Characteristics of inflammatory reactions during development of liver abscess in hamsters inoculated with Entamoeba nuttalli.
ABSTRACT: Entamoeba nuttalli is an intestinal protozoan with pathogenic potential that can cause amebic liver abscess. It is highly prevalent in wild and captive macaques. Recently, cysts were detected in a caretaker of nonhuman primates in a zoo, indicating that E. nuttalli may be a zoonotic pathogen. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the pathogenicity of E. nuttalli in detail and in comparison with that of E. histolytica.Trophozoites of E. nuttalli GY4 and E. histolytica SAW755 strains were inoculated into liver of hamsters. Expression levels of proinflammatory factors of hamsters and virulence factors from E. histolytica and E. nuttalli were compared between the two parasites. Inoculations with trophozoites of E. nuttalli resulted in an average necrotic area of 24% in liver tissue in 7 days, whereas this area produced by E. histolytica was nearly 50%. Along with the mild liver tissue damage induced by E. nuttalli, expression levels of proinflammatory factors (TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-1?) and amebic virulence protein genes (lectins, cysteine proteases and amoeba pores) in local tissues were lower with E. nuttalli in comparison with E. histolytica. In addition, M2 type macrophages were increased in E. nuttalli-induced amebic liver abscesses in the late stage of disease progression and lysate of E. nuttalli trophozoites induced higher arginase expression than E. histolytica in vitro.The results show that differential secretion of amebic virulence proteins during E. nuttalli infection triggered lower levels of secretion of various cytokines and had an impact on polarization of macrophages towards a M1/M2 balance. However, regardless of the degree of macrophage polarization, there is unambiguous evidence of an intense acute inflammatory reaction in liver of hamsters after infection by both Entamoeba species.
Project description:Entamoeba histolytica is an intestinal protozoan parasite that causes amoebiasis, including amebic dysentery and liver abscesses. E. histolytica invades host tissues by adhering onto cells and phagocytosing them depending on the adaptation and expression of pathogenic factors, including Gal/GalNAc lectin. We have previously reported that E. histolytica possesses multiple CXXC sequence motifs, with the intermediate subunit of Gal/GalNAc lectin (i.e., Igl) as a key factor affecting the amoeba's pathogenicity. The present work showed the effect of immunization with recombinant Igl on amebic liver abscess formation and the corresponding immunological properties.A prokaryotic expression system was used to prepare the full-length Igl and the N-terminal, middle, and C-terminal fragments (C-Igl) of Igl. Vaccine efficacy was assessed by challenging hamsters with an intrahepatic injection of E. histolytica trophozoites. Hamsters intramuscularly immunized with full-length Igl and C-Igl were found to be 92% and 96% immune to liver abscess formation, respectively. Immune-response evaluation revealed that C-Igl can generate significant humoral immune responses, with high levels of antibodies in sera from immunized hamsters inhibiting 80% of trophozoites adherence to mammalian cells and inducing 80% more complement-mediated lysis of trophozoites compared with the control. C-Igl was further assessed for its cellular response by cytokine-gene qPCR analysis. The productions of IL-4 (8.4-fold) and IL-10 (2-fold) in the spleen cells of immunized hamsters were enhanced after in vitro stimulation. IL-4 expression was also supported by increased programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 gene.Immunobiochemical characterization strongly suggests the potential of recombinant Igl, especially the C-terminal fragment, as a vaccine candidate against amoebiasis. Moreover, protection through Th2-cell participation enabled effective humoral immunity against amebic liver abscesses.
Project description:The protozoan intestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica infects millions of people worldwide and is capable of causing amebic dysentery and amebic liver abscess. The closely related species Entamoeba dispar colonizes many more individuals, but this organism does not induce disease. To identify molecular differences between these two organisms that may account for their differential ability to cause disease in humans, we used two-dimensional gel-based (DIGE) proteomic analysis to compare whole cell lysates of E. histolytica and E. dispar. We observed 141 spots expressed at a substantially (>5-fold) higher level in E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS than E. dispar and 189 spots showing the opposite pattern. Strikingly, 3 of 4 proteins consistently identified as different at a greater than 5-fold level between E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS and E. dispar were identical to proteins recently identified as differentially expressed between E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS and the reduced virulence strain E. histolytica Rahman. One of these was E. histolytica alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (EhADH3). We found that E. histolytica possesses a higher level of NADP-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase activity than E. dispar and that some EhADH3 can be localized to the surface of E. histolytica. Episomal overexpression of EhADH3 in E. histolytica trophozoites resulted in only subtle phenotypic differences in E. histolytica virulence in animal models of amebic colitis and amebic liver abscess, making it difficult to directly link EhADH3 levels to virulence differences between E. histolytica and less-pathogenic Entamoeba.
Project description:Cytoskeleton remodeling can be regulated, among other mechanisms, by lysine acetylation. The role of acetylation on cytoskeletal and other proteins of Entamoeba histolytica has been poorly studied. Dynamic rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton are crucial for amebic motility and capping formation, processes that may be effective means of evading the host immune response. Here we report the possible effect of acetylation on the actin cytoskeleton dynamics and in vivo virulence of E. histolytica. Using western blot, immunoprecipitation, microscopy assays, and in silico analysis, we show results that strongly suggest that the increase in Aspirin-induced cytoplasm proteins acetylation reduced cell movement and capping formation, likely as a consequence of alterations in the structuration of the actin cytoskeleton. Additionally, intrahepatic inoculation of Aspirin-treated trophozoites in hamsters resulted in severe impairment of the amebic virulence. Taken together, these results suggest an important role for lysine acetylation in amebic invasiveness and virulence.
Project description:The human protozoan parasite <i>Entamoeba histolytica</i> can live in the human intestine for months or years without generating any symptoms in the host. For unknown reasons, amoebae can suddenly destroy the intestinal mucosa and become invasive. This can lead to amoebic colitis or extraintestinal amoebiasis whereby the amoebae spread to other organs <i>via</i> the blood vessels, most commonly the liver where abscesses develop. <i>Entamoeba nuttalli</i> is the closest genetic relative of <i>E. histolytica</i> and is found in wild macaques. Another close relative is <i>E. dispar</i>, which asyptomatically infects the human intestine. Although all three species are closely related, only <i>E. histolytica</i> and <i>E. nuttalli</i> are able to penetrate their host's intestinal epithelium. Lineage-specific genes and gene families may hold the key to understanding differences in virulence among species. Here we discuss those genes found in <i>E. histolytica</i> that have relatives in only one or neither of its sister species, with particular focus on the peptidase, AIG, Ariel, and BspA families.
Project description:Entamoeba histolytica virulence is related to a number of amebic components (lectins, cysteine proteinases, and amebapore) and host factors, such as intestinal bacterial flora. Trophozoites are selective in their interactions with bacteria, and the parasite recognition of glycoconjugates plays an important role in amebic virulence. Long-term monoxenic cultivation of pathogenic E. histolytica trophozoites, strains HK-9 or HM-1:IMSS, with Escherichia coli serotype O55, which binds strongly to the Gal/GalNAc amebic lectin, markedly reduced the trophozoites' adherence and cytopathic activity on cell monolayers of baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells. Specific probes prepared from E. histolytica lectin genes as well as antibodies directed against the light (35-kDa) and heavy (170-kDa) subunits of the Gal/GalNAc lectin revealed a decrease in the transcription and expression of the light subunit in trophozoites grown monoxenically with E. coli O55. This effect was not observed when E. histolytica was grown with E. coli 346, a mannose-binding type I pilated bacteria. Our results suggest that the light subunit of the amebic lectin is involved in the modulation of parasite adherence and cytopathic activity.
Project description:<i>Entamoeba histolytica</i> is an anaerobic parasitic protozoan and the causative agent of amoebiasis. <i>E. histolytica</i> expresses proteins that are structurally homologous to human proteins and uses them as virulence factors. We have previously shown that <i>E. histolytica</i> binds exogenous interferon gamma (IFN-?) on its surface, and in this study, we explored whether exogenous IFN-? could modulate parasite virulence. We identified an IFN-? receptor-like protein on the surface of <i>E. histolytica</i> trophozoites by using anti-IFN-? receptor 1 (IFN-?R1) antibody and performing immunofluorescence, Western blot, protein sequencing, and <i>in silico</i> analyses. Coupling of human IFN-? to the IFN-? receptor-like protein on live <i>E. histolytica</i> trophozoites significantly upregulated the expression of <i>E. histolytica</i> cysteine protease A1 (<i>Eh</i>CP-A1), <i>Eh</i>CP-A2, <i>Eh</i>CP-A4, <i>Eh</i>CP-A5, amebapore A (APA), cyclooxygenase 1 (<i>Cox-1</i>), Gal-lectin (<i>Hgl</i>), and peroxiredoxin (<i>Prx</i>) in a time-dependent fashion. IFN-? signaling via the IFN-? receptor-like protein enhanced <i>E. histolytica</i>'s erythrophagocytosis of human red blood cells, which was abrogated by the STAT1 inhibitor fludarabine. Exogenous IFN-? enhanced chemotaxis of <i>E. histolytica</i>, its killing of Caco-2 colonic and Hep G2 liver cells, and amebic liver abscess formation in hamsters. These results demonstrate that <i>E. histolytica</i> expresses a surface IFN-? receptor-like protein that is functional and may play a role in disease pathogenesis and/or immune evasion.
Project description:<i>Entamoeba histolytica</i> is an invasive enteric protozoan, whose infections are associated to high morbidity and mortality rates. However, only less than 10% of infected patients develop invasive amebiasis. The ability of <i>E. histolytica</i> to adapt to the intestinal microenvironment could be determinant in triggering pathogenic behavior. Indeed, during chronic inflammation, the vagus nerve limits the immune response through the anti-inflammatory reflex, which includes acetylcholine (ACh) as one of the predominant neurotransmitters at the infection site. Consequently, the response of <i>E. histolytica</i> trophozoites to ACh could be implicated in the establishment of invasive disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ACh on <i>E. histolytica</i> virulence. Methods include binding detection of ACh to plasma membrane, quantification of the relative expression of virulence factors by RT-PCR and western blot, evaluation of the effect of ACh in different cellular processes related to <i>E. histolytica</i> pathogenesis, and assessment of the capability of <i>E. histolytica</i> to migrate and form hepatic abscesses in hamsters. Results demonstrated that <i>E. histolytica</i> trophozoites bind ACh on their membrane and show a clear increase of the expression of virulence factors, that were upregulated upon stimulation with the neurotransmitter. ACh treatment increased the expression of L220, <i>Gal/GalNAc lectin</i> heavy subunit (170 kDa), <i>amebapore C</i>, cysteine proteinase 2 (<i>ehcp-a2</i>), and cysteine proteinase 5 (<i>ehcp-a5</i>). Moreover, erythrophagocytosis, cytotoxicity, and actin cytoskeleton remodeling were augmented after ACh treatment. Likewise, by assessing the formation of amebic liver abscess, we found that stimulated trophozoites to develop greater hamster hepatic lesions with multiple granulomas. In conclusion, ACh enhanced parasite pathogenicity by upregulating diverse virulence factors, thereby contributing to disease severity, and could be linked to the establishment of invasive amebiasis.
Project description:The enteric protozoa Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amebiasis, which is one of the most common parasitic diseases in developed and developing countries. Entamoeba nuttalli is the genetically closest species to E. histolytica in current phylogenetic analyses of Entamoeba species, and is prevalent in wild macaques. Therefore, E. nuttalli may be a key organism in which to investigate molecules required for infection of human or non-human primates. To explore the molecular signatures of host-parasite interactions, we conducted de novo assembly of the E. nuttalli genome, utilizing self-correction of PacBio long reads and polishing corrected reads using Illumina short reads, followed by comparative genomic analysis with two other mammalian and a reptilian Entamoeba species. The final draft assembly of E. nuttalli included 395 contigs with a total length of approximately 23 Mb, and 9,647 predicted genes, of which 6,940 were conserved with E. histolytica. In addition, we found an E. histolytica-specific repeat known as ERE2 in the E. nuttalli genome. GO-term enrichment analysis of mammalian host-related molecules indicated diversification of transmembrane proteins, including AIG1 family and BspA-like proteins that may be involved in the host-parasite interaction. Furthermore, we identified an E. nuttalli-specific protein that contained 42 repeats of an octapeptide ([G,E]KPTDTPS). This protein was shown to be localized on the cell surface using immunofluorescence. Since many repeat-containing proteins in parasites play important roles in interactions with host cells, this unique octapeptide repeat-containing protein may be involved in colonization of E. nuttalli in the intestine of macaques. Overall, our draft assembly provides a valuable resource for studying Entamoeba evolution and host-parasite selection.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan parasite of humans, produces dysenteric diarrhea, intestinal mucosa damage and extraintestinal infection. It has been proposed that the intestinal microbiota composition could be an important regulatory factor of amebic virulence and tissue invasion, particularly if pathogenic bacteria are present. Recent in vitro studies have shown that Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites induced human colonic CaCo2 cells to synthesize TLR-2 and TLR-4 and proinflammatory cytokines after binding to the amebic Gal/GalNac lectin carbohydrate recognition domain. The magnitude of the inflammatory response induced by trophozoites and the subsequent cell damage were synergized when cells had previously been exposed to pathogenic bacteria.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>We show here that E. histolytica activation of the classic TLR pathway in CaCo2 cells is required to induce ? defensin-2 (HBD2) mRNA expression and production of a 5-kDa cationic peptide with similar properties to the antimicrobial HBD2 expressed by CaCo2 cells exposed to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. The induced peptide showed capacity to permeabilize membranes of bacteria and live trophozoites. This activity was abrogated by inhibition of TLR2/4-NF?B pathway or by neutralization with an anti-HBD2 antibody.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites bind to human intestinal cells and induce expression of HBD2; an antimicrobial molecule with capacity to destroy pathogenic bacteria and trophozoites. HDB2's possible role as a modulator of the course of intestinal infections, particularly in mixed ameba/bacteria infections, is discussed.
Project description:Entamoeba histolytica, the protist that causes amebic dysentery and liver abscess, has a truncated Asn-linked glycan (N-glycan) precursor composed of seven sugars (Man(5)GlcNAc(2)). Here, we show that glycoproteins with unmodified N-glycans are aggregated and capped on the surface of E. histolytica trophozoites by the antiretroviral lectin cyanovirin-N and then replenished from large intracellular pools. Cyanovirin-N cocaps the Gal/GalNAc adherence lectin, as well as glycoproteins containing O-phosphodiester-linked glycans recognized by an anti-proteophosphoglycan monoclonal antibody. Cyanovirin-N inhibits phagocytosis by E. histolytica trophozoites of mucin-coated beads, a surrogate assay for amebic virulence. For technical reasons, we used the plant lectin concanavalin A rather than cyanovirin-N to enrich secreted and membrane proteins for mass spectrometric identification. E. histolytica glycoproteins with occupied N-glycan sites include Gal/GalNAc lectins, proteases, and 17 previously hypothetical proteins. The latter glycoproteins, as well as 50 previously hypothetical proteins enriched by concanavalin A, may be vaccine targets as they are abundant and unique. In summary, the antiretroviral lectin cyanovirin-N binds to well-known and novel targets on the surface of E. histolytica that are rapidly replenished from large intracellular pools.