Benchmark dose analyses of multiple genetic toxicity endpoints permit robust, cross-tissue comparisons of MutaMouse responses to orally delivered benzo[a]pyrene.
ABSTRACT: Genetic damage is a key event in tumorigenesis, and chemically induced genotoxic effects are a human health concern. Although genetic toxicity data have historically been interpreted using a qualitative screen-and-bin approach, there is increasing interest in quantitative analysis of genetic toxicity dose-response data. We demonstrate an emerging use of the benchmark dose (BMD)-approach for empirically ranking cross-tissue sensitivity. Using a model environmental carcinogen, we quantitatively examined responses for four genetic damage endpoints over an extended dose range, and conducted cross-tissue sensitivity rankings using BMD100 values and their 90% confidence intervals (CIs). MutaMouse specimens were orally exposed to 11 doses of benzo[a]pyrene. DNA adduct frequency and lacZ mutant frequency (MF) were measured in up to 8 tissues, and Pig-a MF and micronuclei (MN) were assessed in immature (RETs) and mature red blood cells (RBCs). The cross-tissue BMD pattern for lacZ MF is similar to that observed for DNA adducts, and is consistent with an oral route-of-exposure and differences in tissue-specific metabolism and proliferation. The lacZ MF BMDs were significantly correlated with the tissue-matched adduct BMDs, demonstrating a consistent adduct conversion rate across tissues. The BMD CIs, for both the Pig-a and the MN endpoints, overlapped for RETs and RBCs, suggesting comparable utility of both cell populations for protracted exposures. Examination of endpoint-specific response maxima illustrates the difficulty of comparing BMD values for a fixed benchmark response across endpoints. Overall, the BMD-approach permitted robust comparisons of responses across tissues/endpoints, which is valuable to our mechanistic understanding of how benzo[a]pyrene induces genetic damage.
Project description:The frequency of stable DNA adducts in a target tissue can be used to assess biologically effective dose; however, the utility of the metric in a risk assessment context depends on the likelihood that the DNA damage will be manifested as mutation. Previously, we employed the Muta™Mouse system to examine the induction of lacZ mutants and DNA adducts following exposure to the well-studied mutagenic carcinogen 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA). In this follow-up work, we examined the empirical relationships between total adduct frequency and mutant frequency (MF) in tissues and cultured cells following acute 3-NBA exposure. The results show a significant induction of DNA damage and lacZ mutants in liver, colon and bone marrow, as well as FE1 pulmonary epithelial cells. In contrast, lung and small intestine samples had low, but significantly elevated adduct levels, with no significant increases in lacZ MF. Additional analyses showed a significant relationship between the mutagenic efficiency of total adducts, measured as the slope of the relationships between MF and total adduct frequency, and tissue-specific mitotic index (MI). The lack of mutation response in lung, in contrast to the high in vitro MF in FE-1 lung cells, is likely related to the 100-fold difference in MI. The lack of small intestine mutagenic response may be related to limited metabolic capacity, differences in DNA repair, and /or chemically induced apoptosis that has been observed for other potent mutagens. The results indicate that interpretation of adduct frequency values in a risk assessment context can be improved by considering the MI of the target tissue; however, more generalised interpretation is hampered by tissue-specific variations in metabolic capacity and damage processing. The work provides a proof of principle regarding the use of the Muta™Mouse system to critically examine the health risks associated with tissue-specific adduct loads.
Project description:Two endpoints of genetic toxicity, mutation at the X-linked Pig-a gene and chromosomal damage in the form of micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RETs), were evaluated in blood samples obtained from 28-day repeat-dosing studies typical of those employed in toxicity evaluations. Male Wistar Han rats were treated at 24-h intervals on days 1 through 28 with one of five prototypical genotoxicants: N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, 7,12-dimethyl-12-benz[a]anthracene, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO), benzo(a)pyrene, and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. Flow cytometric scoring of CD59-negative erythrocytes (indicative of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor deficiency and hence Pig-a mutation) was performed using blood specimens obtained on days -1, 15, 29, and 56. Blood specimens collected on days 4 and 29 were evaluated for MN-RET frequency using flow cytometry-based MicroFlow Kits. With the exception of 4NQO, each chemical induced significant increases in the frequency of MN-RETs on days 4 and 29. All five agents increased the frequency of mutant phenotype (CD59 negative) reticulocytes (RETs) and erythrocytes. Mutation responses in RETs occurred earlier than in erythrocytes and tended to peak, or nearly peak, at day 29. In contrast, the mutant phenotype erythrocyte responses were modest on day 29 and required additional time to reach their maximal value. The observed kinetics were expected based on the known turnover of RETs and erythrocytes. The data show that RETs can serve as an appropriate indicator cell population for 28-day studies. Collectively, these data suggest that blood-based genotoxicity endpoints can be effectively incorporated into routine toxicology studies, a strategy that would reduce animal usage while providing valuable genetic toxicity information within the context of other toxicological endpoints.
Project description:A 5-day in vivo rat model was evaluated as an approach to estimate chemical exposures that may pose minimal risk by comparing benchmark dose (BMD) values for transcriptional changes in the liver and kidney to BMD values for toxicological endpoints from traditional toxicity studies. Eighteen chemicals, most having been tested by the National Toxicology Program in 2-year bioassays, were evaluated. Some of these chemicals are potent hepatotoxicants (eg, DE71, PFOA, and furan) in rodents, some exhibit toxicity but have minimal hepatic effects (eg, acrylamide and ?,?-thujone), and some exhibit little overt toxicity (eg, ginseng and milk thistle extract) based on traditional toxicological evaluations. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed once daily for 5 consecutive days by oral gavage to 8-10 dose levels for each chemical. Liver and kidney were collected 24?h after the final exposure and total RNA was assayed using high-throughput transcriptomics (HTT) with the rat S1500+ platform. HTT data were analyzed using BMD Express 2 to determine transcriptional gene set BMD values. BMDS was used to determine BMD values for histopathological effects from chronic or subchronic toxicity studies. For many of the chemicals, the lowest transcriptional BMDs from the 5-day assays were within a factor of 5 of the lowest histopathological BMDs from the toxicity studies. These data suggest that using HTT in a 5-day in vivo rat model provides reasonable estimates of BMD values for traditional apical endpoints. This approach may be useful to prioritize chemicals for further testing while providing actionable data in a timely and cost-effective manner.
Project description:There is increasing interest in the use of quantitative transcriptomic data to determine benchmark dose (BMD) and estimate a point of departure (POD) for human health risk assessment. Although studies have shown that transcriptional PODs correlate with those derived from apical endpoint changes, there is no consensus on the process used to derive a transcriptional POD. Specifically, the subsets of informative genes that produce BMDs that best approximate the doses at which adverse apical effects occur have not been defined. To determine the best way to select predictive groups of genes, we used published microarray data from dose-response studies on six chemicals in rats exposed orally for 5, 14, 28, and 90 days. We evaluated eight approaches for selecting genes for POD derivation and three previously proposed approaches (the lowest pathway BMD, and the mean and median BMD of all genes). The relationship between transcriptional BMDs derived using these 11 approaches and PODs derived from apical data that might be used in chemical risk assessment was examined. Transcriptional BMD values for all 11 approaches were remarkably aligned with corresponding apical PODs, with the vast majority of toxicogenomics PODs being within tenfold of those derived from apical endpoints. We identified at least four approaches that produce BMDs that are effective estimates of apical PODs across multiple sampling time points. Our results support that a variety of approaches can be used to derive reproducible transcriptional PODs that are consistent with PODs produced from traditional methods for chemical risk assessment.
Project description:A diverse class of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) exhibiting a wide array of physical-chemical properties that are associated with toxicological effects in experimental animals is in commercial use. However, an integrated framework for human health risk assessment (HHRA) of ENMs has yet to be established. Rodent 2-year cancer bioassays, clinical chemistry, and histopathological endpoints are still considered the 'gold standard' for detecting substance-induced toxicity in animal models. However, the use of data derived from alternative toxicological tools, such as genome-wide expression profiling and in vitro high-throughput assays, are gaining acceptance by the regulatory community for hazard identification and for understanding the underlying mode-of-action. Here, we conducted a case study to evaluate the application of global gene expression data in deriving pathway-based points of departure (PODs) for multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-induced lung fibrosis, a non-cancer endpoint of regulatory importance.Gene expression profiles from the lungs of mice exposed to three individual MWCNTs with different physical-chemical properties were used within the framework of an adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for lung fibrosis to identify key biological events linking MWCNT exposure to lung fibrosis. Significantly perturbed pathways were categorized along the key events described in the AOP. Benchmark doses (BMDs) were calculated for each perturbed pathway and were used to derive transcriptional BMDs for each MWCNT.Similar biological pathways were perturbed by the different MWCNT types across the doses and post-exposure time points studied. The pathway BMD values showed a time-dependent trend, with lower BMDs for pathways perturbed at the earlier post-exposure time points (24 h, 3d). The transcriptional BMDs were compared to the apical BMDs derived by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) using alveolar septal thickness and fibrotic lesions endpoints. We found that regardless of the type of MWCNT, the BMD values for pathways associated with fibrosis were 14.0-30.4 ?g/mouse, which are comparable to the BMDs derived by NIOSH for MWCNT-induced lung fibrotic lesions (21.0-27.1 ?g/mouse).The results demonstrate that transcriptomic data can be used to as an effective mechanism-based method to derive acceptable levels of exposure to nanomaterials in product development when epidemiological data are unavailable.
Project description:A multicenter prospective observational study evaluated the effect of gastrointestinal cancer chemotherapy with short-term periodic steroid premedication on bone metabolism.Seventy-four patients undergoing chemotherapy for gastrointestinal cancer were studied. The primary endpoints were changes in bone mineral densities (BMDs) and metabolic bone turnover 16 weeks after initiation of chemotherapy. BMDs, measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and serum cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (sNTX), and bone alkaline phosphatase (sBAP) were assessed for evaluation of bone resorption and formation, respectively.In 74.3% (55/74) of the patients, BMDs were significantly reduced at 16 weeks relative to baseline. The percent changes of BMD were -1.89% (95% confidence interval [CI], -2.67% to -1.11%: p?<?.0001) in the lumbar spine, -2.24% (95% CI, -3.59% to -0.89%: p?=?.002) in the total hip, and -2.05% (95% CI, -3.11% to -0.99%: p?<?.0001) in the femoral neck. Although there was no significant difference in sNTX levels during 16 weeks (p?=?.136), there was a significant increase in sBAP levels (p?=?.010). Decreased BMD was significantly linked to number of chemotherapy cycles (p?=?.02). There were no significant correlations between changes in BMDs and the primary site of malignancy, chemotherapy regimens, total cumulative steroid dose, steroid dose intensity, and additive steroid usage.Gastrointestinal cancer chemotherapy with periodic glucocorticoid premedication was associated with reduced BMD and increased sBAP levels, which were linked to number of chemotherapy cycles but independent of primary site, chemotherapy regimen, duration, and additive steroid usage. The Oncologist 2017;22:592-600 IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Bone health and the management of treatment-related bone loss are important for cancer care. The present study showed that a significant decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) and an increase in serum bone alkaline phosphatase levels occurred in gastrointestinal cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, which were linked to number of chemotherapy cycles but were independent of primary site, chemotherapy regimen, total steroid dose, and steroid dose intensity. Surprisingly, it seems that the decreasing BMD levels after only 16 weeks of chemotherapy for gastrointestinal cancer were comparable to that of 12-month adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy for early-stage breast cancer patients.
Project description:Benchmark dose (BMD) modeling is an important step in human health risk assessment and is used as the default approach to identify the point of departure for risk assessment. A probabilistic framework for dose-response assessment has been proposed and advocated by various institutions and organizations; therefore, a reliable tool is needed to provide distributional estimates for BMD and other important quantities in dose-response assessment.We developed an online system for Bayesian BMD (BBMD) estimation and compared results from this software with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Benchmark Dose Software (BMDS).The system is built on a Bayesian framework featuring the application of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling for model parameter estimation and BMD calculation, which makes the BBMD system fundamentally different from the currently prevailing BMD software packages. In addition to estimating the traditional BMDs for dichotomous and continuous data, the developed system is also capable of computing model-averaged BMD estimates.A total of 518 dichotomous and 108 continuous data sets extracted from the U.S. EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database (and similar databases) were used as testing data to compare the estimates from the BBMD and BMDS programs. The results suggest that the BBMD system may outperform the BMDS program in a number of aspects, including fewer failed BMD and BMDL calculations and estimates.The BBMD system is a useful alternative tool for estimating BMD with additional functionalities for BMD analysis based on most recent research. Most importantly, the BBMD has the potential to incorporate prior information to make dose-response modeling more reliable and can provide distributional estimates for important quantities in dose-response assessment, which greatly facilitates the current trend for probabilistic risk assessment. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1289.
Project description:The Division of the National Toxicology Program (DNTP) is currently evaluating high-throughput transcriptomics (HTT) as an approach to provide estimates of chemical exposure that may pose minimal risk. HTT was evaluated in a 5-day in vivo rat model (with repeated dosing) with the objective to determine if benchmark doses (BMD) values for transcriptional pathway changes in the liver and kidney could estimate BMD values for traditional toxicological (apical) endpoints. Eighteen chemicals, most having been tested by the NTP in 2-year bioassays, were chosen for this study. Some of these chemicals are known to be potent hepatotoxicants (e.g. DE71, PFOA, furan, and methyl eugenol) in rodents, some exhibit toxicity but have minimal effects on the liver (e.g. acrylamide and α,β-thujone), and some exhibit little overt toxicity (e.g. ginseng and milk thistle extract) based on traditional toxicological evaluations. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed daily for 5 consecutive days by oral gavage to 8 to 10 dose levels of each chemical. Liver and kidney were collected 24 hours after the final exposure and assayed using HTT with the rat S1500+ platform. HTT dose-response data were analyzed using BMD Express 2.2 to determine transcriptional BMD values for liver and kidney. BMDS Wizard was used to determine apical BMD values for histopathological effects from historical chronic or sub-chronic toxicity studies. For many of the chemicals, the lowest transcriptional BMDs from the 5-day assays were within a factor of 5 of the lowest histopathological BMDs estimated from the traditional toxicity studies. These data suggest that using HTT in a 5-day in vivo model provides reasonable estimates of BMD values for traditional apical endpoints. This approach may be useful to prioritize chemicals for further testing while providing actionable data in a timely and cost-effective manner. Overall design: Male HSD rats were housed five animals per cage and randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Animals were divided into five testing blocks each consisting of four test articles administered at eight or nine doses plus a control group. Four animals per dose group receive the test article via gavage for five consecutive days and euthanized 24 hours following the last dose. Dosing for a four-chemical block was conducted simultaneously in the same room. Kidney and liver were removed from each animal and up to three samples (~250 mg total) from the left liver lobe and right kidney were taken. Each sample was cut into smaller pieces (approximately 5 mm3) and aliquoted into screw-cap tubes. Two of the samples from each animal were preserved in RNA later, one of which was used for RNA extraction at Battelle and submission to BioSpyder for transcriptomic screening by TempO-Seq analysis as previously described (Yeakley, et al., 2017). The remaining samples from each animal were snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 degrees C.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Low doses of cadmium can cause adverse health effects. Benchmark dose (BMD) and the one-sided 95% lower confidence limit of BMD (BMDL) to derive points of departure for urinary cadmium exposure have been estimated in several previous studies, but the methods to derive BMD and the estimated BMDs differ. OBJECTIVES:We aimed to find the associated factors that affect BMD calculation in the general population, and to estimate the summary BMD for urinary cadmium using reported BMDs. METHODS:A meta-regression was performed and the pooled BMD/BMDL was estimated using studies reporting a BMD and BMDL, weighted by sample size, that were calculated from individual data based on markers of renal dysfunction. RESULTS:BMDs were highly heterogeneous across studies. Meta-regression analysis showed that a significant predictor of BMD was the cut-off point which denotes an abnormal level. Using the 95th percentile as a cut off, BMD5/BMDL5 estimates for 5% benchmark responses (BMR) of ?2-microglobulinuria (?2-MG) estimated was 6.18/4.88 ?g/g creatinine in conventional quantal analysis and 3.56/3.13 ?g/g creatinine in the hybrid approach, and BMD5/BMDL5 estimates for 5% BMR of N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) was 10.31/7.61 ?g/g creatinine in quantal analysis and 3.21/2.24 g/g creatinine in the hybrid approach. However, the meta-regression showed that BMD and BMDL were significantly associated with the cut-off point, but BMD calculation method did not significantly affect the results. The urinary cadmium BMDL5 of ?2-MG was 1.9 ?g/g creatinine in the lowest cut-off point group. CONCLUSION:The BMD was significantly associated with the cut-off point defining the abnormal level of renal dysfunction markers.
Project description:Several studies indicated bone mineral density (BMD) and alcohol intake might share common genetic factors. The study aimed to explore potential SNPs/genes related to both phenotypes in US Caucasians at the genome-wide level. A bivariate genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed in 2069 unrelated participants. Regular drinking was graded as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6, representing drinking alcohol never, less than once, once or twice, three to six times, seven to ten times, or more than ten times per week respectively. Hip, spine, and whole body BMDs were measured. The bivariate GWAS was conducted on the basis of a bivariate linear regression model. Sex-stratified association analyses were performed in the male and female subgroups. In males, the most significant association signal was detected in SNP rs685395 in DYNC2H1 with bivariate spine BMD and alcohol drinking (P = 1.94 × 10-8). SNP rs685395 and five other SNPs, rs657752, rs614902, rs682851, rs626330, and rs689295, located in the same haplotype block in DYNC2H1 were the top ten most significant SNPs in the bivariate GWAS in males. Additionally, two SNPs in GRIK4 in males and three SNPs in OPRM1 in females were suggestively associated with BMDs (of the hip, spine, and whole body) and alcohol drinking. Nine SNPs in IL1RN were only suggestively associated with female whole body BMD and alcohol drinking. Our study indicated that DYNC2H1 may contribute to the genetic mechanisms of both spine BMD and alcohol drinking in male Caucasians. Moreover, our study suggested potential pleiotropic roles of OPRM1 and IL1RN in females and GRIK4 in males underlying variation of both BMD and alcohol drinking.