Combined epidural-general anesthesia was associated with lower risk of postoperative complications in patients undergoing open abdominal surgery for pheochromocytoma: A retrospective cohort study.
ABSTRACT: Current evidences show that regional anesthesia is associated with decreased risk of complications after major surgery. However, the effects of combined regional-general anesthesia remain controversial. The purpose of our study was to analyze the impact of anesthesia (combined epidural-general anesthesia vs. general anesthesia) on the risk of postoperative complications in patients undergoing open surgery for pheochromocytoma.This was a retrospective cohort study. 146 patients who underwent open surgery for pheochromocytoma (100 received combined epidural-general anesthesia and 46 received general anesthesia) in Peking University First Hospital from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2015 were enrolled. The primary outcome was the occurrence of postoperative complications during hospital stay after surgery. Multivariate Logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between the choice of anesthetic method and the risk of postoperative complications.17 (11.6%) patients developed complications during postoperative hospital stay. The incidence of postoperative complications was lower in patients with combined epidural-general anesthesia than in those with general anesthesia (6% [6/100] vs. 23.9% [11/46], P = 0.006). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that use of combined epidural-general anesthesia (OR 0.219, 95% CI 0.065-0.741; P = 0.015) was associated with lower risk, whereas male gender (OR 5.213, 95% CI 1.283-21.177; P = 0.021) and perioperative blood transfusion (OR 25.879; 95% CI 3.130-213.961; P = 0.003) were associated with higher risk of postoperative complications.For patients undergoing open surgery for pheochromocytoma, use of combined epidural-general anesthesia may decrease the occurrence of postoperative complications.
Project description:Delirium is a common complication in elderly patients after surgery and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Studies suggest that deep anesthesia and intense pain are important precipitating factors of postoperative delirium. Neuraxial block is frequently used in combination with general anesthesia for patients undergoing major thoracic and abdominal surgery. Compared with general anesthesia alone and postoperative intravenous analgesia, combined epidural-general anesthesia and postoperative epidural analgesia decreases the requirement of general anesthetics during surgery and provided better pain relief after surgery. However, whether combined epidural-general anesthesia plus epidural analgesia is superior to general anesthesia plus intravenous analgesia in decreasing the incidence of postoperative delirium remains unknown.This is a multicenter, open-label, randomized, parallel-controlled clinical trial. One thousand eight hundred elderly patients (age range 60-90 years) who are scheduled to undergo major thoracic or abdominal surgery are randomized to receive either general anesthesia plus postoperative intravenous analgesia or combined epidural-general anesthesia plus postoperative epidural analgesia. The primary outcome is the 7-day incidence of postoperative delirium. Secondary outcomes include the duration of postoperative delirium, the intensity of pain during the first three days after surgery, the 30-day incidences of postoperative non-delirium complications, the length of stay in hospital after surgery and 30-day all-cause mortality.Results of the present study will provide information to guide clinical practice in choosing appropriate anesthesia-analgesia method for elderly patients undergoing major thoracic and abdominal surgery.The study is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01661907 and Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-12002371 .
Project description:Early randomized controlled trials have suggested that neuraxial blockade may reduce cardiorespiratory complications after non-cardiothoracic surgery, but recent larger trials have been inconclusive. We conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of conducting a large multicentre randomized controlled trial in Canada.After Research Ethics Board approvals from the participating institutions, subjects were recruited if they were > or = 45 years old, had an expected hospital stay > or = 48 hours, were undergoing a noncardiothoracic procedure amenable to epidural analgesia, met one of six risk criteria, and did not have contraindications to neuraxial blockade. After informed consent, subjects were randomly allocated to combined epidural analgesia (epidural group) and neuraxial anesthesia, with or without general anesthesia, or intravenous opioid analgesia (IV group) and general anesthesia. The primary outcomes were the rate of recruitment and the percents of eligible patients recruited, crossed over, and followed completely. Feasibility targets were defined a priori. A blinded, independent committee adjudicated the secondary clinical outcomes. Subjects were followed daily while in hospital and then at 30 days after surgery. Analysis was intention-to-treat. Over a 15-month period, the recruitment rate was 0.5+/-0.3 (mean+/-SEM) subjects per week per centre; 112/494 (22.7%) eligible subjects were recruited at four tertiary-care teaching hospitals in Canada. Thirteen (26.5%) of 49 subjects in the epidural group crossed over to the IV group; seven (14.3%) were due to failed or inadequate analgesia or complications from epidural analgesia. Five (9.8%) of 51 subjects in the IV group crossed over to the epidural group but none were due to inadequate analgesia or complications. Ninety-eight (97.0%) of 101 subjects were successfully followed up until 30 days after their surgery.Of the criteria we defined for the feasibility of a full-scale trial, only the follow-up target was met. The other feasibility outcomes did not meet our preset criteria for success. The results suggest that a large multicentre trial may not be a feasible design to study the perioperative effects of neuraxial blockade.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 0221260 Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN 35629817.
Project description:Hypothermia due to anaesthetic-induced impairment of thermoregulatory control and exposure to a cool environment is common in surgical patients. Peripheral vasodilation due to neuroaxial blockade may aggravate hypothermia. There is few data on perioperative hypothermia in patients undergoing thoracic surgery under combined general and regional anesthesia. We reviewed all thoracic surgical patients between 2006 and 2011 to determine the incidence and extent of hypothermia with or without an epidural anesthesia and evaluated its effect.Around 339 patients underwent lung resection procedures with intraoperative forced-air warming: 197 with general and epidural anesthesia (GA?+?EPI), 199 with general anesthesia alone (GA). Statistical analyses were performed to determine the association between hypothermia (T?<?36°C) and transfusion requirements, length of stay (LOS) in the intensive care unit (ICU), hospital LOS, and in hospital mortality.The overall incidence of hypothermia was 64.3%. Multivariate regression analysis revealed three significant risk factors for the development of hypothermia: long induction time (P?=?.011), small body surface area (P?=?.003), and application of more fluid intraoperatively (P?<?.001). Factors determining the extent of hypothermia were: receiving an open thoracotomy (P?=?.009), placement and use of an epidural catheter (P?=?.002), and a lower body mass index (BMI) (P?<?.001). Additional epidural anesthesia reduced core temperature by 0.26°C (95% CI -0.414 to -0.095°C, P?<?.05). There was no difference in transfusion requirements, ICU LOS or mortality between both groups. Hospital LOS was longer in patients with hypothermia.More than half of all thoracic patients suffered from hypothermia. A long induction time, small body surface area, and large intraoperative fluid application were independent risk factors for the development of perioperative hypothermia. Additional epidural anesthesia to general anesthesia did not increase the incidence of hypothermia but decreased body core temperature to an-albeit not clinically significant-degree. Patients scheduled for thoracic surgery will probably benefit from an additional period of prewarming prior to induction to reduce the high incidence of perioperative hypothermia.
Project description:Tissue hypoperfusion occurs frequently during surgery and may contribute to postoperative organ dysfunction. There is a need for perioperative treatment protocols aiming at improving tissue oxygenation (StO2). We hypothesised that intra-operative optimisation of StO2 improves tissue perfusion and thus reduces postoperative complications. Furthermore, we evaluated the feasibility of the optimisation algorithm used.We randomized 50 high-risk patients, all >65 years with ASA physical status III, who underwent major abdominal surgery under standardized balanced general anesthesia combined with epidural analgesia. Throughout surgery StO2 was monitored at the thenar eminence using near-infrared spectroscopy. All patients were treated according to a standard care algorithm. In addition, patients in the intervention group were treated with dobutamine if necessary to keep or raise StO2???80%. Data were recorded continuously and complications were recorded during hospital stay with a maximum of 28 days.The number of complications was not significantly different between groups (11 vs 20; p = 0.23). Eleven patients in the intervention group had no complication, versus 7 in the control group. There was no significant difference between groups in length of stay in ICU or in hospital. Only ten patients in the intervention group received dobutamine. Administration of dobutamine resulted in a moderate 6 [-3 to 10] % increase of StO2. The overall protocol adherence was 94%.No statistically significant difference in outcome was realized through intraoperative optimization of StO2 values in this pilot study. The protocol used may be considered feasible for clinical practice. Further research is obligatory to define both the optimal StO2 threshold and intervention to treat tissue hypoperfusion.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01342900. Registered 21 April 2011.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Dramatic hemodynamic fluctuation occurs frequently during surgery for pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma. However, the criteria of intraoperative hemodynamic instability vary widely, and most of them were defined arbitrarily but not according to patients' prognosis. The objective was to analyze the relationship between different thresholds and durations of intraoperative hyper-/hypotension and the risk of postoperative complications in patients undergoing surgery for pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma.<h4>Methods</h4>This was a retrospective single-center cohort study performed in a tertiary care hospital from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2017. Three hundred twenty-seven patients who underwent surgery for pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma, of which the diagnoses were confirmed by postoperative pathologic examination, were enrolled. Those who were less than 18?years, underwent surgery involving non-tumor organs, or had incomplete data were excluded. The primary endpoint was a composite of the occurrence of AKI or other complications during hospital stay after surgery. Multivariate Logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between different thresholds and durations of intraoperative hyper-/hypotension and the development of postoperative complications.<h4>Results</h4>Forty three (13.1%) patients developed complications during hospital stay after surgery. After adjusting for confounding factors, intraoperative hypotension, defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) of ?95?mmHg for ?20?min (OR 3.211; 99% CI 1.081-9.536; P =?0.006), SBP of ?90?mmHg for ?20?min (OR 3.680; 98.8% CI 1.107-12.240; P =?0.006), SBP of ?85?mmHg for ?10?min (OR 3.975; 98.3% CI 1.321-11.961; P =?0.003), and SBP of ?80?mmHg for ?1?min (OR 3.465; 95% CI 1.484-8.093; P =?0.004), were associated with an increased risk of postoperative complications. On the other hand, intraoperative hypertension was not significantly associated with the development of postoperative complications.<h4>Conclusions</h4>For patients undergoing surgery for pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma, intraoperative hypotension is associated with increased postoperative complications; and the harmful effects are level- and duration-dependent. The effects of intraoperative hypertension need to be studied further.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Previous meta-analyses assessing anesthetic techniques in adult patients undergoing hip fractures surgery are available. However, whether the anesthetic technique is associated with risk of mortality and complications in geriatric patients with hip fractures remains unclear. This study was conducted to assess postoperative outcomes of anesthesia technique in geriatric patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. METHODS:Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, CNKI, and CBM were searched from inception up to May 25, 2018. Observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the perioperative outcomes of technique of anesthesia (general or regional [epidural/spinal/neuraxial]) in geriatric patients (?60 years old) undergoing hip fracture surgery were included. Two investigators independently screened studies for inclusion and performed data extraction. Heterogeneity was assessed by the I and Chi-square tests. The odds ratio (OR) of the dichotomous data, mean difference (MD) of continuous data, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to assess the pooled data. RESULTS:Eleven retrospective and 2 RCTs were included. There was no difference in 30-day mortality (OR?=?0.96; 95% CI 0.86-1.08; P?=?.51) between the general and regional anesthesia groups. In-hospital mortality (OR?=?1.26; 95% CI 1.17-1.36; P?<?.001), acute respiratory failure (OR?=?2.66; 95% CI 2.34-3.02; P?<?.001), length of hospital stay (MD?=?0.33; 95% CI 0.24-0.42; P?<?.001), and readmission (OR?=?1.09; 95% CI 1.01-1.18; P?=?.03) were significantly reduced in the regional anesthesia group. Pneumonia (OR?=?0.99; 95% CI 0.91-1.07; P?=?.79), heart failure (OR?=?0.97; 95% CI 0.86-1.09; P?=?.62), acute myocardial infraction (OR?=?1.07; 95% CI 0.99-1.16; P?=?.10), acute renal failure (OR?=?1.32; 95% CI 0.97-1.79; P?=?.07), cerebrovascular accident (OR?=?1.08; 95% CI 0.82-1.42; P?=?.58), postoperative delirium (OR?=?1.51; 95% CI 0.16-13.97; P?=?.72), and deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism (OR?=?1.42; 95% CI 0.84-2.38; P?=?.19) were similar between the two anesthetic techniques. CONCLUSION:General anesthesia is associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality, acute respiratory failure, longer hospital stays, and higher readmission. There is evidence to suggest that regional anesthesia is associated with improved perioperative outcomes. Large RCTs are needed to explore the most optimal anesthetic techniques for geriatric patients with hip fractures before drawing final conclusions. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42018093582.
Project description:BackgroundThis study was conducted retrospectively to investigate the survival of patients undergoing gastric cancer surgery with epidural combined with general anesthesia (EGA) and general anesthesia alone (GA).MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed 596 patients with gastric cancer who were scheduled for radical resection. Propensity score matching was performed at a 1:1 ratio between GA (n=97) and EGA (n=97) to reduce selection bias. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify factors significantly correlated with recurrence and/or metastasis and prognosis. The 5-year overall survival rates of patients receiving EGA and GA alone were compared.ResultsAfter the propensity scores were matched, there were 97 patients who underwent EGA and 97 patients who underwent GA. For the entire population, reconstruction type, pN stage, and complications were significantly correlated with prognosis based on multivariate analyses. For patients with a recurrence and/or metastasis, lymphadenectomy and pN stage were shown to be independent prognostic factors by multivariate analysis.ConclusionsIn summary, patients might benefit from EGA as a result of better analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, fewer postoperative complications, higher safety, and a lower rate of metastasis and recurrence is conducive to postoperative recovery in patients with gastric cancer.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The clinical significance of emergence delirium remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between emergence delirium and postoperative delirium in elderly after general anesthesia and surgery.<h4>Methods</h4>This prospective observational study was done in a tertiary hospital in Beijing, China. Elderly patients (65-90 years) who underwent major noncardiac surgery under general anesthesia and admitted to the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) after surgery were enrolled. Emergence delirium was assessed with the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit during PACU stay. Postoperative delirium was assessed with the Confusion Assessment Method during the first 5 postoperative days. The association between emergence delirium and postoperative delirium was analyzed with a multivariable logistic regression model.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 942 patients were enrolled and 915 completed the study. Emergence delirium developed in 37.0% (339/915) of patients during PACU stay; and postoperative delirium developed in 11.4% (104/915) of patients within the first 5 postoperative days. After adjusted confounding factors, the occurrence of emergence delirium is independently associated with an increased risk of postoperative delirium (OR 1.717, 95% CI 1.078-2.735, P?=?0.023). Patients with emergence delirium stayed longer in PACU and hospital after surgery, and developed more non-delirium complications within 30 days.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Emergence delirium in elderly admitted to the PACU after general anesthesia and major surgery is independently associated with an increased risk of postoperative delirium. Patients with emergence delirium had worse perioperative outcomes. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (chictr.org.cn) ChiCTR-OOC-17012734.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Since postoperative pulmonary complications are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing lung resection surgery, we performed a meta-analysis to compare the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications and hospital death, and the length of hospital stay in patients who received nonintubated or intubated anesthesia during thoracoscopic surgery for lung resection and further explore the tricks in nonintubated anesthesia.<h4>Methods</h4>PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched from inception to September 2017. We included eligible research comparing nonintubated anesthesia with intubated anesthesia in thoracoscopic surgery for lung resection. The primary outcomes involved postoperative pulmonary complications, hospital death, and hospital stay. The rates and causes of conversion from nonintubated anesthesia to intubated anesthesia were also analyzed.<h4>Results</h4>After screening through 754 potentially relevant articles, we included 3 randomized controlled trials and 7 observational studies with 1138 patients. There was no perioperative mortality in 2 groups. The nonintubated group revealed comparable postoperative pulmonary complications (OR?=?0.57; P?=?.07; P for heterogeneity?=?.49, I?=?0%) and shorter hospital stay (WMD?=?-1.10; P?<?.00001; P for heterogeneity?=?.84, I?=?0%) in overall findings with little heterogeneity.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Nonintubated anesthesia in thoracoscopic surgery for lung resection shortened the length of hospital stay compared with intubated anesthesia. However, the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications was comparable between nonintubated and intubated group. Given the potential perioperative emergencies, such as persistent hypoxemia, carbon dioxide retention, or extensive pleural adhesions, nonintubated anesthesia in lung resection surgery requires extra vigilance to ensure the safety of the patients and the success of the surgery. Powerful randomized controlled trials in the future are essential to provide more certainty and address long-term effectiveness. Only when anesthesiologists and surgeons make efforts together can better clinical outcomes in lung resection surgery be achieved.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Awake regional anesthesia (RA) is a viable alternative to general anesthesia (GA) for infants undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Benefits include lower incidence of postoperative apnea and avoidance of anesthetic agents that may increase neuroapoptosis and worsen neurocognitive outcomes. The General Anesthesia compared to Spinal anesthesia study compares neurodevelopmental outcomes after awake RA or GA in otherwise healthy infants. The aim of the study is to describe success and failure rates of RA and report factors associated with failure. METHODS:This was a nested cohort study within a prospective, randomized, controlled, observer-blind, equivalence trial. Seven hundred twenty-two infants 60 weeks or less postmenstrual age scheduled for herniorrhaphy under anesthesia were randomly assigned to receive RA (spinal, caudal epidural, or combined spinal caudal anesthetic) or GA with sevoflurane. The data of 339 infants, where spinal or combined spinal caudal anesthetic was attempted, were analyzed. Possible predictors of failure were assessed including patient factors, technique, experience of site and anesthetist, and type of local anesthetic. RESULTS:RA was sufficient for the completion of surgery in 83.2% of patients. Spinal anesthesia was successful in 86.9% of cases and combined spinal caudal anesthetic in 76.1%. Thirty-four patients required conversion to GA, and an additional 23 patients (6.8%) required brief sedation. Bloody tap on the first attempt at lumbar puncture was the only risk factor significantly associated with block failure (odds ratio = 2.46). CONCLUSIONS:The failure rate of spinal anesthesia was low. Variability in application of combined spinal caudal anesthetic limited attempts to compare the success of this technique to spinal alone.