Deleterious variants in DCHS1 are prevalent in sporadic cases of mitral valve prolapse.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:A recent study identified DCHS1 as a causal gene for mitral valve prolapse. The goal of this study is to investigate the presence and frequency of known and novel variants in this gene in 100 asymptomatic patients with moderate to severe organic mitral regurgitation. METHODS:DNA sequencing assays were developed for two previously identified functional missense variants, namely p.R2330C and p.R2513H, and all 21 exons of DCHS1. Pathogenicity of variants was evaluated in silico. RESULTS:p.R2330C and p.R2513H were not identified in this cohort. Sequencing all coding regions revealed eight missense variants including six considered deleterious. This includes one novel variant (p.A2464P) and two rare variants (p.R2770Q and p.R2462Q). These variants are predicted to be deleterious with combined annotation-dependent depletion (CADD) scores greater than 25, which are in the same range as p.R2330C (CADD = 28.0) and p.R2513H (CADD = 24.3). More globally, 24 of 100 cases were carriers of at least one in silico-predicted deleterious missense variant in DCHS1, suggesting that this single gene may account for a substantial portion of cases. CONCLUSION:This study reveals an important contribution of germline variants in DCHS1 in unrelated patients with mitral valve prolapse and supports genetic testing of this gene to screen individuals at risk.
Project description:Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common cardiac valve disease that affects nearly 1 in 40 individuals. It can manifest as mitral regurgitation and is the leading indication for mitral valve surgery. Despite a clear heritable component, the genetic aetiology leading to non-syndromic MVP has remained elusive. Four affected individuals from a large multigenerational family segregating non-syndromic MVP underwent capture sequencing of the linked interval on chromosome 11. We report a missense mutation in the DCHS1 gene, the human homologue of the Drosophila cell polarity gene dachsous (ds), that segregates with MVP in the family. Morpholino knockdown of the zebrafish homologue dachsous1b resulted in a cardiac atrioventricular canal defect that could be rescued by wild-type human DCHS1, but not by DCHS1 messenger RNA with the familial mutation. Further genetic studies identified two additional families in which a second deleterious DCHS1 mutation segregates with MVP. Both DCHS1 mutations reduce protein stability as demonstrated in zebrafish, cultured cells and, notably, in mitral valve interstitial cells (MVICs) obtained during mitral valve repair surgery of a proband. Dchs1(+/-) mice had prolapse of thickened mitral leaflets, which could be traced back to developmental errors in valve morphogenesis. DCHS1 deficiency in MVP patient MVICs, as well as in Dchs1(+/-) mouse MVICs, result in altered migration and cellular patterning, supporting these processes as aetiological underpinnings for the disease. Understanding the role of DCHS1 in mitral valve development and MVP pathogenesis holds potential for therapeutic insights for this very common disease.
Project description:Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) affects 1 in 40 people and is the most common indication for mitral valve surgery. MVP can cause arrhythmias, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death, and to date, the causes of this disease are poorly understood. We now demonstrate that defects in primary cilia genes and their regulated pathways can cause MVP in familial and sporadic nonsyndromic MVP cases. Our expression studies and genetic ablation experiments confirmed a role for primary cilia in regulating ECM deposition during cardiac development. Loss of primary cilia during development resulted in progressive myxomatous degeneration and profound mitral valve pathology in the adult setting. Analysis of a large family with inherited, autosomal dominant nonsyndromic MVP identified a deleterious missense mutation in a cilia gene, DZIP1 A mouse model harboring this variant confirmed the pathogenicity of this mutation and revealed impaired ciliogenesis during development, which progressed to adult myxomatous valve disease and functional MVP. Relevance of primary cilia in common forms of MVP was tested using pathway enrichment in a large population of patients with MVP and controls from previously generated genome-wide association studies (GWAS), which confirmed the involvement of primary cilia genes in MVP. Together, our studies establish a developmental basis for MVP through altered cilia-dependent regulation of ECM and suggest that defects in primary cilia genes can be causative to disease phenotype in some patients with MVP.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Initial studies have suggested the familial clustering of mitral valve prolapse, but most of them were either community based among unselected individuals or applied non-specific diagnostic criteria. Therefore little is known about the familial distribution of mitral regurgitation in a referral-type population with a more severe mitral valve prolapse phenotype. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of familial mitral regurgitation in patients undergoing surgery for mitral valve prolapse, differentiating patients with Barlow's disease, Barlow forme fruste and fibro-elastic deficiency. METHODS:A total of 385 patients (62?±?12 years, 63% men) who underwent surgery for mitral valve prolapse were contacted to assess cardiac family history systematically. Only the documented presence of mitral regurgitation was considered to define 'familial mitral regurgitation'. In the probands, the aetiology of mitral valve prolapse was defined by surgical observations. RESULTS:A total of 107 (28%) probands were classified as having Barlow's disease, 85 (22%) as Barlow forme fruste and 193 (50%) patients as fibro-elastic deficiency. In total, 51 patients (13%) reported a clear family history for mitral regurgitation; these patients were significantly younger, more often diagnosed with Barlow's disease and also reported more sudden death in their family as compared with 'sporadic mitral regurgitation'. In particular, 'familial mitral regurgitation' was reported in 28 patients with Barlow's disease (26%), 15 patients (8%) with fibro-elastic deficiency and eight (9%) with Barlow forme fruste (P?<?0.001). CONCLUSIONS:In a large cohort of patients operated for mitral valve prolapse, the self-reported prevalence of familial mitral regurgitation was 26% in patients with Barlow's disease and still 8% in patients with fibro-elastic deficiency, highlighting the importance of familial anamnesis and echocardiographic screening in all mitral valve prolapse patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A genetic component to familial mitral valve prolapse (MVP) has been proposed for decades. Despite this, very few genes have been linked to MVP. Herein is described a four-generation pedigree with numerous individuals affected with severe MVP, some at strikingly young ages. METHODS:A detailed clinical evaluation performed on all affected family members demonstrated a spectrum of MVP morphologies and associated phenotypes. RESULTS:Linkage analysis failed to identify strong candidate loci, but revealed significant regions, which were investigated further using whole-exome sequencing of one of the severely affected family members. Whole-exome sequencing identified variants in this individual that fell within linkage analysis peak regions, but none was an obvious pathogenic candidate. Follow up segregation analysis of all exome-identified variants was performed to genotype other affected and unaffected individuals in the family, but no variants emerged as clear pathogenic candidates. Two notable variants of uncertain significance in candidate genes were identified: p.I1013S in PTPRJ at 11p11.2 and FLYWCH1 p.R540Q at 16p13.3. Neither gene has been previously linked to MVP in humans, although PTPRJ mutant mice display defects in endocardial cushions, which give rise to the cardiac valves. PTPRJ and FLYWCH1 expression was detected in adult human mitral valve cells, and in-silico analysis of these variants suggests they may be deleterious. However, neither variant segregated completely with all of the affected individuals in the family, particularly when 'affected' was broadly defined. CONCLUSIONS:While a contributory role for PTPRJ and FLYWCH1 in this family cannot be excluded, the study results underscored the difficulties involved in uncovering the genomic contribution to MVP, even in apparently Mendelian families.
Project description:The Drosophila Dachsous and Fat proteins function as ligand and receptor, respectively, for an intercellular signaling pathway that regulates Hippo signaling and planar cell polarity. Although gene-targeted mutations in two mammalian Fat genes have been described, whether mammals have a Fat signaling pathway equivalent to that in Drosophila, and what its biological functions might be, have remained unclear. Here, we describe a gene-targeted mutation in a murine Dachsous homolog, Dchs1. Analysis of the phenotypes of Dchs1 mutant mice and comparisons with Fat4 mutant mice identify requirements for these genes in multiple organs, including the ear, kidney, skeleton, intestine, heart and lung. Dchs1 and Fat4 single mutants and Dchs1 Fat4 double mutants have similar phenotypes throughout the body. In some cases, these phenotypes suggest that Dchs1-Fat4 signaling influences planar cell polarity. In addition to the appearance of cysts in newborn kidneys, we also identify and characterize a requirement for Dchs1 and Fat4 in growth, branching and cell survival during early kidney development. Dchs1 and Fat4 are predominantly expressed in mesenchymal cells in multiple organs, and mutation of either gene increases protein staining for the other. Our analysis implies that Dchs1 and Fat4 function as a ligand-receptor pair during murine development, and identifies novel requirements for Dchs1-Fat4 signaling in multiple organs.
Project description:In human, mutations of the protocadherins FAT4 and DCHS1 result in Van Maldergem syndrome, which is characterised, in part, by craniofacial abnormalities. Here, we analyse the role of Dchs1-Fat4 signalling during osteoblast differentiation in mouse. We show that Fat4 and Dchs1 mutants mimic the craniofacial phenotype of the human syndrome and that Dchs1-Fat4 signalling is essential for osteoblast differentiation. In Dchs1/Fat4 mutants, proliferation of osteoprogenitors is increased and osteoblast differentiation is delayed. We show that loss of Dchs1-Fat4 signalling is linked to increased Yap-Tead activity and that Yap is expressed and required for proliferation in osteoprogenitors. In contrast, Taz is expressed in more-committed Runx2-expressing osteoblasts, Taz does not regulate osteoblast proliferation and Taz-Tead activity is unaffected in Dchs1/Fat4 mutants. Finally, we show that Yap and Taz differentially regulate the transcriptional activity of Runx2, and that the activity of Yap-Runx2 and Taz-Runx2 complexes is altered in Dchs1/Fat4 mutant osteoblasts. In conclusion, these data identify Dchs1-Fat4 as a signalling pathway in osteoblast differentiation, reveal its crucial role within the early Runx2 progenitors, and identify distinct requirements for Yap and Taz during osteoblast differentiation.
Project description:Many in silico predictors of genetic variant pathogenicity have been previously developed, but there is currently no standard application of these algorithms for variant assessment. Using 4,094 ClinVar-curated missense variants in clinically actionable genes, we evaluated the accuracy and yield of benign and deleterious evidence in 5 in silico meta-predictors, as well as agreement of SIFT and PolyPhen2, and report the derived thresholds for the best performing predictor(s). REVEL and BayesDel outperformed all other meta-predictors (CADD, MetaSVM, Eigen), with higher positive predictive value, comparable negative predictive value, higher yield, and greater overall prediction performance. Agreement of SIFT and PolyPhen2 resulted in slightly higher yield but lower overall prediction performance than REVEL or BayesDel. Our results support the use of gene-level rather than generalized thresholds, when gene-level thresholds can be estimated. Our results also support the use of 2-sided thresholds, which allow for uncertainty, rather than a single, binary cut-point for assigning benign and deleterious evidence. The gene-level 2-sided thresholds we derived for REVEL or BayesDel can be used to assess in silico evidence for missense variants in accordance with current classification guidelines.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We aimed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of cardiac computed tomography (CT) for the detection of mitral valve (MV) prolapse in mitral regurgitation (MR) with surgical findings as the standard reference, and to assess the predictability of MV replacement based on morphologic CT findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 156 patients who had undergone preoperative cardiac CT and subsequently received MV surgery due to severe MR were retrospectively enrolled. Non-repairable MV was defined when at least one of the following conditions was met: 1) anterior leaflet prolapse, 2) bi-leaflet prolapse, or 3) valve morphology (leaflet thickening, calcification, or mitral annular calcification [MAC]). Diagnostic performance of CT for the detection of the prolapsed segment was assessed with surgical findings as the standard reference. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the value of CT findings to predict actual valve replacement. RESULTS:During surgery, MV prolapse was identified in 72.1%. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy for the detection of MV prolapse were 99.1%, 81.4%, and 94.2%, respectively, per patient. One-hundred eighteen patients (75.6%) underwent MV repair and the remaining 38 patients received MV replacement. Bi-leaflet prolapse and valve morphology were independent predictors of valve replacement after adjusting for clinical variables (adjusted odds ratio, [OR] 8.63 for bi-leaflet prolapse; OR, 4.14 for leaflet thickening; and OR, 5.37 for leaflet calcium score > 5.6; p < 0.05). CONCLUSION:Cardiac CT can have high diagnostic performance for detecting the prolapsed segment of the MV and predictability of valve replacement before surgery. Bi-leaflet prolapse and valve morphology, such as leaflet thickening, or calcification or MAC, are the most important predictors of valve replacement.
Project description:The myxomatous mitral valve is the most common form of valvular heart disease. The pathologic presentation of myxomatous mitral valve disease varies between valve thickness, degree of leaflet prolapse and the presence or absence of flail leaflets. Recent molecular biology studies have confirmed that the myxomatous changes in mitral valve prolapse equals a cartilage phenotype, which is regulated by the Lrp5 receptor. Clinically, echocardiography defines the valve pathology to determine the surgical approach to valve repair or replacement. Furthermore, the timing of surgical valve repair is controversial and is the subject of a current multicenter trial. The results will resolve the timing of whether watchful waiting versus early surgical valve repair decreases morbidity and mortality of this disease process. This review will summarize the current understanding of the cellular and hemodynamic mechanisms of myxomatous mitral valve disease, which may have future implications in the targeted therapy of this disease process.