Q fever in Egypt: Epidemiological survey of Coxiella burnetii specific antibodies in cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats and camels.
ABSTRACT: Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Clinical presentation in humans varies from asymptomatic to flu-like illness and severe sequelae may be seen. Ruminants are often sub-clinically infected or show reproductive disorders such as abortions. In Egypt, only limited data on the epidemiology of Q fever in animals are available. Using a stratified two stage random sampling approach, we evaluated the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii specific antibodies among ruminants and camels in 299 herds. A total of 2,699 blood samples was investigated using enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Coxiella burnetii specific antibodies were detected in 40.7% of camels (215/528), 19.3% of cattle (162/840), 11.2% of buffaloes (34/304), 8.9% of sheep (64/716) and 6.8% of goats (21/311), respectively. Odds of seropositivity were significantly higher for cattle (aOR: 3.17; 95% CI: 1.96-5.13) and camels (aOR: 9.75; 95% CI: 6.02-15.78). Significant differences in seropositivity were also found between domains (Western Desert, Eastern Desert and Nile Valley and Delta) and 25 governorates (p < 0.001), respectively. Animal rearing in the Eastern Desert domain was found to be a significant risk factor (aOR: 2.16; 95% CI: 1.62-2.88). Most seropositive animals were older than four years. No correlation between positive titers and husbandry practices or animal origin were found (p > 0.05). Only 8.7% of the interviewed people living on the farms consumed raw camel milk and none reported prior knowledge on Q fever. Findings from this nationwide study show that exposure to Coxiella burnetii is common in ruminants and camels. Disease awareness among physicians, veterinarians and animal owners has to be raised. Future epidemiological investigations have to elucidate the impact of Q fever on human health and on the economy of Egypt.
Project description:Query (Q) fever is a globally distributed zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterial agent for which ruminants are the most prevalent natural reservoir. Data regarding Q fever infection in camels in Algeria are limited. Therefore, a survey to detect seroprevalence of C. burnetii antibodies was conducted among healthy camel populations in a vast area in southeastern Algeria to determine distribution of the Q fever causative organism and to identify risk factors associated with infection. Between January and March 2016, blood samples were collected from 184 camels and serum samples were subsequently analysed using a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit. At the time of blood collection, a questionnaire investigating 13 potential predisposing factors associated with C. burnetii seropositivity was completed for every dromedary camel and herd. Results were analysed by a chi-square (?2) test and multivariate logistic regression. The seroprevalence of C. burnetii at the animal level was 71.2% (95% CI: 65.2-78.3) and 85.3% (95% CI: 72.8-97.8) at the herd level. At the animal level, differences in seroprevalence were observed because of herd size, animal age, animal sex, presence of ticks and contact with other herds. A multivariable logistic regression model identified three main risk factors associated with individual seropositivity: (1) age class > 11 years (OR = 8.81, 95% CI: 2.55-30.41), (2) herd size > 50 head (OR = 4.46, 95% CI: 1.01-19.59) and (3) infestation with ticks (OR 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1-4.5). This study of seroprevalence of C. burnetii infection in camels in Algeria revealed a high seroprevalence of Q fever in camel populations in southeastern Algeria and provided strong evidence that Q fever represents an economic, public health and veterinary concern. Appropriate measures should be taken to prevent the spread of C. burnetii and to reduce the risk of Q fever in farm animals and humans in this agro-ecologically and strategically important region of North Africa.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Q fever is a common cause of febrile illness and community-acquired pneumonia in resource-limited settings. Coxiella burnetii, the causative pathogen, is transmitted among varied host species, but the epidemiology of the organism in Africa is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review of C. burnetii epidemiology in Africa from a "One Health" perspective to synthesize the published data and identify knowledge gaps. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:We searched nine databases to identify articles relevant to four key aspects of C. burnetii epidemiology in human and animal populations in Africa: infection prevalence; disease incidence; transmission risk factors; and infection control efforts. We identified 929 unique articles, 100 of which remained after full-text review. Of these, 41 articles describing 51 studies qualified for data extraction. Animal seroprevalence studies revealed infection by C. burnetii (?13%) among cattle except for studies in Western and Middle Africa (18-55%). Small ruminant seroprevalence ranged from 11-33%. Human seroprevalence was <8% with the exception of studies among children and in Egypt (10-32%). Close contact with camels and rural residence were associated with increased seropositivity among humans. C. burnetii infection has been associated with livestock abortion. In human cohort studies, Q fever accounted for 2-9% of febrile illness hospitalizations and 1-3% of infective endocarditis cases. We found no studies of disease incidence estimates or disease control efforts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:C. burnetii infection is detected in humans and in a wide range of animal species across Africa, but seroprevalence varies widely by species and location. Risk factors underlying this variability are poorly understood as is the role of C. burnetii in livestock abortion. Q fever consistently accounts for a notable proportion of undifferentiated human febrile illness and infective endocarditis in cohort studies, but incidence estimates are lacking. C. burnetii presents a real yet underappreciated threat to human and animal health throughout Africa.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Q fever (Coxiella burnetii infection) has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. After investigating the obstetrical importance of Q fever on Reunion island and demonstrating an association between incident Q fever and miscarriage, we conducted a cross-sectional serosurvey to assess the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii infection among parturient women. METHODS:Between January 9 and July 24, 2014, within the level-4 maternity of Saint Pierre hospital and the level-1 maternity of Le Tampon, we proposed to screen all parturient women for Coxiella burnetii serology. Seropositivity was defined using indirect immunofluorescence for a dilution of phase 2 IgG titre ?1:64. Further dilutions were chosen to discriminate recent or active infections from past or prevalent infections (<?1:128) and classify these as either possible (1:128), or probable (?1:256). Recurrent miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm birth, small-for-gestational as well as a composite outcome of these adverse pregnancy outcomes were compared according to seropositivity using bivariate analysis or propensity score matching of seropositive and seronegative women on confounding factors. RESULTS:Among 1112 parturient women screened for Q fever over this 7-month period, 203 (18.3%) were seropositive. Overall weighted seroprevalence was of 20.1% (95%CI, 17.7-22.5%). Weighted seroprevalence of probable infections was 4.7% (95%CI 3.4-5.9%), while >?90% of positive serologies corresponded to past infections or false positives. Seropositivity was associated with none of the abovementioned adverse perinatal outcomes, whether in unpaired or matched analyses on propensity score. CONCLUSION:The magnitude and the pattern of seroprevalence suggest that Q fever is endemic on Reunion island. In this context, we found no significant contribution of prevalent Coxiella burnetii infection to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Although reassuring, these data put in our endemic context, with a previously demonstrated increased risk of incident Q fever associated miscarriage, encourage us to protect pregnant women against the risk of new infection, periconceptional or early in pregnancy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Q fever is a main zoonotic disease around the world. The aim of this meta-analysis was to estimate the overall seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii among human and animal population in Iran. METHODS:Major national and international databases were searched from 2005 up to August 2016. We extracted the prevalence of Q fever antibodies (IgG) as the main primary outcome. We reported the prevalence of the seropositivity as point and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS:The overall seroprevalence of IgG phase I and II antibodies of Q fever in human was 19.80% (95% CI: 16.35-23.25%) and 32.86% (95% CI: 23.80-41.92%), respectively. The herd and individual prevalence of C. burnetii antibody in goat were 93.42% (95% CI: 80.23-100.00) and 31.97% (95% CI: 20.96-42.98%), respectively. The herd and individual prevalence of Q fever antibody in sheep's were 96.07% (95% CI: 89.11-100.00%) and 24.66% (95% CI: 19.81-29.51%), respectively. The herd and individual prevalence of C. burnetii antibody in cattle were 41.37% (95% CI: 17.88-64.86%) and 13.30% (95% CI: 2.98-23.62%), respectively. Individual seropositivity of Q fever in camel and dog were 28.26% (95% CI: 21.47-35.05) and 0.55% (0.03-2.68), respectively. CONCLUSION:Seroprevalence of Q fever among human and domestic animals is considerable. Preventative planning and control of C. burnetii infections in Iran is necessary. Active surveillance and further research studies are recommended, to more clearly define the epidemiology and importance of C. burnetii infections in animals and people in Iran.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Q fever has been associated with perinatal complications. We conducted a prospective follow-up study to assess both the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) associated with Coxiella burnetii infection and the contribution of Q fever to APOs. METHODS:Between May 1 and October 31, 2013, within the regional perinatal health care centre of Saint Pierre, Reunion island, we investigated unexplained miscarriages, stillbirths, preterm births or small-for-gestational age children. Seropositivity for C. burnetii antibodies was defined using indirect immunofluorescence for a phase 2 IgG titre ?1:64. Acute Q fever was defined for a high phase 2 IgG titre ?1:256 (compatible with recent or active infection) or the detection of C. burnetii genome in miscarriage products and placentas. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) for Q fever related APOs (taken as a composite outcome or individually) were assessed using Poisson regression models for dichotomous outcomes controlling major confounders. RESULTS:Over a 6-month period, 179 pregnant women suspected or diagnosed with an APO were investigated for Q fever, of whom 118 met the definition for an APO. Of these, 19 were seropositive and 10 presented a profile indicative of an acute infection. For three women with an acute Q fever, the chronology between the onset of infection, the APO (2 miscarriages, 1 preterm birth) and the seroconversion suggested causality in the pathogenesis. The cumulative incidence of Q fever related APOs was estimated between 2.2‰ and 5.2‰, whether causality was required or not. Both C. burnetii exposure and acute Q fever were independently associated with APOs (IRR 1.55, 95% CI 1.31-1.84; IRR 1.47, 95% CI 1.15-1.89, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:In the endemic context of Reunion island, acute Q fever may lead to APOs. To limit the burden of Q fever on reproduction, pregnant women should be kept away from farms and avoid direct contact with ruminants.
Project description:Goat raising is a growing industry in Lao People's Democratic Republic, with minimal disease investigation to date, especially zoonoses. This study determined the proportional seropositivity of two zoonotic diseases: Q fever (causative agent Coxiella burnetii) and Brucellosis (Brucella species) in goats across five provinces (Vientiane Capital, Xayaboury, Xiengkhuang, Savannakhet and Attapeu). A total of 1458 goat serum samples were tested using commercial indirect ELISA for both pathogens, plus Rose Bengal agglutination test for Brucellosis. Overall individual seropositivity of C. burnetii was 4.1% and Brucella spp. was 1.4%. A multiple logistic regression model identified that province (Vientiane Capital, p = 0.05), breed (introduced Boer mixed breed, p = 0.006) and age (goats ?3 years old, p = 0.014) were significant risk factors for C. burnetii seropositivity. The results of the survey indicated that province (Vientiane Capital, p<0.001), breed (introduced Boer mixed breed, p<0.001), production system (commercial, p<0.001), age (adult, p = 0.004), and farm size (large, 0.001) were all significant risk factors seropositivity for Brucella spp. It was concluded that Lao goats have been exposed to both C. burnetii and Brucella spp. however the risk of clinical disease has not yet been determined and there is an urgent need to determine human health risks and economic losses caused by Q fever and Brucellosis.
Project description:The persistent and highly transmissible Coxiella burnetii is a neglected infection that negatively affects reproductive parameters of livestock. It is also of zoonotic importance and has been reported to cause devastating human infections globally. Domestic ruminants represent the most frequent source of human infection. Data from Nigeria are very few and outdated. There is a significant gap in up-to-date information on the exposure, spatial distribution and risk factors of infection of this important disease. The exposure to C. burnetii was determined using sensitive serological assays in cattle and small ruminants. A total of 538 animals made up of 268 cattle and 270 small ruminants were sampled from three northern Nigerian states. The proportion of cattle sampled that were seropositive from the study locations were: Kwara 14/90 (15.6%; 95% CI: 8.8-24.7); Plateau 10/106 (9.43%; 95% CI: 4.6-16.7) and Borno 4/72 (5.56%; 95% CI: 1.5-13.6) states. Lower seroprevalence was recorded among the small ruminants sampled, with positives recorded from sheep and goat sampled from only Kwara state 6/184 (3.3%; 95% CI: 1.2-7.0); while none of the small ruminants sampled from Plateau were seropositive. The results of the bivariate analysis showed that none of the tested independent variables (village, age group, sex, breed of cattle, presence of ticks, reproductive status, and management system) were statistically significant factors associated with seropositivity of cattle for antibodies to C. burnetii. Stakeholders involved in animal husbandry should be duly educated on proper disposal of birth products as well as bodily fluids in order to reduce environmental contamination, persistence and human infection.
Project description:Coxiella burnetii is a globally distributed zoonotic bacterial pathogen that causes abortions in ruminant livestock. In humans, an influenza-like illness results with the potential for hospitalization, chronic infection, abortion, and fatal endocarditis. Ruminant livestock, particularly small ruminants, are hypothesized to be the primary transmission source to humans. A recent Netherlands outbreak from 2007-2010 traced to dairy goats resulted in over 4,100 human cases with estimated costs of more than 300 million euros. Smaller human Q fever outbreaks of small ruminant origin have occurred in the United States, and characterizing shedding is important to understand the risk of future outbreaks. In this study, we assessed bacterial shedding and seroprevalence in 100 sheep from an Idaho location associated with a 1984 human Q fever outbreak. We observed 5% seropositivity, which was not significantly different from the national average of 2.7% for the U.S. (P>0.05). Furthermore, C. burnetii was not detected by quantitative PCR from placentas, vaginal swabs, or fecal samples. Specifically, a three-target quantitative PCR of placenta identified 0.0% shedding (exact 95% confidence interval: 0.0%-2.9%). While presence of seropositive individuals demonstrates some historical C. burnetii exposure, the placental sample confidence interval suggests 2016 shedding events were rare or absent. The location maintained the flock with little or no depopulation in 1984 and without C. burnetii vaccination during or since 1984. It is not clear how a zero-shedding rate was achieved in these sheep beyond natural immunity, and more work is required to discover and assess possible factors that may contribute towards achieving zero-shedding status. We provide the first U.S. sheep placental C. burnetii shedding update in over 60 years and demonstrate potential for C. burnetii shedding to reach undetectable levels after an outbreak event even in the absence of targeted interventions, such as vaccination.
Project description:<label>Background and Aim</label>Q fever Coxiella burnetii is a worldwide zoonotic disease, and C. burnetii was detected in mammals and ticks. Ticks play an important role in the spread of C. burnetii in the environment. Therefore, the aims of this study were to detect Q fever C. burnetii in camels and ixodid ticks by molecular tools and identification of Hyalomma dromedarii and Hyalomma excavatum using molecular and immunological assays.<label>Materials and Methods</label>A total of 113 blood samples from camels and 190 adult ticks were investigated for the infection with C. burnetii by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing the targeting IS30A spacer. The two tick species H. dromedarii and H. excavatum were characterized molecularly by PCR and sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) and cytochrome oxidase subunit-1 (CO1) genes and immunologically by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blot.<label>Results</label>A total of 52 camels (46%) were positive for Q fever infection. Only 10 adult ticks of H. dromedarii were infected with C. burnetii. The IS30A sequence was around 200 bp in length for C. burnetii in H. dromedarii ticks with a similarity of 99% when compared with reference data in GenBank records. The length of 16S rDNA and CO1 was 440 and 850 bp, respectively, for both H. dromedarii and H. excavatum. The phylogenetic status of H. dromedarii was distant from that of H. excavatum. SDS-PAGE revealed seven different bands in the adult antigens of either H. dromedarii or H. excavatum with molecular weights ranged from 132.9 to 17.7 KDa. In western blot analyses, the sera obtained from either infested camel by H. dromedarii or infested cattle by H. excavatum recognized four immunogenic bands (100.7, 49.7, 43.9, and 39.6 kDa) in H. dromedarii antigen. However, the infested camel sera identified two immunogenic bands (117 and 61.4 kDa) in H. excavatum antigen. Furthermore, the sera collected from cattle infested by H. excavatum recognized three immunogenic bands (61.4, 47.3, and 35 kDa) in H. excavatum antigen.<label>Conclusion</label>Molecular analyses indicated that both camels and ticks could be sources for infection of animals and humans with Q fever. Furthermore, the molecular analyses are more accurate tools for discriminating H. dromedarii and H. excavatum than immunological tools.
Project description:Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, an obligate intracellular bacterium usually found in myeloid cells. The infection is a source of severe obstetrical complications in humans and cattle, and of chronic evolution in pregnant women. As C. burnetii is found in the placenta of aborted foetuses in humans and ruminants, we wondered if it may infect trophoblasts. In this work, we showed that C. burnetii, infected JEG trophoblastic cells without replication and was localized within phagolysosomes. We analyzed gene expression programs induced by C. burnetii in JEG trophoblastic cell line and compared it with transcriptomic program of BeWo trophoblasts in which C. burnetii replicates. These transcriptomic programs induced by C. burnetii in JEG trophoblasts was poor and markedly different from that induced by C. burnetii in BeWo trophoblasts. Hence, the differences in transcriptomic programs may explain the different intracellular fate of C. burnetii in JEG and BeWo cells. Our results suggest that C. burnetii may use trophoblastic cells as a reservoir by interfering with gene expression. Comparaison between unstimulated JEG cell line and Coxiella burnetii stimulated JEG cell line (bacterial ratio 200:1) for 6 hours