Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies pneumoniae as a cause of septicaemia in pigs in England.
ABSTRACT: Between 2011 and 2014 outbreaks of septicaemia due to Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies pneumoniae (Kpp) were diagnosed on thirteen English pig farms. The most consistent features were rapid deaths of pigs from ten-days-old to weaning, seasonal occurrence (May to September), affected farms being outdoor breeding herds and the location of all but one of the outbreaks in the East Anglia region in Eastern England. Molecular characterisation of the outbreak Kpp isolates showed that by multilocus sequencing all were sequence type 25 (ST25) of K2 capsular type with a combination of a 4.3kb plasmid (pKPMC25), three phage sequences and the rmpA virulence gene. No archived Kpp isolates of porcine origin pre-dating 2011 were identified as ST25. In 2013 there was the first detection of an outbreak Kpp isolate showing antimicrobial resistance to six antibiotics. Human infection with Kpp ST25 has not been reported in the UK.
Project description:Sequence analysis of the large virulence plasmid pLVPK in Klebsiella pneumoniae CG43 revealed the presence of another mucoid factor encoding gene rmpA besides rmpA2. Promoter activity measurement indicated that the deletion of rmpA reduced K2 capsular polysaccharide (CPS) biosynthesis, resulting in decreased colony mucoidy and virulence in mice. Introduction of a multicopy plasmid carrying rmpA restored CPS production in the rmpA or rmpA2 mutant but not in the rcsB mutant. Transformation of the rmpA deletion mutant with an rcsB-carrying plasmid also failed to enhance CPS production, suggesting that a cooperation of RmpA with RcsB is required for regulatory activity. This was further corroborated by the demonstration of in vivo interaction between RmpA and RcsB using two-hybrid analysis and coimmunoprecipitation analysis. A putative Fur binding box was only found at the 5' noncoding region of rmpA. The promoter activity analysis indicated that the deletion of fur increased the rmpA promoter activity. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assay, we further demonstrated that Fur exerts its regulatory activity by binding directly to the promoter. As a result, the fur deletion mutant exhibited an increase in colony mucoidy, CPS production, and virulence in mice. In summary, our results suggested that RmpA activates CPS biosynthesis in K. pneumoniae CG43 via an RcsB-dependent manner. The expression of rmpA is regulated by the availability of iron and is negatively controlled by Fur.
Project description:The relationship of mucoviscosity-associated (magA) and/or regulator of mucoid phenotype (rmpA) genes to the Klebsiella pneumoniae hypermucoviscosity (HMV) phenotype has been reported. We previously demonstrated that rmpA+ K. pneumoniae can cause serious disease in African green monkeys and isolated rmpA+ and magA+ HMV K. pneumoniae from other species of non-human primates. To rapidly screen African green monkeys/non-human primates for these infections, we developed three real-time PCR assays. The first was K. pneumoniae-specific, targeting the khe gene, while the others targeted rmpA and magA. Primer Express 2 was used with the three K. pneumoniae genes to generate sequence-specific TaqMan/TaqMan-Minor Groove Binder assays. Oral/rectal swabs and necropsy samples were collected; swabs were used for routine culture and DNA extraction. K. pneumoniae colonies were identified on the Vitek 2 with DNA tested using the K. pneumoniae-specific assays. Testing of 45 African green monkeys resulted in 19 khe+ samples from 14 animals with none positive for either rmpA or magA. Of these 19 khe+ samples, five were culture-positive, but none were HMV "string test"-positive. Subsequent testing of 307 non-human primates resulted in 64 HMV K. pneumoniae isolates of which 42 were rmpA+ and 15 were magA+. Non-human primate testing at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases demonstrated the ability to screen both live and necropsied animals for K. pneumoniae by culture and real-time PCR to determine HMV genotype.
Project description:In the study, 15?K. pneumoniae strains were isolated from the mink experiencing respiratory distress in mideastern Shandong province, China, and the prevalence of K. pneumoniae in the sampled mink was 11.9% (15/126). Fourteen (93.33%) of the 15?K. pneumoniae isolates were identified as serotype K2 and hypermucoviscosity phenotype. The 12 virulence-associated genes of the K. pneumoniae isolates were tested. The prevalence of the wabG gene for the isolates were 100% (15/15), the ureA gene 100% (15/15), the rmpA gene 93.33% (14/15), the aerobactin gene 93.33% (14/15), the uge gene 93.33% (14/15), the IucB gene 80% (12/15) and the ybtA gene 13.33% (2/15). But the other five genes, fim, iroNB, wcaG, alls and kfuBC, gave a negative PCR reaction in the 15 isolates, respectively. The animal experiments using K. pneumoniae-SD-12 and K. pneumoniae-SD-21 demonstrated that the serotype K2 was high virulence for mice and mink. These finding implied there exist potential threat that K. pneumoniae pathogens could transmit to human, especially the fur animal farm workers and residents lived near the fur animal farms. Therefore, the etiology and epidemiological surveillance of K. pneumoniae in mink should be strengthened for people's public health.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Knowledge of within-patient dynamics of resistance plasmids during outbreaks is important for understanding the persistence and transmission of plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance. During an outbreak of a Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing (KPC) K. pneumoniae, the plasmid and chromosomal dynamics of K. pneumoniae within-patients were investigated. METHODS:During the outbreak, all K. pneumoniae isolates of colonized or infected patients were collected, regardless of their susceptibility pattern. A selection of isolates was short-read and long-read sequenced. A hybrid assembly of the short-and long-read sequence data was performed. Plasmid contigs were extracted from the hybrid assembly, annotated, and within patient plasmid comparisons were performed. RESULTS:Fifteen K. pneumoniae isolates of six patients were short-read whole-genome sequenced. Whole-genome multi-locus sequence typing revealed a maximum of 4 allele differences between the sequenced isolates. Within patients 1 and 2 the resistance gene- and plasmid replicon-content did differ between the isolates sequenced. Long-read sequencing and hybrid assembly of 4 isolates revealed loss of the entire KPC-gene containing plasmid in the isolates of patient 2 and a recombination event between the plasmids in the isolates of patient 1. This resulted in two different KPC-gene containing plasmids being simultaneously present during the outbreak. CONCLUSION:During a hospital outbreak of a KPC-producing K. pneumoniae isolate, plasmid loss of the KPC-gene carrying plasmid and plasmid recombination was detected within the isolates from two patients. When investigating outbreaks, one should be aware that plasmid transmission can occur and the possibility of within- and between-patient plasmid variation needs to be considered.
Project description:Introduction:Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most important infectious agents in neonates. There are "classic" and hypervirulent strains of K. pneumoniae. The "classic" non-virulent strain of K. pneumoniae, producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), is associated with nosocomial infections. Hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strains are associated with invasive infections in previously healthy adult people, and most of them exhibit antimicrobial susceptibility. The role of virulent strains of K. pneumoniae (including hv-KP) in neonatal infections is unknown. The aim of the study was the assessment of the impact of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance of K. pneumoniae strains on clinical features and outcomes of neonatal infection. Materials and Methods: Two groups of infants were enrolled. The first group consisted of 10 neonates with sepsis caused by K. pneumoniae. The second group consisted of 10 neonates with urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by K. pneumoniae. We investigated the susceptibility of K. pneumoniae isolates to antibiotics, the ability of the microorganism to produce ESBL, and virulence factors, including the rmpA gene, aerobactin, and colibactin genes. In neonates with sepsis, we investigated K. pneumoniae isolates, which was taken from the blood, in neonates with UTI-from the urine. Results: In neonates with sepsis testing of K. pneumoniae isolates for ESBL production was positive in 60% of cases, in neonates with UTI-in 40% of cases. All blood and urine ESBL producing K. pneumoniae isolates were resistant to ampicillins, including protected ones, and third-generation cephalosporins. At the same time, these isolates were sensitive to meropenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. The rmpA gene was detected in four blood, and three urine K. pneumoniae isolates. In neonates with sepsis rmpA gene in two cases was detected in ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates. They were infants with meningitis, and both cases were fatal. In the group of infants with UTI, the rmpA gene was detected only in K. pneumoniae isolates not producing ESBL. Aerobactin and colibactin genes were detected in two neonates with sepsis and in three neonates with UTI. In all cases, aerobactin and colibactin genes were detected only in rmpA-positive K. pneumoniae isolates. Out of three fatal outcomes, two cases were caused by hv-KP producing ESBL. Conclusion: The prevalence of virulent strains of K. pneumoniae among neonates with sepsis and other neonatal infection is higher than we think. The most severe forms of neonatal sepsis with an unfavorable outcome in our study were due to virulent strains of K. pneumoniae.
Project description:Multidrug-resistant hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (MDR-hvKP) has been increasingly reported and is now recognized as a significant threat to public health; however, characterization of MDR-hvKP has not been systematically investigated. In the present study, 124 of 428 (28.92%) K. pneumoniae clinical isolates collected from January 2010 to December 2016 were identified with aerobactin and defined as hvKP; these included 94 non-MDR-KP, 20 extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae (ESBL-KP), and 10 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CR-KP) isolates. The remaining 304 isolates without presence of virulence factor aerobactin were defined as classic K. pneumoniae (cKP). The antimicrobial resistance rate of cKP was significantly higher than that of the hvKP isolates in the non-MDR-KP group, but showed no significant differences in the ESBL-KP and CR-KP groups. The detection frequencies of capsular serotype K1 (magA), hypermucoviscosity, sequence type 23 (ST23), and the virulence gene rmpA were significantly higher in the hvKP than cKP isolates in all three groups (P < 0.05). Most of the hypervirulent ESBL-KP and CR-KP isolates were K non-typeable (16/30) and harbored at least one gene for virulence (26/30). The hypervirulent ESBL-KP isolates primarily carried bla CTX-M (12/20, 60%) genes, and the hypervirulent CR-KP isolates mainly carried bla NDM- 1 (8/10, 80%) genes. Moreover, three hypervirulent ESBL-KP and two hypervirulent CR-KP isolates showed resistance to tigecycline but were sensitive to colistin. The transcriptional levels of rmpA in cKP were much lower than that in hvKP isolates in all three groups. Furthermore, overexpression of rmpA in the rmpA-low-expression cKP isolates could enhance bacterial virulence in the mouse infection experiment. In conclusion, our data suggest that the capsular serotype K1 (magA), rmpA, hypermucoviscosity, and ST23 were strongly associated with hvKP in non-MDR-KP, ESBL-KP, and CR-KP groups, and low rmpA expression levels contributed to the absence of hypervirulent phenotype.
Project description:Sequence type 36 (ST36) Klebsiella pneumoniae is distributed worldwide. We found an ST36 K. pneumoniae clinical isolate that was carbapenem resistant, carried blaKPC-2, had mucoid regulator gene rmpA, and exhibited high virulence. The finding suggests the emergence of carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent K. pneumoniae of ST36, and surveillance of carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent K. pneumoniae is required.
Project description:The polysaccharide capsule is an essential virulence factor for Klebsiella pneumoniae in both community-acquired hypervirulent strains as well as health care-associated classical strains that are posing significant challenges due to multidrug resistance. Capsule production is known to be transcriptionally regulated by a number of proteins, but very little is known about how these proteins collectively control capsule production. RmpA and RcsB are two known regulators of capsule gene expression, and RmpA is required for the hypermucoviscous (HMV) phenotype in hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strains. In this report, we confirmed that these regulators performed their anticipated functions in the ATCC 43816 derivative, KPPR1S: rcsB and rmpA mutants are HMV negative and have reduced capsule gene expression. We also identified a novel transcriptional regulator, RmpC, encoded by a gene near rmpA The ?rmpC strain has reduced capsule gene expression but retains the HMV phenotype. We further showed that a regulatory cascade exists in which KvrA and KvrB, the recently characterized MarR-like regulators, and RcsB contribute to capsule regulation through regulation of the rmpA promoter and through additional mechanisms. In a murine pneumonia model, the regulator mutants have a range of colonization defects, suggesting that they regulate virulence factors in addition to capsule. Further testing of the rmpC and rmpA mutants revealed that they have distinct and overlapping functions and provide evidence that HMV is not dependent on overproduction of capsule. This distinction will facilitate a better understanding of HMV and how it contributes to enhanced virulence of hypervirulent strains.IMPORTANCE Klebsiella pneumoniae continues to be a substantial public health threat due to its ability to cause health care-associated and community-acquired infections combined with its ability to acquire antibiotic resistance. Novel therapeutics are needed to combat this pathogen, and a greater understanding of its virulence factors is required for the development of new drugs. A key virulence factor for K. pneumoniae is the capsule, and community-acquired hypervirulent strains produce a capsule that causes hypermucoidy. We report here a novel capsule regulator, RmpC, and provide evidence that capsule production and the hypermucoviscosity phenotype are distinct processes. Infection studies showing that this and other capsule regulator mutants have a range of phenotypes indicate that additional virulence factors are in their regulons. These results shed new light on the mechanisms controlling capsule production and introduce targets that may prove useful for the development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of this increasingly problematic pathogen.
Project description:Carbapenem-resistant, hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-hvKP) has recently emerged as a significant threat to public health. In this study, 29 K. pneumoniae isolates were isolated from eight patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of a comprehensive teaching hospital located in China from March 2017 to January 2018. Clinical information of patients was the basis for the further analyses of the isolates including antimicrobial susceptibility tests, identification of antibiotic resistance and virulence gene determinants, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), XbaI-macrorestriction by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Selected isolates representing distinct resistance profiles and virulence phenotypes were screened for hypervirulence in a Galleria mellonella larvae infection model. In the course of the outbreak, the overall mortality rate of patients was 100% (n = 8) attributed to complications arising from CR-hvKP infections. All isolates except one (28/29, 96.6%) were resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents, and harbored diverse resistance determinants that included the globally prevalent carbapenemase bla KPC-2. Most isolates had hypervirulent genotypes being positive for 19 virulence-associated genes, including iutA (25/29, 86.2%), rmpA (27/29, 93.1%), ybtA (27/29, 93.1%), entB (29/29, 100%), fimH (29/29, 100%), and mrkD (29/29, 100%). MLST revealed ST11 for the majority of isolates (26/29, 89,7%). Infection assays demonstrated high mortality in the Galleria mellonella model with the highest LD50 values for three isolates (<105 CFU/mL) demonstrating the degree of hypervirulence of these CR-hvKP isolates, and is discussed relative to previous outbreaks of CR-hvKP.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4><i>Streptococcus pneumoniae</i> is capable of causing multiple infectious syndromes and occasionally causes outbreaks. The objective of this review is to update prior outbreak reviews, identify control measures, and comment on transmission.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a review of published <i>S. pneumoniae</i> outbreaks, defined as at least two linked cases of <i>S. pneumoniae</i>.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 98 articles (86 respiratory; 8 conjunctivitis; 2 otitis media; 1 surgical site; 1 multiple), detailing 94 unique outbreaks occurring between 1916 to 2017 were identified. Reported serotypes included 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7F, 8, 12F, 14, 20, and 23F, and serogroups 6, 9, 15, 19, 22. The median attack rate for pneumococcal outbreaks was 7.0% (Interquartile range: 2.4%, 13%). The median case-fatality ratio was 12.9% (interquartile range: 0%, 29.2%). Age groups most affected by outbreaks were older adults (60.3%) and young adults (34.2%). Outbreaks occurred in crowded settings, such as universities/schools/daycares, military barracks, hospital wards, and long-term care facilities. Of outbreaks that assessed vaccination coverage, low initial vaccination or revaccination coverage was common. Most (73.1%) of reported outbreaks reported non-susceptibility to at least one antibiotic, with non-susceptibility to penicillin (56.0%) and erythromycin (52.6%) being common. Evidence suggests transmission in outbreaks can occur through multiple modes, including carriers, infected individuals, or medical devices. Several cases developed disease shortly after exposure (<?72 h). Respiratory outbreaks used infection prevention (55.6%), prophylactic vaccination (63.5%), and prophylactic antibiotics (50.5%) to prevent future cases. PPSV23 covered all reported outbreak serotypes. PCV13 covered 10 of 16 serotypes. For conjunctival outbreaks, only infection prevention strategies were used.<h4>Conclusions</h4>To prevent the initial occurrence of respiratory outbreaks, vaccination and revaccination is likely the best preventive measure. Once an outbreak occurs, vaccination and infection-prevention strategies should be utilized. Antibiotic prophylaxis may be considered for high-risk exposed individuals, but development of antibiotic resistance during outbreaks has been reported. The short period between initial exposure and development of disease indicates that pneumococcal colonization is not a prerequisite for pneumococcal respiratory infection.