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Characteristics of inflammatory reactions during development of liver abscess in hamsters inoculated with Entamoeba nuttalli.


ABSTRACT: Entamoeba nuttalli is an intestinal protozoan with pathogenic potential that can cause amebic liver abscess. It is highly prevalent in wild and captive macaques. Recently, cysts were detected in a caretaker of nonhuman primates in a zoo, indicating that E. nuttalli may be a zoonotic pathogen. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the pathogenicity of E. nuttalli in detail and in comparison with that of E. histolytica.Trophozoites of E. nuttalli GY4 and E. histolytica SAW755 strains were inoculated into liver of hamsters. Expression levels of proinflammatory factors of hamsters and virulence factors from E. histolytica and E. nuttalli were compared between the two parasites. Inoculations with trophozoites of E. nuttalli resulted in an average necrotic area of 24% in liver tissue in 7 days, whereas this area produced by E. histolytica was nearly 50%. Along with the mild liver tissue damage induced by E. nuttalli, expression levels of proinflammatory factors (TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-1?) and amebic virulence protein genes (lectins, cysteine proteases and amoeba pores) in local tissues were lower with E. nuttalli in comparison with E. histolytica. In addition, M2 type macrophages were increased in E. nuttalli-induced amebic liver abscesses in the late stage of disease progression and lysate of E. nuttalli trophozoites induced higher arginase expression than E. histolytica in vitro.The results show that differential secretion of amebic virulence proteins during E. nuttalli infection triggered lower levels of secretion of various cytokines and had an impact on polarization of macrophages towards a M1/M2 balance. However, regardless of the degree of macrophage polarization, there is unambiguous evidence of an intense acute inflammatory reaction in liver of hamsters after infection by both Entamoeba species.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC5821383 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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