Sexual activity and vaginal symptoms in the postintervention phase of the Women's Health Initiative Hormone Therapy Trials.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To assess the impact of discontinuing oral hormone therapy (HT) on sexual activity, vaginal symptoms, and sexual activity components among participants in the estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT) and estrogen therapy (ET) trial of the Women's Health Initiative. METHODS:Surveys were sent postintervention to those who were still taking study pills and agreed to continue in the study when the trials were stopped. Comparisons between former HT and placebo users were accomplished with chi-square tests for categorical variables and t tests for continuous variables. RESULTS:In all, 13,902 women with mean age at survey 69.9 years (EPT trial, women with intact uterus) and 71.7 years (ET trial, women with history of hysterectomy) responded. Prevalence of sexual activity postintervention was not significantly different between former EPT and placebo users (36.0% vs 34.2%; P?=?0.37). Sexual activity of former ET users was 5.6% higher than placebo users (27.6% vs 22.0%; P?=?0.001). The majority of sexually active women overall maintained orgasmic capacity and sexual satisfaction. Former EPT users were 10% to 12% more likely than former placebo users to report decreased desire, arousal, intercourse, climax, and satisfaction with sexual activity, and also increased dryness and dyspareunia upon discontinuing study drugs (P?
Project description:We synthesize the current literatures and use the power of meta-analysis to examine trends on association between hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and the risk of breast cancer (BC). We performed a comprehensive literature search using PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science from their inception until Jan 2017. Prospective studies that provided adjusted risk estimates of HRT and BC risk were eligible. Categorical and dose-response meta-analyses followed the PRISMA were conducted using random effects model and restricted cubic spline model, respectively. Forty-seven publications from thirty-five unique studies were included, involving 3,898,376 of participants and 87,845 of BC cases. Compared with non-users, RR for current estrogen-only therapy (ET) users was 1.14 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-1.22), and for per year increases was 1.02 (95% CI = 1.02-1.02). Moreover, RR for current estrogen plus progestin therapy (EPT) users was 1.76, (95% CI = 1.56-1.96), and for per year increases was 1.08 (95% CI = 1.08-1.08). Dose-response analyses revealed 8-10 years' onset peaks, and indicated residual increased BC risk remained after stopping use of ET regimen rather than for EPT. Effect-modifiers like BMI, duration of use, race/ethnicity, routes of administration were recognized. In Conclusions, current use of EP or EPT and ever use of tibolone are associated with an elevated risk of BC. Compared with slim HRT users and non-users, lower BC risks were found among overweight/obese HRT users and former EPT users, respectively. Both ET and EPT users are associated with higher risk of lobular BC than ductal BC, and more ER-positive than negative BC cases were detected among EPT users.
Project description:The aim of this study was to examine the effect of conjugated equine estrogens alone (ET), conjugated equine estrogens + medroxyprogesterone (EPT), calcitriol alone, calcitriol + EPT/ET, or placebo on serum lipid profile and analyze the interaction with estrogen receptor-? gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (ESR-? SNPs) on the response to therapy.A total of 489 postmenopausal women older than 65 years were enrolled into a 3-year double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.In both intent-to-treat and complier (>80% adherent) analysis, there was a significant increase in serum high-density lipoproteins and a significant decrease in serum low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and the LDL/high-density lipoprotein ratio in all hormone treatment groups compared with placebo (P < 0.05). However, serum triglycerides and very low-density lipoproteins increased in the EPT and ET + calcitriol groups versus placebo (P < 0.05). ESR-? SNPs PvuII and XbaI seemed to have a significant effect on the response to treatment. Genotypes containing the p allele showed a significantly greater decrease in serum cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein than those having the P allele in the ET + calcitriol group (P < 0.05), and those with the x allele had a significantly greater decrease in serum cholesterol in the hormone therapy + calcitriol group at the end of 3 years versus the X allele, and a greater decrease in serum LDL in alleles x versus the X in the ET + calcitriol group (P < 0.05).ET with or without progesterone had a favorable effect on lipid profile in postmenopausal older women, and this was dependent on estrogen receptor SNPs--PvuII and XbaI. However, this interaction with ESR-? SNPs needs to be confirmed in larger studies.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Mammographic density (MD) is one of the strongest known breast cancer risk factors. Estrogen and progestin therapy (EPT) has been associated with increases in MD. Dense breast tissue is characterized by increased stromal tissue and (to a lesser degree) increased numbers of breast epithelial cells. It is possible that genetic factors modify the association between EPT and MD, and that certain genetic variants are particularly important in determining MD in hormone users. We evaluated the association between MD and 340 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from about 30 candidate genes in hormone metabolism/growth factor pathways among women who participated in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) in 2004. METHODS:We assessed MD on 2,036 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 69 years using a computer-assisted method (Madena, University of Southern California) in a cross-sectional study. We used linear regression to determine the association between each SNP and MD, adjusting for potential confounders. The postmenopausal women were stratified into HT users (EPT and estrogen-only) and non-users (never HT). RESULTS:For current EPT users, there was an association between a variant in the prolactin gene (PRL; rs10946545) and MD (dominant model, Bonferroni-adjusted P (Pb) = 0.0144). This association remained statistically significant among current users of norethisterone acetate (NETA)-based EPT, a regimen common in Nordic countries. Among current estrogen-only users (ET), there was an association between rs4670813 in the cytochrome P450 gene (CYP1B1) and MD (dominant model, Pb = 0.0396). In never HT users, rs769177 in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene and rs1968752 in the region of the sulfotransferase gene (SULT1A1/SULT1A2), were significantly associated with MD (Pb = 0.0202; Pb = 0.0349). CONCLUSIONS:We found some evidence that variants in the PRL gene were associated with MD in current EPT and NETA users. In never HT users, variants in the TNF and SULT1A1/SULT1A2 genes were significantly associated with MD. These findings may suggest that several genes in the hormone metabolism and growth factor pathways are implicated in determining MD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) increases breast cancer (BC) risk, but cohort studies largely consider use only at enrollment. Evidence is limited on how changes in MHT use alter the magnitude of risk, and whether risk varies between invasive and in situ cancer, by histology or by hormone receptor status. METHODS:We investigated the roles of estrogen-alone therapy (ET) and estrogen plus progestin therapy (EPT) on BC risk overall, by histology and estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status, and on incidence of in situ disease, in the NIH-AARP cohort. Participants included 118,760 postmenopausal women (50-71?years), of whom 63.5% (n?=?75,398) provided MHT use information at baseline in 1996 and in a follow-up survey in 2004, subsequent to the dissemination in 2002 of the Women's Health Initiative trial safety concerns regarding EPT. ET analyses included 50,476 women with hysterectomy (31,439 with follow-up data); EPT analyses included 68,284 women with intact uteri (43,959 with follow-up data). Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models using age as the time metric with follow-up through 2011. RESULTS:Eight thousand three hundred thirty-three incident BC cases were accrued, 2479 in women with follow-up data. BC risk was not elevated in current ET users at baseline (HR?=?1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] CI?=?0.95-1.16) but was higher in women continuing use through 2004 (HR?=?1.35, 95% CI?=?1.04-1.75). Ever EPT use at baseline was associated with elevated BC risk overall (HR?=?1.54 (1.44-1.64), with a doubling in risk for women with 10 or more years of use, for in situ disease, and across subtypes defined by histology and ER/PR status (all p?<?0.004). Risk persisted in women who continued EPT through 2004 (HR?=?1.80, 95% CI?=?1.39-2.32). In contrast, no association was seen in women who discontinued EPT before 2004 (HR?=?1.14, 95% CI?=?0.99-1.30). CONCLUSIONS:ET use was not associated with BC risk in this cohort, although excess risk was suggested in women who continued use through 2004. EPT use was linked to elevated in situ and invasive BC risk, and elevated risk across invasive BC histologic and hormone receptor-defined subtypes, with the highest risk for women who continued use through the 2004 follow-up survey.
Project description:We investigated whether variants in sex steroid hormone metabolism genes modify the effect of hormone therapy (HT) on endometrial cancer risk in postmenopausal non-Hispanic white women. A nested case-control study was conducted within the California Teachers Study (CTS). We genotyped htSNPs in six genes involved in the hormone metabolism in 286 endometrial cancer cases and 488 controls. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated for each haplotype using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age. The strongest interaction was observed between duration of estrogen therapy (ET) use and haplotype 1A in CYP11A1 (p(interaction) = 0.0027; p(interaction) = 0.010 after correcting for multiple testing within each gene). The OR for endometrial cancer per copy of haplotype 1A was 2.00 (95% CI: 1.05-3.96) for long-term ET users and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.69-1.18) for never users. The most significant interaction with estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT) was found for two haplotypes on CYP19A1 and EPT use (haplotype 4A, p(interaction) = 0.024 and haplotype 3B, p(interaction) = 0.043). However, neither this interaction, nor the ET or EPT interactions for any other genes, was statistically significant after correction for multiple testing. Variations in CYP11A1 may modify the effect of ET use on risk of postmenopausal endometrial cancer; however, larger studies are needed to explore these findings further.
Project description:Although it is well established that combined estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT) increases breast cancer risk, questions remain regarding the effect of different formulations of hormones, whether certain women are at particularly high risk, and whether risk varies by tumor subtype.We investigated hormone therapy (HT) use in relation to breast cancer risk in the California Teachers Study cohort; after a mean follow-up of 9.8 years, 2,857 invasive breast cancers were diagnosed.Compared with women who had never used HT, women who reported 15 or more years of estrogen therapy (ET) use had a 19% greater risk of breast cancer (95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.37), whereas women using EPT for 15 or more years had an 83% greater risk (95% confidence interval, 1.48-2.26). Breast cancer risk was highest among women using continuous combined EPT regimens. Risks associated with EPT and ET use were increased with duration of HT use for women with a body mass index (BMI) of <29.9 kg/m(2) but not for women with BMI of >or=30 kg/m(2). Elevated risks associated with EPT and ET use were confined to tumors that were positive for both estrogen and progesterone receptors and those that were HER2+ but were slightly diminished for HER2- tumors.Breast cancer risks increased with longer duration of ET and EPT use, and risks were highest for continuous-combined EPT use. Furthermore, risks varied by BMI and tumor subtype.These findings underscore the need for personalized risk-benefit discussions with women contemplating HT use.
Project description:Estrogen-alone therapy (ET) or estrogen and progestin (EPT) as menopausal hormone therapy (HT) has been commonly used to alleviate menopausal symptoms. Treatments containing > or = 10 days per month of progestin are considered relatively safe with respect to endometrial cancer risk. However, the endometrial safety of long-term EPT regimens is uncertain. We conducted a case-control study of 311 invasive endometrial cancer cases and 570 controls nested within the California Teachers Study cohort. We used unconditional logistic regression to obtain odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association between long-term HT use and endometrial cancer risk, and to assess the modifying effect of body mass index (BMI). Long-term (> or = 10 years) use of ET, sequential EPT with <10 days per month progestin, and continuous-combined EPT (> or = 25 days/month progestin) were all associated with an elevated risk of endometrial cancer (OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 2.5-8.1; OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.7-11.2; and OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.3, respectively; all P(trend) < 0.001). The risk associated with short-term use was elevated only for ET preparations. The association for continuous-combined EPT was confined to thinner women (BMI, <25 kg/m2; P(interaction) = 0.03). Among heavier women (BMI, > or = 25 kg/m2), use of continuous-combined EPT was associated with a statistically nonsignificant reduction in risk. These findings confirm that long-term use of ET, sequential EPT, or, among normal weight women, continuous-combined EPT is associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:While menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is an established endometrial cancer risk factor, its relationship with mortality among endometrial cancer patients is understudied. METHODS:Within the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, we examined the associations of pre-diagnosis MHT use with 10-year all-cause and endometrial cancer-specific mortality among 890 endometrial cancer patients. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for tumor characteristics, treatment, and other risk factors. RESULTS:Endometrial cancer cases were diagnosed a median of 4.6 years (range 0.0-10.1 years) after the second risk factor questionnaire was completed. We identified a total of 241 deaths, of which 104 were due to endometrial cancer. Compared with non-MHT use, pre-diagnosis use of estrogen plus progestin therapy (EPT)-only was associated with lower 10-year all-cause (HR 0.65, 95 % CI 0.43-0.99, based on 29 deaths) and endometrial cancer-specific mortality (HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.26-0.98, based on 11 deaths). Recency of MHT use, assessed approximately 5 years prior to the endometrial cancer diagnosis, was associated with mortality. Compared with non-MHT users, former ET users had higher all-cause (HR 1.71, 95 % CI 1.02-2.88, based on 18 deaths) and endometrial cancer-specific mortality (HR 2.17, 95 % CI 0.96-4.90, based on 8 deaths), whereas current EPT users had nonsignificant lower risks of death. CONCLUSION:Based on small numbers, we observed that pre-diagnosis use of EPT was related to lower mortality among endometrial cancer patients. Future studies examining the biological mechanisms underlying this association are warranted.
Project description:Multiple past studies have reported a reduced risk of breast cancer-related mortality (BCM) in relation to pre-diagnostic use of hormone therapy (HT); however, the extent to which this reduction is due to heightened screening or tumor biology is unknown. Using a population-based cohort of 1,911 post-menopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer at ages 45-79 from 1993 to 1999, we investigated the extent to which the reduced risk in BCM observed in relation to HT might be explained by screening patterns or tumor features. Estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT) use was associated with a decreased risk of BCM (after adjustment for age, study, mammography, stage, and treatment), but only among older women (ever use: ? 65 years: HR = 0.45 [95% CI 0.26-0.80]; <65 years: HR = 1.03 [95% CI 0.60-1.79]). Estrogen-alone therapy (ET) use was not associated with risk of BCM (ever use: ? 65 years: HR = 0.76 [95% CI 0.51-1.12]; <65 years: HR = 1.20 [95% CI 0.71-2.02]). HT users had a much greater frequency of mammography (P value <0.001). EPT use was associated with tumor characteristics related to improved prognosis in older women after adjustment for screening, including an inverse association with poorly differentiated tumors (OR = 0.57 [95% CI 0.38-0.85]) and an association with lobular tumors (OR = 1.68 [95% CI 1.07-2.65]). Beyond the influence of EPT use on screening uptake, these data indicate that the improved survival associated with pre-diagnostic EPT use may be due in part to the development of more favorable tumor characteristics.
Project description:PURPOSE:Previous studies have reported that lung cancer risk may be decreased, increased, or unaffected by prior use of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT). METHODS:To assess this issue further, we examined relationships among 118,008 women, ages 50-71 years who were recruited during 1995-1996 for the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study and in whom 2,097 incident lung carcinomas were identified during follow-up through 2006. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models estimated relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with various measures of self-reported MHT use. RESULTS:We found no evidence that either estrogen therapy (ET)-only or estrogen plus progestin therapy (EPT) use was substantially related to subsequent lung cancer risk (respective RRs and 95% CIs for ever use = 0.97, 0.86-1.09 and 1.03, 0.90-1.17). There were no significant variations according to currency or duration of use of either formulation, nor was there evidence that risks varied within subgroups defined by cigarette smoking or body size. The absence of effect was seen for nearly all lung cancer subtypes, with the exception of an increased risk of undifferentiated/large cell cancers associated with long-term ET-only use (p (trend) = 0.02), a relationship not observed among EPT users. CONCLUSIONS:Our results failed to support any substantial alterations in lung cancer risk associated with use of either unopposed estrogen or estrogen plus progestin MHT, even when detailed exposure measures and other risk predictors were considered.