Molecular detection of colistin resistance genes (mcr-1 to mcr-5) in human vaginal swabs.
ABSTRACT: Colistin resistance has emerged worldwide and has been threatening the efficacy of one of the last-resort antimicrobials used for treatment of multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. While five colistin resistance genes (mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3, mcr-4 and mcr-5) have been described, few data are available on the prevalence of mcr-genes other than mcr-1 in human samples.In this study, the presence of five currently described colistin resistance genes (mcr 1-5) in vaginal swabs of women undergoing infertility evaluation was reported. Most samples were found to be positive for the mcr-4 (12.7%), followed by two for the mcr-2 (1.5%), two for the mcr-3 (1.5%), one for the mcr-1 (0.7%), and one for the mcr-5 (0.7%). Phylogenetic comparison demonstrated identical (mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3, mcr-5) or similar (mcr-4) nucleotide sequences of human samples and those of animal origins from the same city, suggesting the potential transmission of mcr genes from animals to humans. This is the first detection of mcr-2, mcr-4 and mcr-5 genes in human samples, and warrants further research to determine the spread of the mcr genes and elucidate the full epidemiology of colistin resistance genes in humans.
Project description:Antimicrobial resistance against colistin has emerged worldwide and is threatening the efficacy of colistin treatment of multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, PCRs were used to detect mcr genes (mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3) in 213 anal and 1,339 nasal swabs from pigs (n?=?1,454) in nine provinces of China, and 1,696 cloacal and 1,647 oropharyngeal samples from poultry (n?=?1,836) at live-bird markets in 24 provinces. The mcr-1 prevalences in pigs (79.2%) and geese (71.7%) were significantly higher than in chickens (31.8%), ducks (34.6%) and pigeons (13.1%). The mcr-2 prevalence in pigs was 56.3%, significantly higher than in chickens (5.5%), ducks (2.3%), geese (5.5%) and pigeons (0%). The mcr-3 prevalences in pigs (18.7%), ducks (13.8%) and geese (11.9%) were significantly higher than in chickens (5.2%) and pigeons (5.1%). In total, 173 pigs and three chickens were positive for all three mcr genes. The prevalences of the mcr were significantly higher in nasal/oropharyngeal swabs than in the anal /cloacal swabs. Phylogenetic studies identified 33 new mcr-2 variants and 12 new mcr-3 variants. This study demonstrates high prevalences of mcr in pigs and poultry in China, and indicates there is need for more thorough surveillance and control programs to prevent further selection of colistin resistance.
Project description:Background and aimPlasmid-mediated colistin resistance mechanisms have been identified worldwide in the past years. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol for detection of all currently known transferable colistin resistance genes (mcr-1 to mcr-5, and variants) in Enterobacteriaceae was developed for surveillance or research purposes. Methods: We designed four new primer pairs to amplify mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3 and mcr-4 gene products and used the originally described primers for mcr-5 to obtain a stepwise separation of ca 200 bp between amplicons. The primer pairs and amplification conditions allow for single or multiple detection of all currently described mcr genes and their variants present in Enterobacteriaceae. The protocol was validated testing 49 European Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolates of animal origin. Results: Multiplex PCR results in bovine and porcine isolates from Spain, Germany, France and Italy showed full concordance with whole genome sequence data. The method was able to detect mcr-1, mcr-3 and mcr-4 as singletons or in different combinations as they were present in the test isolates. One new mcr-4 variant, mcr-4.3, was also identified. Conclusions: This method allows rapid identification of mcr-positive bacteria and overcomes the challenges of phenotypic detection of colistin resistance. The multiplex PCR should be particularly interesting in settings or laboratories with limited resources for performing genetic analysis as it provides information on the mechanism of colistin resistance without requiring genome sequencing.
Project description:Transmissible colistin resistance mediated by the mcr gene has been reported worldwide, but clinical isolates of mcr-negative colistin-resistant Escherichia coli are rarely reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of colistin resistance among mcr-positive and mcr-negative E. coli clinical isolates by performing a molecular epidemiological surveillance. For the first time ever, we show nearly the same isolation ratio for mcr-negative and mcr-positive colistin-resistant clinical isolates (47.5 and 52.5%, respectively), with no demonstrable nosocomial transmission. We provide evidence for the prevalence of the mcr-positive IncX4 plasmid and its high potential for horizontal transfer, with no obvious sequence type (ST) preference. In addition, the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of colistin of the mcr-negative E. coli isolates were obviously higher than those of mcr-positive isolates. Apart from the usually detected genes, i.e., pmrAB, phoPQ, and mgrB, other genes may be associated with the colistin resistance in mcr-negative E. coli. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to report the molecular epidemiological surveillance and the proper mechanism of colistin resistance in mcr-negative E. coli clinical isolates. Together, the results show that colistin resistance was prevalent not only in the mcr-positive clinical E. coli isolates but also in the mcr-negative isolates.
Project description:Objectives: Although resistance to colistin is increasingly reported from clinical settings, the genetic mechanisms that lead to colistin resistance in Escherichia coli have not been fully characterized. Here, we assess the evolution of colistin resistance in clinical isolates of mobilized colistin resistance (MCR)-negative and MCR-positive Escherichia coli. Methods: Spontaneously mutated colistin-resistant progeny were evolved using a step-wise reduction of colistin susceptibility. Resistance phenotypes were confirmed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination, and the probable resistance mechanisms were investigated using PCR and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Mutated genes of the laboratory-evolved mutants were identified by whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics. Fitness costs and serum resistance of the mutants were also compared to the corresponding wild types. Results: MCR-negative isolates displayed higher increases in MICs than did MCR-positive isolates following colistin exposure. Upregulation of pmrAB and associated genes was evident among MCR-negative isolates but not MCR-positive isolates. Comparative genomic analysis of mutants and their corresponding wild-types (WTs) revealed numerous mutations in genes encoding membrane transporters and two-component systems. Additionally, MCR-negative mutants exhibited higher fitness costs than MCR-positive mutants compared with their corresponding WTs but displayed similar serum resistance. Conclusion: Our findings reveal multiple differences between MCR-positive and MCR-negative E. coli strains following colistin exposure, which provide reference values for clinical medication.
Project description:A third plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene, mcr-3, is increasingly being reported in Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas spp. from animals and humans. To investigate the molecular epidemiology of mcr in the gut flora of Chinese outpatients, 152 stool specimens were randomly collected from outpatients in our hospital from May to June, 2017. Stool specimens enriched in alkaline peptone water or Luria-Bertani (LB) broth were screened for mcr-1, mcr-2, and mcr-3 using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays. Overall, 19.1% (29/152) and 5.3% (8/152) of the stool samples enriched in alkaline peptone water were PCR-positive for mcr-1 and mcr-3, respectively, while 2.7% (4/152) of samples were positive for both mcr-1 and mcr-3. Strains isolated from the samples that were both mcr-1- and mcr-3-positive were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by broth microdilution. They were also screened for the presence of other resistance genes by PCR, while multilocus sequence typing and whole-genome sequencing were used to investigate the molecular epidemiology and genetic environment, respectively, of the resistance genes. mcr-3-positive Aeromonas veronii strain 126-14, containing a mcr-3.8-mcr-3-like2 segment, and mcr-1-positive Escherichia coli strain 126-1, belonging to sequence type 1485, were isolated from the sample from a diarrheic butcher with no history of colistin treatment. A. veronii 126-14 had a colistin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 µg/mL and was susceptible to antibiotics in common use, while E. coli 126-1 produced TEM-1, CTX-M-55, and CTX-M-14 β-lactamases and was resistant to colistin, ceftazidime, and cefotaxime. Overall, there was a higher detection rate of mcr-3-carrying strains with low colistin MICs from the samples enriched in alkaline peptone water than from samples grown in LB broth.
Project description:Colistin is considered as a last resort antibiotic. The re-use of this antibiotic highlighted the emergence of colistin resistance mediated by chromosomal and plasmidic resistance mechanisms. Five colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains from Laos and Thailand were analyzed by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) approaches to determine their colistin resistance mechanisms. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, conjugation and transformation were performed on these strains. Moreover, whole genome sequencing (WGS) combining Illumina (MiSeq) and Oxford Nanopore technologies (MinION) was realized to obtain closed genomes and plasmids. Resistome analyses as well as location of mcr genes and its genetic environments were done in silico. All five strains had colistin MIC of 32 mg/L and were positive for mcr-3 variants including additionally positive for a mcr-8 variant gene. The novel variants were named mcr-3.21, mcr-3.26, mcr-3.28, and mcr-8.3 genes. The mcr-3 variants genes were located on plasmids IncP1, IncFII, and IncI1 type, while mcr-8.3 gene was found on an IncFII type plasmid. The genetic environment of mcr-3.21 and mcr-3.26 genes were composed of a composite transposon ISKpn40- mcr-3-dgkA- ISKpn40. Concerning mcr-8.3 gene, a similar genetic environment of mcr-8.1 gene surrounded by ISIX2 and IS903B was observed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of the novel variants mcr-3.21, mcr-3.26, mcr-3.28 and mcr-8.3 genes as well as the first study on co-occurrence of mcr-3 and mcr-8 genes. Spread and evolution of mcr genes should be monitored.
Project description:The global emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance genes mcr-1 and mcr-3 has threatened the role of the "last-resort" drug colistin in the defense against infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. However, functional differences between these two genes in mediating colistin resistance remain poorly understood. Protein sequence alignment of MCR-3 and MCR-1 was therefore conducted in Clustal Omega to identify sequence divergence. The molecular recognition of lipid A head group phosphatidylethanolamine and MCR-3 enzyme was studied by homology modeling and molecular docking, with the catalytic mechanism of MCR-3 also being explored. Thr277 in MCR-3 was validated as the key amino acid residue responsible for the catalytic reaction using site-directed mutagenesis and was shown to act as a nucleophile. Lipid A modification induced by the MCR-3 and MCR-1 enzymes was confirmed by electrospray ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Far-UV circular dichroism spectra of the MCR-3 and MCR-1 enzymes suggested that MCR-3 was more thermostable than MCR-1, with a melting temperature of 66.19°C compared with 61.14°C for MCR-1. These data provided molecular insight into the functional differences between mcr-3 and mcr-1 in conferring colistin resistance.
Project description:Colistin is considered a last-resort reserved drug for the treatment of critical human infections by Gram-negative bacteria. Phenotypic colistin-resistance is strongly associated with plasmid-mediated mobile colistin resistance (mcr) genes. The mcr-bearing Enterobacteriaceae have been detected in many countries from environments, animals, and humans. This study investigated phenotypic colistin-resistance and the distribution of mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3, mcr-4, and mcr-5 genes in chicken-gut bacteria in Bangladesh. Bacteria were isolated from poultry- and native-chicken droppings, and their susceptibilities to colistin were determined by agar dilution and E-test minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) measurements. Multiplex polymerase chain reactions detected mcr-1 to mcr-5 genes. Overall, 61.7% (92/149) of the isolates showed colistin resistance by agar dilution assessment (MIC?>?2.0 ?g/mL). The phenotypic resistance was observed considerably higher in poultry-chicken isolates (64.6%, 64/99) than in native-chicken isolates (56%, 28/50; p?=?0.373). All the resistant isolates showed MIC levels between >?2 and >?128 ?g/mL. The mcr-genes (mcr-1and mcr-2 combined) were detected more in poultry gut bacteria (36.4%) than native-chicken isolates (20%, p?=?0.06). Despite bacteria sources, mcr-genes appeared to be significantly associated with phenotypic colistin-resistance phenomena (p?<?0.001). Prior colistin usage led to a substantial increase in the proportion of bacteria with mcr-genes and phenotypic resistance (p?<?0.001).
Project description:The mobile colistin resistance gene mcr-1 has attracted global attention, as it heralds the breach of polymyxins, one of the last-resort antibiotics for the treatment of severe clinical infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. To date, six slightly different variants of mcr-1, and a second mobile colistin resistance gene, mcr-2, have been reported or annotated in the GenBank database. Here, we characterized a third mobile colistin resistance gene, mcr-3 The gene coexisted with 18 additional resistance determinants in the 261-kb IncHI2-type plasmid pWJ1 from porcine Escherichia colimcr-3 showed 45.0% and 47.0% nucleotide sequence identity to mcr-1 and mcr-2, respectively, while the deduced amino acid sequence of MCR-3 showed 99.8 to 100% and 75.6 to 94.8% identity to phosphoethanolamine transferases found in other Enterobacteriaceae species and in 10 Aeromonas species, respectively. pWJ1 was mobilized to an E. coli recipient by conjugation and contained a plasmid backbone similar to those of other mcr-1-carrying plasmids, such as pHNSHP45-2 from the original mcr-1-harboring E. coli strain. Moreover, a truncated transposon element, TnAs2, which was characterized only in Aeromonas salmonicida, was located upstream of mcr-3 in pWJ1. This ΔTnAs2-mcr-3 element was also identified in a shotgun genome sequence of a porcine E. coli isolate from Malaysia, a human Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate from Thailand, and a human Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolate from the United States. These results suggest the likelihood of a wide dissemination of the novel mobile colistin resistance gene mcr-3 among Enterobacteriaceae and aeromonads; the latter may act as a potential reservoir for mcr-3IMPORTANCE The emergence of the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 has attracted substantial attention worldwide. Here, we examined a colistin-resistant Escherichia coli isolate that was negative for both mcr-1 and mcr-2 and discovered a novel mobile colistin resistance gene, mcr-3 The amino acid sequence of MCR-3 aligned closely with phosphoethanolamine transferases from Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas species originating from both clinical infections and environmental samples collected in 12 countries on four continents. Due to the ubiquitous profile of aeromonads in the environment and the potential transfer of mcr-3 between Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas species, the wide spread of mcr-3 may be largely underestimated. As colistin has been and still is widely used in veterinary medicine and used at increasing frequencies in human medicine, the continuous monitoring of mobile colistin resistance determinants in colistin-resistant Gram-negative bacteria is imperative for understanding and tackling the dissemination of mcr genes in both the agricultural and health care sectors.
Project description:Purpose: The discovery of the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance genes, mcr, revealed a mechanism of transmission of colistin resistance, which is a major, global public health concern especially among individuals infected with carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. To monitor the spread and epidemiology of mcr genes, a convenient and reliable method to detect mcr genes in clinical isolates is needed, especially in the primary care institutions. This study aimed to establish a restriction endonuclease-based multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (multi-LAMP) assay to detect mcr genes (mcr-1 to mcr-5) harbored by colistin-resistant bacteria. Methods: A triple-LAMP assay for mcr-1, mcr-3, and mcr-4 and a double-LAMP assay for mcr-2 and mcr-5 were established. The sensitivity and specificity of the LAMP reactions were determined via electrophoresis and visual detection. Results: The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 10-fold greater than that of PCR, with high specificity among the screened primers. Specific mcr genes were distinguished in accordance with band numbers and the fragment length of the digested LAMP amplification products. Furthermore, the LAMP assay was confirmed as a rapid and reliable diagnostic technique upon application for clinical samples, and the results were consistent with those of conventional PCR assay. Conclusion: The multi-LAMP assay is a potentially promising method to detect mcr genes and will, if implemented, help prevent infections by drug-resistant bacteria in primary-care hospitals due to rapid and reliable surveillance. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the application of LAMP to detect mcr-2 to mcr-5 genes and the first time that multi-LAMP has been applied to detect mcr genes.