro selection of wild-type or AZT-resistant HIV-1 strains with the combination AZT and PFA failed to generate coresistant virus, indicating that dual resistance was relatively difficult to achieve. Strains selected by passage in PFA plus AZT were phenotypically PFA resistant and AZT susceptible despite multiple reverse transcriptase mutations known to confer AZT resistance. These data show that PFA resistance mutations can phenotypically reverse AZT resistance and that AZT and PFA resistance might be mutually exclusive. The reciprocal interactions between AZT and PFA resistance-conferring mutations have implications for structure-function studies of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.