Pharmacogenetics of toxicity of 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.
ABSTRACT: The differences in patients' response to the same medication, toxicity included, are one of the major problems in breast cancer treatment. Chemotherapy toxicity makes a significant clinical problem due to decreased quality of life, prolongation of treatment and reinforcement of negative emotions associated with therapy. In this study we evaluated the genetic and clinical risk factors of FAC chemotherapy-related toxicities in the group of 324 breast cancer patients. Selected genes and their polymorphisms were involved in FAC drugs transport (ABCB1, ABCC2, ABCG2,SLC22A16), metabolism (ALDH3A1, CBR1, CYP1B1, CYP2C19, DPYD, GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, MTHFR,TYMS), DNA damage recognition, repair and cell cycle control (ATM, ERCC1, ERCC2, TP53, XRCC1). The multifactorial risk models that combine genetic risk modifiers and clinical characteristics were constructed for 12 toxic symptoms. The majority of toxicities was dependent on the modifications in components of more than one pathway of FAC drugs, while the impact level of clinical factors was comparable to the genetic ones. For the carriers of multiple high risk factors the chance of developing given symptom was significantly elevated which proved the factor-dosage effect. We found the strongest associations between concurrent presence of clinical factors - overall and recurrent anemia, nephrotoxicity and early nausea and genetic polymorphisms in genes responsible for DNA repair, drugs metabolism and transport pathways. These results indicate the possibility of selection of the patients with expected high tolerance to FAC treatment and consequently with high chance of chemotherapy completion without the dose reduction, treatment delays and decline in the quality of life.
Project description:Clinical resistance to chemotherapy is one of the major problems in breast cancer treatment. In this study we analyzed possible impact of 22 polymorphic variants on the treatment response in 324 breast cancer patients. Selected genes were involved in FAC chemotherapy drugs transport (ABCB1, ABCC2, ABCG2, SLC22A16), metabolism (CYP1B1, CYP2C19, GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTP1, TYMS, MTHFR, DPYD), drug-induced damage repair (ERCC1, ERCC2, XRCC1) and involved in regulation of DNA damage response and cell cycle control (ATM, TP53).Apart from preexisting metastases three polymorphic variants were independent prognostic high risk factors of lack of response to FAC chemotherapy. Our results showed that the response to treatment depended of the variability in genes engaged in drugs' transport (ABCC2 c.-24C>T, ABCB1 p.Ser893Ala/Thr) and in DNA repair machinery (ERCC2 p.Lys751Gln). Furthermore, the growing number of high-risk genotypes was reflected in gradual increase in risk of the non-responsiveness to treatment- from OR 2.68 for presence of two genotypes to OR 9.93 for carriers of all three negative genotypes in the group of all patients. Similar gene-dosage effect was observed in the subgroup of TNBCs. Also, TFFS significantly shortened with the increasing number of high-risk genotypes, with median of 54.4 months for carriers of one variant, to 51.5 and 34.9 months for the carriers of two and three genotypes, respectively.Our results demonstrate that results of cancer treatment are the effect of many clinical and genetic factors. It seems that multifactorial polymorphic models could be a potentially useful tool in personalization of cancer therapies. The novelty in our model is the over representation of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients among the carriers of all unfavorable polymorphic variants. This finding contributes to the elucidation of the mechanisms of drug resistance in this subgroup of breast cancer patients.
Project description:The study describes a relationship between the 3'UTR variants, clinicopathological parameters and response to chemotherapy. We analyzed 33 germline polymorphisms in 3'UTRs of ADME genes in 305 breast cancer women treated with FAC regime. Clinical endpoints of this study were: overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall response defined as treatment failure-free survival (TFFS). The shortened OS was connected with the presence of NR1/2 rs3732359 AA, SLC22A16 rs7756222 CC, as well as SLC22A16 rs9487402 allele G and clinical factors belonging to TNM classification: tumor size >1?cm, nodal involvement and presence of metastases. PFS was related to two polymorphisms PGR rs1824125 GG, PGR rs12224560 CC and SLC22A16 rs7756222 CC as well as preexisting metastases. The RFS was shortened due to the DPYD rs291593 CC, AKR1C3 rs3209896 AG and negative expression of PGR. The presence of ALDH5A1 rs1054899 allele A, lack of pre-chemotherapy surgery and negative status of PGR correlated with worse treatment response. The germline variants commonly present in the population are important factors determining the response to treatment. We observed the effect of the accumulation of genetic and clinical factors on poor survival prognosis and overall treatment response.
Project description:Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Doxorubicin-based chemotherapy is used to treat breast cancer patients; however, neutropenia is a common hematologic side effect and can be life-threatening. The ABCB1 and SLC22A16 genes encode proteins that are essential for doxorubicin transport. In this study, we explored the effect of 2 common polymorphisms in ABCB1 (rs10276036 C/T) and SLC22A16 (rs12210538 A/G) on the development of grade 3/4 febrile neutropenia in Iranian breast cancer patients. Our results showed no significant association between these polymorphisms and grade 3/4 febrile neutropenia; however, allele C of ABCB1 (rs10276036 C/T) (p = 0.315, OR = 1.500, 95% CI = 0.679-3.312) and allele A of SLC22A16 (rs12210538 A/G) (p = 0.110, OR = 2.984, 95% CI = 0.743-11.988) tended to have a greater association with grade 3/4 febrile neutropenia, whereas allele T of ABCB1 (rs10276036) (p = 0.130, OR = 0.515, 95% CI = 0.217-1.223) and allele G of SLC22A16 (rs12210538) (p = 0.548, OR = 0.786, 95% CI = 0.358-1.726) tended to protect against this condition. In addition to breast cancer, a statistically significant association was also observed between the development of grade 3/4 febrile neutropenia and other clinical manifestations such as stage IIIC cancer (p = 0.037) and other diseases (p = 0.026). Our results indicate that evaluation of the risk of grade 3/4 neutropenia development and consideration of molecular and clinical findings may be of value when screening for high-risk breast cancer patients.
Project description:Women who receive chemotherapy for a first primary breast cancer have been observed to have a reduced risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC), however, whether the genetic profile of a patient modifies this protective effect is currently not understood. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of germline genetic variation in genes coding for drug metabolizing enzymes, transporters, and targets on the association between chemotherapy and risk of CBC.From the population-based Women's Environment Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study, we included 636 Caucasian women with CBC (cases) and 1,224 women with unilateral breast cancer (controls). The association between common chemotherapeutic regimens, CMF and FAC/FEC, and risk of CBC stratified by genotype of 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 14 genes selected for their known involvement in metabolism, action, and transport of breast cancer chemotherapeutic agents, were determined using conditional logistic regression.CMF (RR = 0.5, 95 % CI 0.4, 0.7) and FAC/FEC (RR = 0.7, 95 % CI 0.4, 1.0) are associated with lower CBC risk relative to no chemotherapy in multivariable-adjusted models. Here we show that genotype of selected genes involved in the metabolism and uptake of these therapeutic agents does not significantly alter the protective effect of either CMF or FAC/FEC on risk of CBC.The results of this study show that germline genetic variation in selected gene does not significantly alter the protective effect of CMF, FAC, and FEC on risk of CBC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Taxanes usually follow anthracyclines in breast cancer neo/adjuvant treatment, likely because of their later introduction into clinical practice. However, there is no biological rationale that justifies this current standard of care. We compared a taxane followed by an anthracycline-based regimen with the reverse sequence in the neoadjuvant setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS:In a randomized, open-label, single-center phase II trial, women with inoperable, locally advanced, HER2-negative breast cancer were stratified by hormone receptor status and randomized to three cycles of docetaxel (T) followed by three cycles of fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FAC) versus three cycles of FAC followed by three cycles of docetaxel. Surgery, radiotherapy, and adjuvant hormonal therapy were administered as per local guidelines. The primary endpoint was pathological complete response (pCR), and secondary endpoints included toxicity, event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS:Treatment sequence did not improve pCR, which was 7% with T-FAC and 3% with FAC-T. However, after a median follow-up of 79 months, the 5-year EFS rate was 75.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 65.4%-87.7%) with T-FAC and 48.2% (95% CI, 37.0%-62.7%) with FAC-T (hazard ratio [HR], 0.46; 95% CI, 0.26-0.81; log-rank p = .0054), and the 5-year OS rate was 89.7% (95% CI, 82.2%-97.8%) with T-FAC and 64.7% (95% CI, 53.6%-78.1%) with FAC-T (HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.22-0.78; p = .0052). There were no unexpected toxicities. CONCLUSION:We showed for the first time an improvement in EFS and OS with taxane-first compared with anthracycline-first sequencing chemotherapy in HER2-negative, locally advanced breast cancer. Confirmation of these results may have implications for clinical practice. This trial was registered with Clinicatrials.gov identifier NCT01270373. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:The NeoSAMBA trial showed a benefit for taxane-first sequencing chemotherapy consistent with the systematic review of the literature as well as the larger Neo-tAnGo study. Many recent and current ongoing clinical trials have already followed this treatment strategy. As a taxane-before-anthracycline sequence carries neither an incremental cost nor an increased toxicity, and given the available literature on this issue, reinforced that taxane-first regimen can be easily incorporated into daily clinical practice while awaiting confirmation of these findings from larger trials.
Project description:A primary challenge in identifying replicable pharmacogenomic markers from clinical genomewide association study (GWAS) trials in oncology is the difficulty in performing a second large clinical trial with the same drugs and dosage regimen. We sought to overcome this challenge by incorporating GWAS results from cell-based studies using the same chemotherapy as a clinical cohort.In this study, we test whether the overlap between genetic variants identified in a preclinical study and a clinical study on capecitabine is more than expected by chance. A GWAS of capecitabine-induced cytotoxicity was performed in 164 lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from the CEU HapMap population and compared with a GWAS of hand-foot syndrome (HFS), the most frequent capecitabine-induced adverse drug reaction, in Spanish breast and colorectal cancer patients (n=160) treated with capecitabine.We observed an overlap of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with capecitabine-induced cytotoxicity (P<0.001) in lymphoblastoid cell lines and HFS (P<0.05) in patients, which is a greater overlap than expected by chance (genotype-phenotype permutation empirical P=0.015). Ten tag single nucleotide polymorphisms, which cover the overlap loci, were genotyped in a second patient cohort (n=85) and one of them, rs9936750, was associated with capecitabine-induced HFS (P=0.0076).The enrichment results imply that cellular models of capecitabine-induced cytotoxicity may capture components of the underlying polygenic architecture of related toxicities in patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC) therapy is an effective treatment for early-stage breast cancer. Doxorubicin is a substrate for ABCB1 and SLC22A16 transporters. Cyclophosphamide is a prodrug that requires oxidation to 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide, which yields a cytotoxic alkylating agent. The initial oxidation is catalysed by cytochrome P450 enzymes including CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A5. Polymorphic variants of the genes coding for these enzymes and transporters have been identified, which may influence the systemic pharmacology of the two drugs. It is not known whether this genetic variation has an impact on the efficacy or toxicity of AC therapy.<h4>Methods</h4>Germ line DNA samples from 230 patients with breast cancer on AC therapy were genotyped for the following SNPs: ABCB1 C1236T, G2677T/A and C3435T, SLC22A16 A146G, T312C, T755C and T1226C, CYP2B6*2, *8, *9, *3, *4 and *5, CYP2C9*2 and *3, CYP3A5*3 and CYP2C19*2. Clinical data on survival, toxicity, demographics and pathology were collated.<h4>Results</h4>A lower incidence of dose delay, indicative of less toxicity, was seen in carriers of the SLC22A16 A146G, T312C, T755C variants. In contrast, a higher incidence of dose delay was seen in carriers of the SLC22A16 1226C, CYP2B6*2 and CYP2B6*5 alleles. The ABCB1 2677A, CYP2B6*2, CYP 2B6*8, CYP 2B6*9, CYP 2B6*4 alleles were associated with a worse outcome.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Variant alleles in the ABCB1, SLC22A16 and CYP2B6 genes are associated with response to AC therapy in the treatment of breast cancer.
Project description:We examined in a prospective, randomized, international clinical trial the performance of a previously defined 30-gene predictor (DLDA-30) of pathologic complete response (pCR) to preoperative weekly paclitaxel and fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (T/FAC) chemotherapy, and assessed if DLDA-30 also predicts increased sensitivity to FAC-only chemotherapy. We compared the pCR rates after T/FAC versus FACx6 preoperative chemotherapy. We also did an exploratory analysis to identify novel candidate genes that differentially predict response in the two treatment arms.Two hundred and seventy-three patients were randomly assigned to receive either weekly paclitaxel × 12 followed by FAC × 4 (T/FAC, n = 138), or FAC × 6 (n = 135) neoadjuvant chemotherapy. All patients underwent a pretreatment fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the tumor for gene expression profiling and treatment response prediction.The pCR rates were 19% and 9% in the T/FAC and FAC arms, respectively (P < 0.05). In the T/FAC arm, the positive predictive value (PPV) of the genomic predictor was 38% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 21-56%], the negative predictive value was 88% (95% CI, 77-95%), and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.711. In the FAC arm, the PPV was 9% (95% CI, 1-29%) and the AUC was 0.584. This suggests that the genomic predictor may have regimen specificity. Its performance was similar to a clinical variable-based predictor nomogram.Gene expression profiling for prospective response prediction was feasible in this international trial. The 30-gene predictor can identify patients with greater than average sensitivity to T/FAC chemotherapy. However, it captured molecular equivalents of clinical phenotype. Next-generation predictive markers will need to be developed separately for different molecular subsets of breast cancers.
Project description:Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) presents therapeutic challenges in older adults because of high-risk leukemia biology conferring chemoresistance, and poor functional status resulting in increased therapy-related toxicities. Recent FDA approval of 8 new drugs for AML has increased therapeutic armamentarium and also provides effective low-intensity treatment options. Rational therapy selection strategies that consider individual's risk of therapy-related toxicities and probability of disease control can maximize benefits of available treatments. Studies have demonstrated that fitness level, measured by geriatric assessment can predict therapy-related toxicities, whereas cytogenetic and mutation results correlate with the probability of responses to standard chemotherapy. We are approaching an era when we move from "one size fits all" approach to personalized therapy selection based on geriatric assessment, genetic and molecular profiling.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The chemotherapy resistance and toxicity of chemotherapy are major problems in breast cancer treatment. However, candidate biomarkers for predicting clinical outcomes and better prognosis remain lacking. METHODS:In this study, we analyzed possible impact of 8 genetic variants of fibroblast growth factor receptor1-4 (FGFR1-4) on the treatment response and toxicities in 211 breast cancer patients. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood cells, and the genotypes were examined using the TaqMan Pre-Designed SNP Genotyping Assays. RESULTS:The FGFR4 rs1966265 and FGFR2 rs2981578 contributed to clinical outcome of breast cancer treated with docetaxel-epirubicin-cyclophosphamide (CET)-based chemotherapy. For rs1966265, AA genotype had significant correlation with the clinical response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) when compared with GG and AG/GG genotype (P?=?0.019 and P?=?0.004, respectively). Moreover, A allele of FGFR2 rs2981578 had significant rates of response (P?=?0.025). In addition, rs2420946 CC genotype was associated with higher frequency of toxicities compared with TT and CT/TT genotypes (P?=?0.038 and P?=?0.019, respectively). Also, rs2981578 AG genotype showed higher frequency of toxicities compared with GG genotype (P?<?0.0001). CONCLUSIONS:The results suggest these polymorphisms, especially rs1966265 and rs2981578, might be candidate pharmacogenomics factors to the response and prognosis prediction for individualized CET-based chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.