A pathophysiological role of PDE3 in allergic airway inflammation.
ABSTRACT: Phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) and PDE4 regulate levels of cyclic AMP, which are critical in various cell types involved in allergic airway inflammation. Although PDE4 inhibition attenuates allergic airway inflammation, reported side effects preclude its application as an antiasthma drug in humans. Case reports showed that enoximone, which is a smooth muscle relaxant that inhibits PDE3, is beneficial and lifesaving in status asthmaticus and is well tolerated. However, clinical observations also showed antiinflammatory effects of PDE3 inhibition. In this study, we investigated the role of PDE3 in a house dust mite-driven (HDM-driven) allergic airway inflammation (AAI) model that is characterized by T helper 2 cell activation, eosinophilia, and reduced mucosal barrier function. Compared with wild-type (WT) littermates, mice with a targeted deletion of the PDE3A or PDE3B gene showed significantly reduced HDM-driven AAI. Therapeutic intervention in WT mice showed that all hallmarks of HDM-driven AAI were abrogated by the PDE3 inhibitors enoximone and milrinone. Importantly, we found that enoximone also reduced the upregulation of the CD11b integrin on mouse and human eosinophils in vitro, which is crucial for their recruitment during allergic inflammation. This study provides evidence for a hitherto unknown antiinflammatory role of PDE3 inhibition in allergic airway inflammation and offers a potentially novel treatment approach.
Project description:Epithelial mast cells are generally present in the airways of patients with allergic asthma that are inadequately controlled. Airway mast cells (MCs) are critically involved in allergic airway inflammation and contribute directly to the main symptoms of allergic patients. Phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) tailors signaling of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which are critical intracellular second messenger molecules in various signaling pathways. This paper investigates the pathophysiological role and disease-modifying effects of PDE3 in mouse bone marrow-derived MCs (bmMCs), human LAD2- and HMC1 mast cell lines, human blood basophils, and peripheral blood-derived primary human MCs (HuMCs). In a chronic house dust mite (HDM)-driven allergic airway inflammation mouse model, we observed that PDE3 deficiency or PDE3 inhibition (PDE3i) therapy reduced the numbers of epithelial MCs, when compared to control mice. Mouse bone marrow-derived MCs (bmMCs) and the human HMC1 and LAD2 cell lines predominantly expressed PDE3B and PDE4A. BmMCs from Pde3-/- mice showed reduced loss of the degranulation marker CD107b compared with wild-type BmMCs, when stimulated in an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-dependent manner. Following both IgE-mediated and substance P-mediated activation, PDE3i-pretreated basophils, LAD2 cells, and HuMCs, showed less degranulation than diluent controls, as measured by surface CD63 expression. MCs lacking PDE3 or treated with the PDE3i enoximone exhibited a lower calcium flux upon stimulation with ionomycine. In conclusion PDE3 plays a critical role in basophil and mast cell degranulation and therefore its inhibition may be a treatment option in allergic disease.
Project description:Alterations of the airway microbiome are often associated with pulmonary diseases. For example, detection of the bacterial pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis in the upper airways is linked with an increased risk to develop or exacerbate asthma. However, the mechanisms by which M. catarrhalis augments allergic airway inflammation (AAI) remain unclear. We here characterized the cellular and soluble mediators of M. catarrhalis triggered excacerbation of AAI in wt and IL-17 deficient as well as in animals treated with TNF-? and IL-6 neutralizing antibodies. We compared the type of inflammatory response in M. catarrhalis infected, house dust mite (HDM)-allergic and animals infected with M. catarrhalis at different time points of HDM sensitization. We found that airway infection of mice with M. catarrhalis triggers a strong inflammatory response with massive neutrophilic infiltrates, high amounts of IL-6 and TNF-? and moderate levels of CD4+ T-cell-derived IFN-? and IL-17. If bacterial infection occurred during HDM allergen sensitization, the allergic airway response was exacerbated, particularly by the expansion of Th17?cells and increased TNF-? levels. Neutralization of IL-17 or TNF-? but not IL-6 resulted in accelerated clearance of M. catarrhalis and effectively prevented infection-induced exacerbation of AAI. Taken together, our data demonstrate an essential role for TNF-? and IL-17 in infection-triggered exacerbation of AAI.
Project description:Extracellular Adenosine-5'-Triphosphate (ATP) is known to accumulate in the lung, following allergen challenge, and contributes via activation of purinergic receptors on dendritic cells (DC), to the development of allergic airway inflammation (AAI). Extracellular ATP levels in the airways are normally tightly regulated by CD39. This ectonucleotidase is highly expressed by DC purified from skin (Langerhans cells) and bone marrow, and has been shown to modulate DC adaptive/haptenic immune responses. In this study, we have evaluated the impact of Cd39 deletion and associated perturbation of purinergic signaling in AAI.Standard ovalbumin (OVA)-alum and house dust mite (HDM) bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC)-dependent models of AAI were used to study effects of Cd39. Migration assays, time lapse microscopy, and T-cell priming assays were further used to determine functional relevance of Cd39 expression on BMDC in the setting of immune and Th2-mediated responses in these models.Cd39(-/-) mice exhibited marked increases in BALF ATP levels but paradoxically exhibited limited AAI in both OVA-alum and HDM models. These pathophysiological abnormalities were associated with decreased myeloid DC activation and chemotaxis toward ATP, and were linked to purinergic receptor desensitization responses. Further, Cd39(-/-) DCs exhibited limited capacity to both prime Th2 responses and form stable immune synaptic interactions with OVA-transgenic naïve T cells.Cd39-deficient DCs exhibit limited capacity to induce Th2 immunity in a DC-driven model of AAI in vivo. Our data demonstrate a role of CD39 and perturbed purinergic signaling in models of AAI.
Project description:Aeroallergens such as house dust mite (HDM), cockroach, and grass or tree pollen are innocuous substances that can induce allergic sensitization upon inhalation. The serine proteases present in these allergens are thought to activate the protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2, on the airway epithelium, thereby potentially inducing allergic sensitization at the expense of inhalation tolerance. We hypothesized that the proteolytic activity of allergens may play an important factor in the allergenicity to house dust mite and is essential to overcome airway tolerance. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of PAR-2 activation in allergic sensitization and HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation. In our study, Par-2 deficient mice were treated with two different HDM extracts containing high and low serine protease activities twice a week for a period of 5 weeks. We determined airway inflammation through quantification of percentages of mononuclear cells, eosinophils and neutrophils in the bronchial alveolar lavage fluid and measured total IgE and HDM-specific IgE and IgG1 levels in serum. Furthermore, Th2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-5, IL-13, Eotaxin-1, IL-17, KC, Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 (CCL17) and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), were measured in lung tissue homogenates. We observed that independent of the serine protease content, HDM was able to induce elevated levels of eosinophils and neutrophils in the airways of both wild-type (WT) and Par-2 deficient mice. Furthermore, we show that induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines by HDM exposure is independent of Par-2 activation. In contrast, serine protease activity of HDM does contribute to enhanced levels of total IgE, but not HDM-specific IgE. We conclude that, while Par-2 activation contributes to the development of IgE responses, it is largely dispensable for the HDM-induced induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and airway inflammation in an experimental mouse model of HDM-driven allergic airway disease.
Project description:Barrier epithelial cells and airway dendritic cells (DCs) make up the first line of defense against inhaled substances such as house dust mite (HDM) allergen and endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS). We hypothesized that these cells need to communicate with each other to cause allergic disease. We show in irradiated chimeric mice that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression on radioresistant lung structural cells, but not on DCs, is necessary and sufficient for DC activation in the lung and for priming of effector T helper responses to HDM. TLR4 triggering on structural cells caused production of the innate proallergic cytokines thymic stromal lymphopoietin, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-25 and interleukin-33. The absence of TLR4 on structural cells, but not on hematopoietic cells, abolished HDM-driven allergic airway inflammation. Finally, inhalation of a TLR4 antagonist to target exposed epithelial cells suppressed the salient features of asthma, including bronchial hyperreactivity. Our data identify an innate immune function of airway epithelial cells that drives allergic inflammation via activation of mucosal DCs.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Allergic asthma is the most common inflammatory disease of upper airways. Airway dendritic cells (DCs) are key antigen presenting cells that regulate T helper 2 (Th2)-dependent allergic inflammation. Recent studies have shown critical role of airway DCs in the induction of Th2-mediated allergic inflammation and are attractive therapeutic targets in asthma. However, molecular signaling mechanism that regulate DCs function to Th2 immune responses are poorly understood. Here we aim to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of dimethyl fumarate (DMF), an FDA approved small molecule drug, in the house dust mite (HDM)-induced experimental model of allergic asthma. METHODS:DMF was administered intranasally in the challenge period of HDM-induced murine model of experimental asthma. Airway inflammation, airway hyperreactivity, Th2/Th1 cytokine were assessed. The effect of DMF on DC function was further evaluated by adoptive transfer of HDM-pulsed DMF treated DCs to wild-type naïve mice. RESULTS:DMF treatment significantly reduced HDM-induced airway inflammation, mucous cell metaplasia, and airway hyperactivity to inhaled methacholine. Mechanistically, DMF interferes with the migration of lung DCs to draining mediastinal lymph nodes, thereby attenuates the induction of allergic sensitization and Th2 immune response. Notably, adoptive transfer of DMF treated DCs to naïve mice with HDM challenge similarly reduces the features of allergic asthma. CONCLUSION:This identifies a novel function of DMF on DC-mediated adaptive immune responses in the setting of HDM-induced airway inflammation. Taken together, our results offer a mechanistic rationale for DMF use to target DCs in local lung environment as antiasthmatic therapy.
Project description:DCs are necessary and sufficient for induction of allergic airway inflammation. CD11b+ DCs direct the underlying Th2 immunity, but debate surrounds the function of CD103+ DCs in lung immunity and asthma after an allergic challenge. We challenged Batf3-/- mice, which lacked lung CD103+ DCs, with the relevant allergen house dust mite (HDM) as a model to ascertain their role in asthma. We show that acute and chronic HDM exposure leads to defective Th1 immunity in Batf3-deficient mice. In addition, chronic HDM challenge in Batf3-/- mice results in increased Th2 and Th17 immune responses and exacerbated airway inflammation. Mechanistically, Batf3 absence does not affect induction of Treg or IL-10 production by lung CD4+ T cells following acute HDM challenge. Batf3-dependent CD103+ migratory DCs are the main source of IL-12p40 in the mediastinal lymph node DC compartment in the steady state. Moreover, CD103+ DCs selectively increase their IL-12p40 production upon HDM administration. In vivo IL-12 treatment reverts exacerbated allergic airway inflammation upon chronic HDM challenge in Batf3-/- mice, restraining Th2 and Th17 responses without triggering Th1 immunity. These results suggest a protective role for lung CD103+ DCs to HDM allergic airway inflammation through the production of IL-12.
Project description:Impaired tolerance to innocuous particles during allergic asthma has been linked to increased plasticity of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) reprogramming into pathogenic effector cells, thus exacerbating airway disease. However, failure of tolerance mechanisms is driven by Th2 inflammatory signals. Therefore, the in vivo role of canonical IL-4 receptor ? (IL-4R?) signaling, an essential driver of Th2-type airway responses to allergens, on the regulatory function of FoxP3+ Tregs in allergic asthma was explored. Here, we used transgenic Foxp3cre IL-4R?-/lox and littermate control mice to investigate the role of IL-4 and IL-13 signaling via Tregs in house dust mite-induced (HDM-induced) allergic airway disease. We sensitized mice intratracheally on day 0, challenged them on days 6-10, and analyzed airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), airway inflammation, mucus production, and cellular profile on day 14. In the absence of IL-4R? responsiveness on FoxP3+ Tregs, exacerbated AHR and airway inflammation were shown in HDM-sensitized mice. Interestingly, reduced induction of FoxP3+ Tregs accompanied increased IL-33 alarmin production and type 2 innate lymphoid cell activation in the lung, exacerbating airway hyperreactivity and lung eosinophilia. Taken together, our findings indicate that IL-4R?-unresponsive FoxP3+ Tregs result in exaggerated innate Th2-type, IL-33-dependent airway inflammation and a break in tolerance during allergic asthma.
Project description:Allergen-specific immunotherapy can induce long-term suppression of allergic symptoms, reduce medication use, and prevent exacerbations of allergic rhinitis and asthma. Current treatment is based on crude allergen extracts, which contain immunostimulatory components such as ?-glucans, chitins, and endotoxin. Use of purified or recombinant allergens might therefore increase efficacy of treatment.Here, we test application of purified natural group 1 and 2 allergens from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) for subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) treatment in a house dust mite (HDM)-driven mouse model of allergic asthma.HDM-sensitized mice received SCIT with crude HDM extract, a mixture of purified Der p1 and 2 (DerP1/2), or placebo. Upon challenges, we measured specific immunoglobulin responses, allergen-induced ear swelling response (ESR), airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and lung tissue.ESR measurement shows suppression of early allergic response in HDM-SCIT- and DerP1/2-SCIT-treated mice. Both HDM-SCIT and DerP1/2-SCIT are able to suppress AHR and eosinophilic inflammation. In contrast, only DerP1/2-SCIT is able to significantly suppress type 2 cytokines in lung tissue and BAL fluid. Moreover, DerP1/2-SCIT treatment is uniquely able suppress CCL20 and showed a trend toward suppression of IL-33, CCL17 and eotaxin levels in lung tissue.Taken together, these data show that purified DerP1/2-SCIT is able to not only suppress AHR and inflammation, but also has superior activity toward suppression of Th2 cells and HDM-induced activation of lung structural cells including airway epithelium.We postulate that treatment with purified natural major allergens derived from HDM will likely increase clinical efficacy of SCIT.
Project description:Animal models of allergic airways inflammation are useful tools in studying the pathogenesis of asthma and potential therapeutic interventions. The different allergic airways inflammation models available to date employ varying doses, frequency, duration and types of allergen, which lead to the development of different features of asthma; showing varying degrees of airways inflammation and hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and airways remodeling. Models that also exhibit airway remodeling, a key feature of asthma, in addition to AHR and airway inflammation typically require 5-12 weeks to develop. In this report, we describe a 4-week mouse model of house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic airways inflammation, and compare the phenotypic features of two different doses of HDM exposures (10?µg and 25?µg) for 5 days/week with a well-characterized 8-week chronic HDM model. We found that 4 weeks of intranasal HDM (25?µg in 35?µl saline; 5 days/week) resulted in AHR, airway inflammation and airway remodeling that were comparable to the 8-week model. We conclude that this new 4-week HDM model is another useful tool in studies of human asthma that offers advantages of shorter duration for development and decreased costs when compared to other models that require longer durations of exposure (5-12 weeks) to develop.