Insight into induced charges at metal surfaces and biointerfaces using a polarizable Lennard-Jones potential.
ABSTRACT: Metallic nanostructures have become popular for applications in therapeutics, catalysts, imaging, and gene delivery. Molecular dynamics simulations are gaining influence to predict nanostructure assembly and performance; however, instantaneous polarization effects due to induced charges in the free electron gas are not routinely included. Here we present a simple, compatible, and accurate polarizable potential for gold that consists of a Lennard-Jones potential and a harmonically coupled core-shell charge pair for every metal atom. The model reproduces the classical image potential of adsorbed ions as well as surface, bulk, and aqueous interfacial properties in excellent agreement with experiment. Induced charges affect the adsorption of ions onto gold surfaces in the gas phase at a strength similar to chemical bonds while ions and charged peptides in solution are influenced at a strength similar to intermolecular bonds. The proposed model can be applied to complex gold interfaces, electrode processes, and extended to other metals.
Project description:Meaningful efforts in computer-aided drug design (CADD) require accurate molecular mechanical force fields to quantitatively characterize protein-ligand interactions, ligand hydration free energies, and other ligand physical properties. Atomic models of new compounds are commonly generated by analogy from the predefined tabulated parameters of a given force field. Two widely used approaches following this strategy are the General Amber Force Field (GAFF) and the CHARMM General Force Field (CGenFF). An important limitation of using pretabulated parameter values is that they may be inadequate in the context of a specific molecule. To resolve this issue, we previously introduced the General Automated Atomic Model Parameterization (GAAMP) for automatically generating the parameters of atomic models of small molecules, using the results from ab initio quantum mechanical (QM) calculations as target data. The GAAMP protocol uses QM data to optimize the bond, valence angle, and dihedral angle internal parameters, and atomic partial charges. However, since the treatment of van der Waals interactions based on QM is challenging and may often be unreliable, the Lennard-Jones 6-12 parameters are kept unchanged from the initial atom types assignments (GAFF or CGenFF), which limits the accuracy that can be achieved by these models. To address this issue, a new set of Lennard-Jones 6-12 parameters was systematically optimized to reproduce experimental neat liquid densities and enthalpies of vaporization for a large set of 430 compounds, covering a wide range of chemical functionalities. Calculations of the hydration free energy indicate that optimal accuracy for these models is achieved when the molecule-water van der Waals dispersion is rescaled by a factor of 1.115. The final optimized model yields an average unsigned error of 0.79 kcal/mol in the hydration free energies.
Project description:Rosenfeld proposed two different scaling approaches to model the transport properties of fluids, separated by 22 years, one valid in the dilute gas, and another in the liquid phase. In this work, we demonstrate that these two limiting cases can be connected through the use of a novel approach to scaling transport properties and a bridging function. This approach, which is empirical and not derived from theory, is used to generate reference correlations for the transport properties of the Lennard-Jones 12-6 fluid of viscosity, thermal conductivity, and self-diffusion. This approach, with a very simple functional form, allows for the reproduction of the most accurate simulation data to within nearly their statistical uncertainty. The correlations are used to confirm that for the Lennard-Jones fluid the appropriately scaled transport properties are nearly monovariate functions of the excess entropy from low-density gases into the supercooled phase and up to extreme temperatures. This study represents the most comprehensive metastudy of the transport properties of the Lennard-Jones fluid to date.
Project description:Long-range Lennard-Jones (LJ) interactions have a significant impact on the structural and thermodynamic properties of nonpolar systems. While several methods have been introduced for the treatment of long-range LJ interactions in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, increased accuracy and extended applicability is required for anisotropic systems such as lipid bilayers. The recently refined Lennard-Jones particle-mesh Ewald (LJ-PME) method extends the particle-mesh Ewald (PME) method to long-range LJ interactions and is suitable for use with anisotropic systems. Implementation of LJ-PME with the CHARMM36 (C36) additive and CHARMM Drude polarizable force fields improves agreement with experiment for density, isothermal compressibility, surface tension, viscosity, translational diffusion, and 13C T1 relaxation times of pure alkanes. Trends in the temperature dependence of the density and isothermal compressibility of hexadecane are also improved. While the C36 additive force field with LJ-PME remains a useful model for liquid alkanes, the Drude polarizable force field with LJ-PME is more accurate for nearly all quantities considered. LJ-PME is also preferable to the isotropic long-range correction for hexadecane because the molecular order extends to nearly 20 Å, well beyond the usual 10-12 Å cutoffs used in most simulations.
Project description:Lennard-Jones (LJ) parameters for a variety of model compounds have previously been optimized within the CHARMM Drude polarizable force field to reproduce accurately pure liquid phase thermodynamic properties as well as additional target data. While the polarizable force field resulting from this optimization procedure has been shown to satisfactorily reproduce a wide range of experimental reference data across numerous series of small molecules, a slight but systematic overestimate of the hydration free energies has also been noted. Here, the reproduction of experimental hydration free energies is greatly improved by the introduction of pair-specific LJ parameters between solute heavy atoms and water oxygen atoms that override the standard LJ parameters obtained from combining rules. The changes are small and a systematic protocol is developed for the optimization of pair-specific LJ parameters and applied to the development of pair-specific LJ parameters for alkanes, alcohols and ethers. The resulting parameters not only yield hydration free energies in good agreement with experimental values, but also provide a framework upon which other pair-specific LJ parameters can be added as new compounds are parametrized within the CHARMM Drude polarizable force field. Detailed analysis of the contributions to the hydration free energies reveals that the dispersion interaction is the main source of the systematic errors in the hydration free energies. This information suggests that the systematic error may result from problems with the LJ combining rules and is combined with analysis of the pair-specific LJ parameters obtained in this work to identify a preliminary improved combining rule.
Project description:Metal ions play significant roles in biological systems. Accurate molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on these systems require a validated set of parameters. Although there are more detailed ways to model metal ions, the nonbonded model, which employs a 12-6 Lennard-Jones (LJ) term plus an electrostatic potential is still widely used in MD simulations today due to its simple form. However, LJ parameters have limited transferability due to different combining rules, various water models and diverse simulation methods. Recently, simulations employing a Particle Mesh Ewald (PME) treatment for long-range electrostatics have become more and more popular owing to their speed and accuracy. In the present work we have systematically designed LJ parameters for 24 +2 metal (M(II)) cations to reproduce different experimental properties appropriate for the Lorentz-Berthelot combining rules and PME simulations. We began by testing the transferability of currently available M(II) ion LJ parameters. The results showed that there are differences between simulations employing Ewald summation with other simulation methods and that it was necessary to design new parameters specific for PME based simulations. Employing the thermodynamic integration (TI) method and performing periodic boundary MD simulations employing PME, allowed for the systematic investigation of the LJ parameter space. Hydration free energies (HFEs), the ion-oxygen distance in the first solvation shell (IOD) and coordination numbers (CNs) were obtained for various combinations of the parameters of the LJ potential for four widely used water models (TIP3P, SPC/E, TIP4P and TIP4PEW). Results showed that the three simulated properties were highly correlated. Meanwhile, M(II) ions with the same parameters in different water models produce remarkably different HFEs but similar structural properties. It is difficult to reproduce various experimental values simultaneously because the nonbonded model underestimates the interaction between the metal ions and water molecules at short range. Moreover, the extent of underestimation increases successively for the TIP3P, SPC/E, TIP4PEW and TIP4P water models. Nonetheless, we fitted a curve to describe the relationship between ? (the well depth) and radius (Rmin/2) from experimental data on noble gases to facilitate the generation of the best possible compromise models. Hence, by targeting different experimental values, we developed three sets of parameters for M(II) cations for three different water models (TIP3P, SPC/E and TIP4PEW). These parameters we feel represent the best possible compromise that can be achieved using the nonbonded model for the ions in combination with simple water models. From a computational uncertainty analysis we estimate that the uncertainty in our computed HFEs is on the order of ±1kcal/mol. Further improvements will require more advanced non-bonded models likely with inclusion of polarization.
Project description:Equations of state based on intermolecular potentials are often developed about the Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential. Many of such EOS have been proposed in the past. In this work, 20 LJ EOS were examined regarding their performance on Brown's characteristic curves and characteristic state points. Brown's characteristic curves are directly related to the virial coefficients at specific state points, which can be computed exactly from the intermolecular potential. Therefore, also the second and third virial coefficient of the LJ fluid were investigated. This approach allows a comparison of available LJ EOS at extreme conditions. Physically based, empirical, and semi-theoretical LJ EOS were examined. Most investigated LJ EOS exhibit some unphysical artifacts.
Project description:In all of the classical force fields, electrostatic interaction is simply treated and explicit electronic polarizability is neglected. The condensed-phase polarization, relative to the gas-phase charge distributions, is commonly accounted for in an average way by increasing the atomic charges, which remain fixed throughout simulations. Based on the lipid polarizable force field DMPC and following the same framework as Atomic Multipole Optimized Energetics for BiomoleculAr (AMOEBA) simulation, the present effort expands the force field to new anionic lipid models, in which the new lipids contain DMPG and POPS. The parameters are compatible with the AMOEBA force field, which includes water, ions, proteins, etc. The charge distribution of each atom is represented by the permanent atomic monopole, dipole and quadrupole moments, which are derived from the ab initio gas phase calculations. Many-body polarization including the inter- and intramolecular polarization is modeled in a consistent manner with distributed atomic polarizabilities. Molecular dynamics simulations of the two aqueous DMPG and POPS membrane bilayer systems, consisting of 72 lipids with water molecules, were then carried out to validate the force field parameters. Membrane width, area per lipid, volume per lipid, deuterium order parameters, electron density profile, electrostatic potential difference between the center of the bilayer and water are all calculated, and compared with limited experimental data.
Project description:The Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential is a cornerstone of Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations and among the most widely used computational kernels in science. The LJ potential models atomistic attraction and repulsion with century old prescribed parameters (q?=?6, p?=?12, respectively), originally related by a factor of two for simplicity of calculations. We propose the inference of the repulsion exponent through Hierarchical Bayesian uncertainty quantification We use experimental data of the radial distribution function and dimer interaction energies from quantum mechanics simulations. We find that the repulsion exponent p???6.5 provides an excellent fit for the experimental data of liquid argon, for a range of thermodynamic conditions, as well as for saturated argon vapour. Calibration using the quantum simulation data did not provide a good fit in these cases. However, values p???12.7 obtained by dimer quantum simulations are preferred for the argon gas while lower values are promoted by experimental data. These results show that the proposed LJ 6-p potential applies to a wider range of thermodynamic conditions, than the classical LJ 6-12 potential. We suggest that calibration of the repulsive exponent in the LJ potential widens the range of applicability and accuracy of MD simulations.
Project description:Ion descriptors in molecular mechanics models are calibrated against reference data on ion-water interactions. It is then typically assumed that these descriptors will also satisfactorily describe interactions of ions with other functional groups, such as those present in biomolecules. However, several studies now demonstrate that this transferability assumption produces, in many different cases, large errors. Here we address this issue in a representative polarizable model and focus on transferability of cationic interactions from water to a series of alcohols. Both water and alcohols use hydroxyls for ion-coordination, and, therefore, this set of molecules constitutes the simplest possible case of transferability. We obtain gas phase reference data systematically from "gold-standard" quantum Monte Carlo and CCSD(T) methods, followed by benchmarked vdW-corrected DFT. We learn that the original polarizable model yields large gas phase water ? alcohol transferability errors - the RMS and maximum errors are 2.3 and 5.1 kcal/mol, respectively. These errors are, nevertheless, systematic in that ion-alcohol interactions are overstabilized, and systematic errors typically imply that some essential physics is either missing or misrepresented. A comprehensive analysis shows that when both low- and high-field responses of ligand dipole polarization are described accurately, then transferability improves significantly - the RMS and maximum errors in the gas phase reduce, respectively, to 0.9 and 2.5 kcal/mol. Additionally, predictions of condensed phase transfer free energies also improve. Nevertheless, within the limits of the extrathermodynamic assumptions necessary to separate experimental estimates of salt dissolution into constituent cationic and anionic contributions, we note that the error in the condensed phase is systematic, which we attribute, at least, partially to the parametrization in long-range electrostatics. Overall, this work demonstrates a rational approach to boosting transferability of ionic interactions that will be applicable broadly to improving other polarizable and nonpolarizable models.
Project description:Although multiple charging in electrospray ionization (ESI) is essential to protein mass spectrometry, the underlying mechanism of multiple charging has not been explicated. Here, we present a new theory to describe ESI of native-state proteins and predict the number of excess charges on proteins in ESI. The theory proposes that proteins are ionized as charged residues in ESI, as they retain residual excess charges after solvent evaporation and do not desorb from charged ESI droplets. However, their charge state is not determined by the Rayleigh limit of a droplet of similar size to the protein; rather, their final charge state is determined by the electric field-induced emission of small charged solute ions and clusters from protein-containing ESI droplets. This theory predicts that the number of charges on a protein in ESI should be directly proportional to the square of the gas-phase protein diameter and to E*, the critical electric field strength at which ion emission from droplets occurs. This critical field strength is determined by the properties of the excess charge carriers (i.e., the solute) in droplets. Charge-state measurements of native-state proteins with molecular masses in the 5-76 kDa range in ammonium acetate and triethylammonium bicarbonate are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions and strongly support the mechanism of protein ESI proposed here.