Biopolymer Molecular Weight Can Modulate the Wound Healing Efficacy of Multivalent Sonic Hedgehog-Hyaluronic Acid Conjugates.
ABSTRACT: There is a clinical need for new therapeutics to improve healing of chronic impaired wounds. Thus, we investigated how biopolymer conjugation could be used to improve the wound healing performance of a key growth factor for tissue regeneration: Sonic hedgehog (Shh). We generated two multivalent Shh conjugates (mvShh) using hyaluronic acid with two different MWs, which exhibited equivalent potency and proteolytic protection in vitro. Using db/db diabetic mice, we showed that mvShh made with smaller HyA MW resulted in more rapid and robust neovascularization compared to mvShh made with larger MW HyA. Further, smaller mvShh conjugates resulted in faster wound resolution compared to the unconjugated Shh. This study is the first to show how the wound healing efficacy of multivalent protein-polymer conjugates is sensitive to the polymer MW, and our findings suggest that this parameter could be used to enhance the efficacy of growth factor conjugates.
Project description:Growth factors hold great promise for regenerative therapies. However, their clinical use has been halted by poor efficacy and rapid clearance from tissue, necessitating the delivery of extremely high doses to achieve clinical effectiveness which has raised safety concerns. Thus, strategies to either enhance growth factor activity at low doses or to increase their residence time within target tissues are necessary for clinical success. In this study, we generated multivalent conjugates (MVCs) of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a key growth factor involved in angiogenesis and wound healing, to hyaluronic acid (HyA) polymer chains. Multivalent bFGF conjugates (mvbFGF) were fabricated with minimal non-specific interaction observed between bFGF and the HyA chain. The hydrodynamic radii of mvbFGF ranged from ?50 to ?75 nm for conjugation ratios of bFGF to HyA chains at low (10?:?1) and high (30?:?1) feed ratios, respectively. The mvbFGF demonstrated enhanced bioactivity compared to unconjugated bFGF in assays of cell proliferation and migration, processes critical to angiogenesis and tissue regeneration. The 30?:?1 mvbFGF outperformed the 10?:?1 conjugate, which could be due to either FGF receptor clustering or interference with receptor mediated internalization and signal deactivation. This study simultaneously investigated the role of both protein to polymer ratio and multivalent conjugate size on their bioactivity, and determined that increasing the protein-to-polymer ratio and conjugate size resulted in greater cell bioactivity.
Project description:Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are one of the major complications in type II diabetes patients and can result in amputation and morbidity. Although multiple approaches are used clinically to help wound closure, many patients still lack adequate treatment. Here we show that IL-20 subfamily cytokines are upregulated during normal wound healing. While there is a redundant role for each individual cytokine in this subfamily in wound healing, mice deficient in IL-22R, the common receptor chain for IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24, display a significant delay in wound healing. Furthermore, IL-20, IL-22 and IL-24 are all able to promote wound healing in type II diabetic db/db mice. When compared to other growth factors such as VEGF and PDGF that accelerate wound healing in this model, IL-22 uniquely induced genes involved in reepithelialization, tissue remodeling and innate host defense mechanisms from wounded skin. Interestingly, IL-22 treatment showed superior efficacy compared to PDGF or VEGF in an infectious diabetic wound model. Taken together, our data suggest that IL-20 subfamily cytokines, particularly IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24, might provide therapeutic benefit for patients with DFU. Overall design: There are 45 samples in total (nine groups n=5/group). We have prepared the RNA from Diabetic Foot Ulcer Skin wounds. The following is the experimental design: Groups 1-4: 24 hrs time point; Groups 5-9: day7 post wound; Group 1: db/db females, n=5, anti Ragweed; Group 2: db/db females, n=5 IL-22 Fc; Group 3: db/db females, n=5 VEGF; Group 4: db/db females, n=5 PDGF; Group 5: dbm females n=5, PBS (lean control mice); Group 6: db/db females, n=5, anti-Ragweed; Group 7: db/db females, n=5 IL-22 Fc; Group 8: db/db females, n=5 VEGF; Group 9: db/db females, n=5 PDGF anti-Ragweed (50 ug) and Il-22 Fc (20 ug). For groups 1-4, wound (6mm) will be created on Day0 and receive one dose of topical treatment. Mice will be euthanized 24 hrs post topical treatment and wound tissue will be harvested. For groups 5 through 9 wound will be created on day 0 and dosed topically on Day0, Day2, day4, day 6. Mice will be euthanized on Day 7 and wound tissue harvested and RNA prepared.
Project description:Current anti-VEGF drugs for patients with diabetic retinopathy suffer from short residence time in the vitreous of the eye. In order to maintain biologically effective doses of drug for inhibiting retinal neovascularization, patients are required to receive regular monthly injections of drug, which often results in low patient compliance and progression of the disease. To improve the intravitreal residence time of anti-VEGF drugs, we have synthesized multivalent bioconjugates of an anti-VEGF protein, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt) that is covalently grafted to chains of hyaluronic acid (HyA), conjugates that are termed mvsFlt. Using a mouse corneal angiogenesis assay, we demonstrate that covalent conjugation to HyA chains does not decrease the bioactivity of sFlt and that mvsFlt is equivalent to sFlt at inhibiting corneal angiogenesis. In a rat vitreous model, we observed that mvsFlt had significantly increased intravitreal residence time compared to the unconjugated sFlt after 2 days. The calculated intravitreal half-lives for sFlt and mvsFlt were 3.3 and 35 hours, respectively. Furthermore, we show that mvsFlt is more effective than the unconjugated form at inhibiting retinal neovascularization in an oxygen-induced retinopathy model, an effect that is most likely due to the longer half-life of mvsFlt in the vitreous. Taken together, our results indicate that conjugation of sFlt to HyA does not affect its affinity for VEGF and this conjugation significantly improves drug half-life. These in vivo results suggest that our strategy of multivalent conjugation could substantially improve upon drug half-life, and thus the efficacy of currently available drugs that are used in diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, thereby improving patient quality of life.
Project description:Objective: Chronic wounds associated with diabetes are an important public health problem demanding new treatments to improve wound healing and decrease amputations. Monocytes/macrophages play a key role in sustained inflammation associated with impaired healing and local administration of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ agonists may modulate macrophage, improving healing. In this study, we investigated the effects of GQ-11, a partial/dual PPARα/γ agonist, on macrophage function and wound healing in diabetes. Approach: Wounds were surgically induced at the dorsum of C57BL/6J and BKS.Cg-Dock7m +/+ Leprdb/J (db/db) mice and treated with hydrogel (vehicle), pioglitazone or GQ-11, for 7 or 10 days, respectively. After treatment, wounds were analyzed histologically and by quantitative PCR (qPCR). In addition, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) were cultured from C57BL/6J mice and treated with vehicle, pioglitazone, or GQ-11, after challenge with lipopolysaccharide or interleukin-4 to be analyzed by qPCR and flow cytometry. Results: GQ-11 treatment upregulated anti-inflammatory/pro-healing factors and downregulated pro-inflammatory factors both in wounds of db/db mice and in BMDM. Innovation: Wounds of db/db mice treated with GQ-11 exhibited faster wound closure and re-epithelization, increased collagen deposition, and less Mac-3 staining compared with vehicle, providing a new approach to treatment of diabetic wound healing to prevent complications. Conclusion: GQ-11 improves wound healing in db/db mice, regulating the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and wound growth factors, leading to increased re-epithelization and collagen deposition.
Project description:A lack of oxygen is classically described as a major cause of impaired wound healing in diabetic patients. Even if the role of oxygen in the wound healing process is well recognized, measurement of oxygen levels in a wound remains challenging. The purpose of the present study was to assess the value of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry to monitor pO2 in wounds during the healing process in diabetic mouse models. Kinetics of wound closure were carried out in streptozotocin (STZ)-treated and db/db mice. The pO2 was followed repeatedly during the healing process by 1 GHz EPR spectroscopy with lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc) crystals used as oxygen sensor in two different wound models: a full-thickness excisional skin wound and a pedicled skin flap. Wound closure kinetics were dramatically slower in 12-week-old db/db compared to control (db/+) mice, whereas kinetics were not statistically different in STZ-treated compared to control mice. At the center of excisional wounds, measurements were highly influenced by atmospheric oxygen early in the healing process. In pedicled flaps, hypoxia was observed early after wounding. While reoxygenation occurred over time in db/+ mice, hypoxia was prolonged in the diabetic db/db model. This observation was consistent with impaired healing and microangiopathies observed using intravital microscopy. In conclusion, EPR oximetry using LiPc crystals as the oxygen sensor is an appropriate technique to follow wound oxygenation in acute and chronic wounds, in normal and diabetic animals. Nevertheless, the technique is limited for measurements in pedicled skin flaps and cannot be applied to excisional wounds in which diffusion of atmospheric oxygen significantly affects the measurements.
Project description:Refractory wound is a dreaded complication of diabetes and is highly correlated with EPC dysfunction caused by hyperglycemia. Acarbose is a widely used oral glucose-lowering drug exclusively for T2DM. Previous studies have suggested the beneficial effect of acarbose on improving endothelial dysfunction in patients with T2DM. However, no data have been reported on the beneficial efficacy of acarbose in wound healing impairment caused by diabetes. We herein investigated whether acarbose could improve wound healing in T2DM db/db mice and the possible mechanisms involved. Acarbose hastened wound healing and enhanced angiogenesis, accompanied by increased circulating EPC number in db/db mice. In vitro, a reversed BM-EPC dysfunction was observed after the administration of acarbose in db/db mice, as reflected by tube formation assay. In addition, a significantly increased NO production was also witnessed in BM-EPCs from acarbose treated db/db mice, with decreased O2 levels. Akt inhibitor could abolish the beneficial effect of acarbose on high glucose induced EPC dysfunction in vitro, accompanied by reduced eNOS activation. Acarbose displayed potential effect in promoting wound healing and improving angiogenesis in T2DM mice, which was possibly related to the Akt/eNOS signaling pathway.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The sonic hedgehog pathway (Shh) plays a central role in maintaining stem cell function and behaviour in various processes related to self-renewal and tissue regeneration. However, the therapeutic effect of Shh on mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) has not yet been clearly elucidated. Thus, we investigated the effect of Shh on the regulation of mESC behaviour as well as the effect of Shh-pretreated mESCs in skin wound healing. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:The underlying mechanisms of Shh signalling pathway in growth and motility of mESCs were investigated using Western blot analysis, a cell proliferation assay and cell migration assay. In addition, the effect of Shh-pretreated mESCs in skin wound healing was determined using a mouse excisional wound splinting model. KEY RESULTS:Shh disrupted the adherens junction through proteolysis by activating MMPs. In addition, the release of β-catenin from adherens junctions mediated by Shh led to cell cycle-dependent mESC proliferation. Shh-mediated Gli1 expression led to integrin β1 up-regulation, followed by FAK and Src phosphorylation. Furthermore, among the Rho-GTPases, Rac1 and Cdc42 were activated in a Shh-dependent manner while F-actin expression was suppressed by Rac1 and Cdc42 siRNA transfection. Consistent with the in vitro results, the skin wound healing assay revealed that Shh-treated mESCs increased angiogenesis and skin wound repair compared to that in Shh-treated mESCs transfected with integrin β1 siRNA in vivo. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Our results imply that Shh induces adherens junction disruption and integrin β1-dependent F-actin formation by a mechanism involving FAK/Src and Rac1/Cdc42 signalling pathways in mESCs.
Project description:Background & Aims:Endothelial precursor cell (EPC) dysfunction is one of the risk factors for diabetes mellitus (DM) which results in delayed wound healing. Rosiglitazone (RSG) is a frequently prescribed oral glucose-lowering drug. Previous studies have shown the positive effects of RSG on ameliorating EPC dysfunction in diabetic patients. Interestingly, knowledge about RSG with regard to the wound healing process caused by DM is scarce. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the possible actions of RSG on wound healing and the related mechanisms involved in db/db diabetic mice. Methods:Db/db mice with spontaneous glucose metabolic disorder were used as a type 2 DM model. RSG (20 mg/kg/d, i.g.,) was administered for 4 weeks before wound creation and bone marrow derived EPC (BM-EPC) isolation. Wound closure was assessed by wound area and CD31 staining. Tubule formation and migration assays were used to judge the function of the BM-EPCs. The level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), stromal cell derived factor-1? (SDF-1?) and insulin signaling was determined by ELISA. Cell viability of the BM-EPCs was measured by CCK-8 assay. Results:RSG significantly accelerated wound healing and improved angiogenesis in db/db mice. Bioactivities of tube formation and migration were decreased in db/db mice but were elevated by RSG. Level of both VEGF and SDF-1? was increased by RSG in the BM-EPCs of db/db mice. Insulin signaling was elevated by RSG reflected in the phosphorylated-to-total AKT in the BM-EPCs. In vitro, RSG improved impaired cell viability and tube formation of BM-EPCs induced by high glucose, but this was prevented by the VEGF inhibitor avastin. Conclusion:Our data demonstrates that RSG has benefits for wound healing and angiogenesis in diabetic mice, and was partially associated with improvement of EPC function through activation of VEGF and stimulation of SDF-1? in db/db mice.
Project description:MiR-132 is one of the most upregulated miRNAs in human skin wounds at the inflammatory phase of healing. MiR-132 inhibits inflammation but promotes growth of epidermal keratinocytes, indicating that it may facilitate the inflammatory-proliferative phase transition during wound repair. Following this line of research, here we evaluated the therapeutic potential of miR-132 in chronic wound using mouse in vivo wound model. We performed a global transcriptome analysis of skin wounds of leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice treated with miR-132 or control mimics. Db/db mouse has been used as a type 2 diabetic model with impaired wound healing capacity. Overall design: Expression profiling of skin wounds of db/db mice locally treated with miR-132 or control mimics for 6 days (5 mice in each group) was performed using Affymetrix mouse Clariom™ D assay.
Project description:Poorly healing diabetic wounds are characterized by diminished collagen production and impaired angiogenesis. HoxD3, a homeobox transcription factor that promotes angiogenesis and collagen synthesis, is up-regulated during normal wound repair whereas its expression is diminished in poorly healing wounds of the genetically diabetic (db/db) mouse. To determine whether restoring expression of HoxD3 would accelerate diabetic wound healing, we devised a novel method of gene transfer, which incorporates HoxD3 plasmid DNA into a methylcellulose film that is placed on wounds created on db/db mice. The HoxD3 transgene was expressed in endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and keratinocytes of the wounds for up to 10 days. More importantly, a single application of HoxD3 to db/db mice resulted in a statistically significant acceleration of wound closure compared to control-treated wounds. Furthermore, we also observed that the HoxD3-mediated improvement in diabetic wound repair was accompanied by increases in mRNA expression of the HoxD3 target genes, Col1A1 and beta 3-integrin leading to enhanced angiogenesis and collagen deposition in the wounds. Although HoxD3-treated wounds also show improved re-epithelialization as compared to control db/db wounds, this effect was not due to direct stimulation of keratinocyte migration by HoxD3. Finally, we show that despite the dramatic increase in collagen synthesis and deposition in HoxD3-treated wounds, these wounds showed normal remodeling and we found no evidence of abnormal wound healing. These results indicate that HoxD3 may provide a means to directly improve collagen deposition, angiogenesis and closure in poorly healing diabetic wounds.