Structural insights into humanization of anti-tissue factor antibody 10H10.
ABSTRACT: Murine antibody 10H10 raised against human tissue factor is unique in that it blocks the signaling pathway, and thus inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth without interfering with coagulation. As a potential therapeutic, the antibody was humanized in a two-step procedure. Antigen-binding loops were grafted onto selected human frameworks and the resulting chimeric antibody was subjected to affinity maturation by using phage display libraries. The results of humanization were analyzed from the structural perspective through comparison of the structure of a humanized variant with the parental mouse antibody. This analysis revealed several hot spots in the framework region that appear to affect antigen binding, and therefore should be considered in human germline selection. In addition, some positions in the Vernier zone, e.g., residue 71 in the heavy chain, that are traditionally thought to be crucial appear to tolerate amino acid substitutions without any effect on binding. Several humanized variants were produced using both short and long forms of complementarity-determining region (CDR) H2 following the difference in the Kabat and Martin definitions. Comparison of such pairs indicated consistently higher thermostability of the variants with short CDR H2. Analysis of the binding data in relation to the structures singled out the ImMunoGeneTics information system® germline IGHV1-2*01 as dubious owing to two potentially destabilizing mutations as compared to the other alleles of the same germline and to other human germlines.
Project description:The heavy chain IGHV1-69 germline gene exhibits a high level of polymorphism and shows biased use in protective antibody (Ab) responses to infections and vaccines. It is also highly expressed in several B cell malignancies and autoimmune diseases. G6 is an anti-idiotypic monoclonal Ab that selectively binds to IGHV1-69 heavy chain germline gene 51p1 alleles that have been implicated in these Ab responses and disease processes. Here, we determine the co-crystal structure of humanized G6 (hG6.3) in complex with anti-influenza hemagglutinin stem-directed broadly neutralizing Ab D80. The core of the hG6.3 idiotope is a continuous string of CDR-H2 residues starting with M53 and ending with N58. G6 binding studies demonstrate the remarkable breadth of binding to 51p1 IGHV1-69 Abs with diverse CDR-H3, light chain, and antigen binding specificities. These studies detail the broad expression of the G6 cross-reactive idiotype (CRI) that further define its potential role in precision medicine.
Project description:Rabbit monoclonal antibodies (RabMAbs) can recognize diverse epitopes, including those poorly immunogenic in mice and humans. However, there have been only a few reports on RabMAb humanization, an important antibody engineering step usually done before clinical applications are investigated. To pursue a general method for humanization of RabMAbs, we analyzed the complex structures of 5 RabMAbs with their antigens currently available in the Protein Data Bank, and identified antigen-contacting residues on the rabbit Fv within the 6 Angstrom distance to its antigen. We also analyzed the supporting residues for antigen-contacting residues on the same heavy or light chain. We identified "HV4" and "LV4" in rabbit Fvs, non-complementarity-determining region (CDR) loops that are structurally close to the antigen and located in framework 3 of the heavy chain and light chain, respectively. Based on our structural and sequence analysis, we designed a humanization strategy by grafting the combined Kabat/IMGT/Paratome CDRs, which cover most antigen-contacting residues, into a human germline framework sequence. Using this strategy, we humanized 4 RabMAbs that recognize poorly immunogenic epitopes in the cancer target mesothelin. Three of the 4 humanized rabbit Fvs have similar or improved functional binding affinity for mesothelin-expressing cells. Interestingly, 4 immunotoxins composed of the humanized scFvs fused to a clinically used fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE38) showed stronger cytotoxicity against tumor cells than the immunotoxins derived from their original rabbit scFvs. Our data suggest that grafting the combined Kabat/IMGT/Paratome CDRs to a stable human germline framework can be a general approach to humanize RabMAbs.
Project description:Glypican-3 (GPC3) is a cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We have generated a group of high-affinity mouse monoclonal antibodies targeting GPC3. Here, we report the humanization and testing of these antibodies for clinical development. We compared the affinity and cytotoxicity of recombinant immunotoxins containing mouse single-chain variable regions fused with a Pseudomonas toxin. To humanize the mouse Fvs, we grafted the combined KABAT/IMGT complementarity determining regions (CDR) into a human IgG germline framework. Interestingly, we found that the proline at position 41, a non-CDR residue in heavy chain variable regions (VH), is important for humanization of mouse antibodies. We also showed that two humanized anti-GPC3 antibodies (hYP7 and hYP9.1b) in the IgG format induced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent-cytotoxicity in GPC3-positive cancer cells. The hYP7 antibody was tested and showed inhibition of HCC xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. This study successfully humanizes and validates high affinity anti-GPC3 antibodies and sets a foundation for future development of these antibodies in various clinical formats in the treatment of liver cancer.
Project description:Rheumatoid factors (RFs) are autoantibodies against the fragment-crystallizable (Fc) region of IgG. In individuals with hematological diseases such as cryoglobulinemia and certain B cell lymphoma forms, the RFs derived from specific heavy- and light-chain germline pairs, so-called "stereotypic RFs," are frequently produced in copious amounts and form immune complexes with IgG in serum. Of note, many structural details of the antigen recognition mechanisms in RFs are unclear. Here we report the crystal structure of the RF YES8c derived from the IGHV1-69/IGKV3-20 germline pair, the most common of the stereotypic RFs, in complex with human IgG1-Fc at 2.8 Å resolution. We observed that YES8c binds to the CH2-CH3 elbow in the canonical antigen-binding manner involving a large antigen-antibody interface. On the basis of this observation, combined with mutational analyses, we propose a recognition mechanism common to IGHV1-69/IGKV3-20 RFs: (1) the interaction of the Leu432-His435 region of Fc enables the highly variable complementarity-determining region (CDR)-H3 to participate in the binding, (2) the hydrophobic tip in the CDR-H2 typical of IGHV1-69 antibodies recognizes the hydrophobic patch on Fc, and (3) the interaction of the highly conserved RF light chain with Fc is important for RF activity. These features may determine the putative epitope common to the IGHV1-69/IGKV3-20 RFs. We also showed that some mutations in the binding site of RF increase the affinity to Fc, which may aggravate hematological diseases. Our findings unravel the structural basis for germline-encoded antibody autoreactivity.
Project description:Antibodies derived from non-human sources must be modified for therapeutic use so as to mitigate undesirable immune responses. While complementarity-determining region (CDR) grafting-based humanization techniques have been successfully applied in many cases, it remains challenging to maintain the desired stability and antigen binding affinity upon grafting. We developed an alternative humanization approach called CoDAH ("Computationally-Driven Antibody Humanization") in which computational protein design methods directly select sets of amino acids to incorporate from human germline sequences to increase humanness while maintaining structural stability. Retrospective studies show that CoDAH is able to identify variants deemed beneficial according to both humanness and structural stability criteria, even for targets lacking crystal structures. Prospective application to TZ47, a murine anti-human B7H6 antibody, demonstrates the approach. Four diverse humanized variants were designed, and all possible unique VH/VL combinations were produced as full-length IgG1 antibodies. Soluble and cell surface expressed antigen binding assays showed that 75% (6 of 8) of the computationally designed VH/VL variants were successfully expressed and competed with the murine TZ47 for binding to B7H6 antigen. Furthermore, 4 of the 6 bound with an estimated KD within an order of magnitude of the original TZ47 antibody. In contrast, a traditional CDR-grafted variant could not be expressed. These results suggest that the computational protein design approach described here can be used to efficiently generate functional humanized antibodies and provide humanized templates for further affinity maturation.
Project description:In 10-20% of the cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia of B-cell phenotype (B-CLL), the IGHV1-69 germline is utilized as VH gene of the B cell receptor (BCR). Mouse G6 (MuG6) is an anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody discovered in a screen against rheumatoid factors (RFs) that binds with high affinity to an idiotope expressed on the 51p1 alleles of IGHV1-69 germline gene encoded antibodies (G6-id(+)). The finding that unmutated IGHV1-69 encoded BCRs are frequently expressed on B-CLL cells provides an opportunity for anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody immunotherapy. In this study, we first showed that MuG6 can deplete B cells encoding IGHV1-69 BCRs using a novel humanized GTL mouse model. Next, we humanized MuG6 and demonstrated that the humanized antibodies (HuG6s), especially HuG6.3, displayed ?2-fold higher binding affinity for G6-id(+) antibody compared to the parental MuG6. Additional studies showed that HuG6.3 was able to kill G6-id(+) BCR expressing cells and patient B-CLL cells through antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). Finally, both MuG6 and HuG6.3 mediate in vivo depletion of B-CLL cells in NSG mice. These data suggest that HuG6.3 may provide a new precision medicine to selectively kill IGHV1-69-encoding G6-id(+) B-CLL cells.
Project description:Classification of the structures of the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) of antibodies is critically important for antibody structure prediction and computational design. We have previously performed a clustering of antibody CDR conformations and defined a systematic nomenclature consisting of the CDR, length and an integer starting from the largest to the smallest cluster in the data set (e.g. L1-11-1). We present PyIgClassify (for Python-based immunoglobulin classification; available at http://dunbrack2.fccc.edu/pyigclassify/), a database and web server that provides access to assignments of all CDR structures in the PDB to our classification system. The database includes assignments to the IMGT germline V regions for heavy and light chains for several species. For humanized antibodies, the assignment of the frameworks is to human germlines and the CDRs to the germlines of mice or other species sources. The database can be searched by PDB entry, cluster identifier and IMGT germline group (e.g. human IGHV1). The entire database is downloadable so that users may filter the data as needed for antibody structure analysis, prediction and design.
Project description:Recent studies have shown high usage of the IGHV1-69 germline immunoglobulin gene for influenza hemagglutinin stem-directed broadly-neutralizing antibodies (HV1-69-sBnAbs). Here we show that a major structural solution for these HV1-69-sBnAbs is achieved through a critical triad comprising two CDR-H2 loop anchor residues (a hydrophobic residue at position 53 (Ile or Met) and Phe54), and CDR-H3-Tyr at positions 98±1; together with distinctive V-segment CDR amino acid substitutions that occur in positions sparse in AID/polymerase-? recognition motifs. A semi-synthetic IGHV1-69 phage-display library screen designed to investigate AID/pol? restrictions resulted in the isolation of HV1-69-sBnAbs that featured a distinctive Ile52Ser mutation in the CDR-H2 loop, a universal CDR-H3 Tyr at position 98 or 99, and required as little as two additional substitutions for heterosubtypic neutralizing activity. The functional importance of the Ile52Ser mutation was confirmed by mutagenesis and by BCR studies. Structural modeling suggests that substitution of a small amino acid at position 52 (or 52a) facilitates the insertion of CDR-H2 Phe54 and CDR-H3-Tyr into adjacent pockets on the stem. These results support the concept that activation and expansion of a defined subset of IGHV1-69-encoded B cells to produce potent HV1-69-sBnAbs does not necessarily require a heavily diversified V-segment acquired through recycling/reentry into the germinal center; rather, the incorporation of distinctive amino acid substitutions by Phase 2 long-patch error-prone repair of AID-induced mutations or by random non-AID SHM events may be sufficient. We propose that these routes of B cell maturation should be further investigated and exploited as a pathway for HV1-69-sBnAb elicitation by vaccination.
Project description:No universal strategy exists for humanizing mouse antibodies, and most approaches are based on primary sequence alignment and grafting. Although this strategy theoretically decreases the immunogenicity of mouse antibodies, it neither addresses conformational changes nor steric clashes that arise due to grafting of human germline frameworks to accommodate mouse CDR regions. To address these issues, we created and tested a structure-based biologic design approach using a de novo homology model to aid in the humanization of 17 unique mouse antibodies. Our approach included building a structure-based de novo homology model from the primary mouse antibody sequence, mutation of the mouse framework residues to the closest human germline sequence and energy minimization by simulated annealing on the humanized homology model. Certain residues displayed force field errors and revealed steric clashes upon closer examination. Therefore, further mutations were introduced to rationally correct these errors. In conclusion, use of de novo antibody homology modeling together with simulated annealing improved the ability to predict conformational and steric clashes that may arise due to conversion of a mouse antibody into the humanized form and would prevent its neutralization when administered in vivo. This design provides a robust path towards the development of a universal strategy for humanization of mouse antibodies using computationally derived antibody homologous structures.
Project description:Antibody repertoire diversity, potentially as high as 10(11) unique molecules in a single individual, confounds characterization by conventional sequence analyses. In this study, we present a general method for assessing human antibody sequence diversity displayed on phage using massively parallel pyrosequencing, a novel application of Kabat column-labeled profile Hidden Markov Models, and translated complementarity determining region (CDR) capture-recapture analysis. Pyrosequencing of domain amplicon and RCA PCR products generated 1.5 x 10(6) reads, including more than 1.9 x 10(5) high quality, full-length sequences of antibody variable fragment (Fv) variable domains. Novel methods for germline and CDR classification and fine characterization of sequence diversity in the 6 CDRs are presented. Diverse germline contributions to the repertoire with random heavy and light chain pairing are observed. All germline families were found to be represented in 1.7 x 10(4) sequences obtained from repeated panning of the library. While the most variable CDR (CDR-H3) presents significant length and sequence variability, we find a substantial contribution to total diversity from somatically mutated germline encoded CDRs 1 and 2. Using a capture-recapture method, the total diversity of the antibody library obtained from a human donor Immunoglobulin M (IgM) pool was determined to be at least 3.5 x 10(10). The results provide insights into the role of IgM diversification, display library construction, and productive germline usages in antibody libraries and the humoral repertoire.