Mapping of HKT1;5 Gene in Barley Using GWAS Approach and Its Implication in Salt Tolerance Mechanism.
ABSTRACT: Sodium (Na+) accumulation in the cytosol will result in ion homeostasis imbalance and toxicity of transpiring leaves. Studies of salinity tolerance in the diploid wheat ancestor Triticum monococcum showed that HKT1;5-like gene was a major gene in the QTL for salt tolerance, named Nax2. In the present study, we were interested in investigating the molecular mechanisms underpinning the role of the HKT1;5 gene in salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare). A USDA mini-core collection of 2,671 barley lines, part of a field trial was screened for salinity tolerance, and a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) was performed. Our results showed important SNPs that are correlated with salt tolerance that mapped to a region where HKT1;5 ion transporter located on chromosome four. Furthermore, sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) content analysis revealed that tolerant lines accumulate more sodium in roots and leaf sheaths, than in the sensitive ones. In contrast, sodium concentration was reduced in leaf blades of the tolerant lines under salt stress. In the absence of NaCl, the concentration of Na+ and K+ were the same in the roots, leaf sheaths and leaf blades between the tolerant and the sensitive lines. In order to study the molecular mechanism behind that, alleles of the HKT1;5 gene from five tolerant and five sensitive barley lines were cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis did not show the presence of any polymorphism that distinguishes between the tolerant and sensitive alleles. Our real-time RT-PCR experiments, showed that the expression of HKT1;5 gene in roots of the tolerant line was significantly induced after challenging the plants with salt stress. In contrast, in leaf sheaths the expression was decreased after salt treatment. In sensitive lines, there was no difference in the expression of HKT1;5 gene in leaf sheath under control and saline conditions, while a slight increase in the expression was observed in roots after salt treatment. These results provide stronger evidence that HKT1;5 gene in barley play a key role in withdrawing Na+ from the xylem and therefore reducing its transport to leaves. Given all that, these data support the hypothesis that HKT1;5 gene is responsible for Na+ unloading to the xylem and controlling its distribution in the shoots, which provide new insight into the understanding of this QTL for salinity tolerance in barley.
Project description:Salinity-induced osmotic, ionic and oxidative stress responses were investigated on Asakaze/Manas wheat/barley addition lines 7H, 7HL and 7HS, together with their barley (salt-tolerant) and wheat (relatively salt-sensitive) parents. Growth, photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll degradation, proline, glycine betaine accumulation, sugar metabolism, Na+ and K+ uptake and transport processes and the role of polyamines and antioxidants were studied in young plants grown in hydroponic culture with or without salt treatment. Changes in plant growth and photosynthetic activity of plants demonstrated that the salt tolerance of the addition lines 7H and 7HL was similar to that of barley parent cv. Manas, while the sensitivity of the addition line 7HS was similar to that of the wheat parent cv. Asakaze. The Na accumulation in the roots and shoots did not differ between the addition lines and wheat parent. The activation of various genes related to Na uptake and transport was not correlated with the salt tolerance of the genotypes. These results indicated that the direct regulation of Na transport processes is not the main reason for the salt tolerance of these genotypes. Salt treatment induced a complex metabolic rearrangement in both the roots and shoots of all the genotypes. Elevated proline accumulation in the roots and enhanced sugar metabolism in the shoots were found to be important for salt tolerance in the 7H and 7HL addition lines and in barley cv. Manas. In wheat cv. Asakaze and the 7HS addition line the polyamine metabolism was activated. It seems that osmotic adjustment is a more important process in the improvement of salt tolerance in 7H addition lines than the direct regulation of Na transport processes or antioxidant defence.
Project description:Salt stress is one of the major environmental factors impairing crop production. In our previous study, we identified a major QTL for salinity tolerance on chromosome 2H on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). For further investigation of the mechanisms responsible for this QTL, two pairs of near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing in this QTL were developed. Sensitive NILs (N33 and N53) showed more severe damage after exposure to 300 mM NaCl than tolerant ones (T46 and T66). Both tolerant NILs maintained significantly lower Na+ content in leaves and much higher K+ content in the roots than sensitive lines under salt conditions, thus indicating the presence of a more optimal Na+/K+ ratio in plant tissues. Salinity stress caused significant accumulation of H2O2, MDA, and proline in salinity-sensitive NILs, and a greater enhancement in antioxidant enzymatic activities at one specific time or tissues in tolerant lines. One pair of NILs (N33 and T46) were used for proteomic studies using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A total of 53 and 51 differentially expressed proteins were identified through tandem mass spectrometry analysis in the leaves and roots, respectively. Proteins which are associated with photosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, and ATP synthase were found to be specifically upregulated in the tolerant NIL. Proteins identified in this study can serve as a useful resource with which to explore novel candidate genes for salinity tolerance in barley.
Project description:Plants need to maintain a low Na+/K+ ratio for their survival and growth when there is high sodium concentration in soil. Under these circumstances, the high affinity K+ transporter (HKT) and its homologs are known to perform a critical role with HKT1;5 as a major player in maintaining Na+ concentration. Preferential expression of HKT1;5 in roots compared to shoots was observed in rice and rice-like genotypes from real time PCR, microarray, and RNAseq experiments and data. Its expression trend was generally higher under increasing salt stress in sensitive IR29, tolerant Pokkali, both glycophytes; as well as the distant wild rice halophyte, Porteresia coarctata, indicative of its importance during salt stress. These results were supported by a low Na+/K+ ratio in Pokkali, but a much lower one in P. coarctata. HKT1;5 has functional variability among salt sensitive and tolerant varieties and multiple sequence alignment of sequences of HKT1;5 from Oryza species and P. coarctata showed 4 major amino acid substitutions (140 P/A/T/I, 184 H/R, D332H, V395L), with similarity amongst the tolerant genotypes and the halophyte but in variance with sensitive ones. The best predicted 3D structure of HKT1;5 was generated using Ktrab potassium transporter as template. Among the four substitutions, conserved presence of aspartate (332) and valine (395) in opposite faces of the membrane along the Na+/K+ channel was observed only for the tolerant and halophytic genotypes. A model based on above, as well as molecular dynamics simulation study showed that valine is unable to generate strong hydrophobic network with its surroundings in comparison to leucine due to reduced side chain length. The resultant alteration in pore rigidity increases the likelihood of Na+ transport from xylem sap to parenchyma and further to soil. The model also proposes that the presence of aspartate at the 332 position possibly leads to frequent polar interactions with the extracellular loop polar residues which may shift the loop away from the opening of the constriction at the pore and therefore permit easy efflux of the Na+. These two substitutions of the HKT1;5 transporter probably help tolerant varieties maintain better Na+/K+ ratio for survival under salt stress.
Project description:Aegilops cylindrica, a salt-tolerant gene pool of wheat, is a useful plant model for understanding mechanism of salt tolerance. A salt-tolerant USL26 and a salt-sensitive K44 genotypes of A. cylindrica, originating from Uremia Salt Lake shores in Northwest Iran and a non-saline Kurdestan province in West Iran, respectively, were identified based on screening evaluation and used for this work. The objective of the current study was to investigate the expression patterns of four genes related to ion homeostasis in this species. Under treatment of 400 mM NaCl, USL26 showed significantly higher root and shoot dry matter levels and K+ concentrations, together with lower Na+ concentrations than K44 genotype. A. cylindrica HKT1;5 (AecHKT1;5), SOS1 (AecSOS1), NHX1 (AecNHX1) and VP1 (AecVP1) were partially sequenced to design each gene specific primer. Quantitative real-time PCR showed a differential expression pattern of these genes between the two genotypes and between the root and shoot tissues. Expressions of AecHKT1;5 and AecSOS1 was greater in the roots than in the shoots of USL26 while AecNHX1 and AecVP1 were equally expressed in both tissues of USL26 and K44. The higher transcripts of AecHKT1;5 in the roots versus the shoots could explain both the lower Na+ in the shoots and the much lower Na+ and higher K+ concentrations in the roots/shoots of USL26 compared to K44. Therefore, the involvement of AecHKT1;5 in shoot-to-root handover of Na+ in possible combination with the exclusion of excessive Na+ from the root in the salt-tolerant genotype are suggested.
Project description:Tissue tolerance to salinity stress is a complex physiological trait composed of multiple 'sub-traits' such as Na+ compartmentalization, K+ retention, and osmotic tolerance. Previous studies have shown that some Cucurbita species employ tissue tolerance to combat salinity and we aimed to identify the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved. Five C. maxima (salt-tolerant) and five C. moschata (salt-sensitive) genotypes were comprehensively assessed for their salt tolerance mechanisms and the results showed that tissue-specific transport characteristics enabled the more tolerant lines to deal with the salt load. This mechanism was associated with the ability of the tolerant species to accumulate more Na+ in the leaf vein and to retain more K+ in the leaf mesophyll. In addition, C. maxima more efficiently retained K+ in the roots when exposed to transient NaCl stress and it was also able to store more Na+ in the xylem parenchyma and cortex in the leaf vein. Compared with C. moschata, C. maxima was also able to rapidly close stomata at early stages of salt stress, thus avoiding water loss; this difference was attributed to higher accumulation of ABA in the leaf. Transcriptome and qRT-PCR analyses revealed critical roles of high-affinity potassium (HKT1) and intracellular Na+/H+ (NHX4/6) transporters as components of the mechanism enabling Na+ exclusion from the leaf mesophyll and Na+ sequestration in the leaf vein. Also essential was a higher expression of NCED3s (encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, a key rate-limiting enzyme in ABA biosynthesis), which resulted in greater ABA accumulation in the mesophyll and earlier stomata closure in C. maxima.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cultivated rice species (Oryza sativa L. and O. glaberrima Steud.) are generally considered among the crop species most sensitive to salt stress. A handful of lines are known to be tolerant, and a small number of these have been used extensively as donors in breeding programs. However, these donors use many of the same genes and physiological mechanisms to confer tolerance. Little information is available on the diversity of mechanisms used by these species to cope with salt stress, and there is a strong need to identify varieties displaying additional physiological and/or genetic mechanisms to confer higher tolerance. RESULTS: Here we present data on 103 accessions from O. sativa and 12 accessions from O. glaberrima, many of which are identified as salt tolerant for the first time, showing moderate to high tolerance of high salinity. The correlation of salinity-induced senescence (as judged by the Standard Evaluation System for Rice, or SES, score) with whole-plant and leaf blade Na+ concentrations was high across nearly all accessions, and was almost identical in both O. sativa and O. glaberrima. The association of leaf Na+ concentrations with cultivar-groups was very weak, but association with the OsHKT1;5 allele was generally strong. Seven major and three minor alleles of OsHKT1;5 were identified, and their comparisons with the leaf Na+ concentration showed that the Aromatic allele conferred the highest exclusion and the Japonica allele the least. A number of exceptions to this association with the Oryza HKT1;5 allele were identified; these probably indicate the existence of additional highly effective exclusion mechanisms. In addition, two landraces were identified, one from Thailand and the other from Senegal, that show high tissue tolerance. CONCLUSIONS: Significant variation in salinity tolerance exists within both cultivated Oryza species, and this is the first report of significant tolerance in O. glaberrima. The majority of accessions display a strong quantitative relationship between tolerance and leaf blade Na+ concentration, and thus the major tolerance mechanisms found in these species are those contributing to limiting sodium uptake and accumulation in active leaves. However, there appears to be genetic variation for several mechanisms that affect leaf Na+ concentration, and rare cases of accessions displaying different mechanisms also occur. These mechanisms show great promise for improving salt tolerance in rice over that available from current donors.
Project description:To elucidate inter-specific similarity and difference of tolerance mechanism against salinity stress between wheat and barley, high tolerant wheat cv. Suntop and sensitive cv. Sunmate and tolerant barley cv. CM72 were hydroponically grown in a greenhouse with 100 mM NaCl. Glutathione, secondary metabolites, and genes associated with Na+ transport, defense, and detoxification were examined to discriminate the species/cultivar difference in response to salinity stress. Suntop and CM72 displayed damage to a lesser extent than in Sunmate. Compared to Sunmate, both Suntop and CM72 recorded lower electrolyte leakage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, higher leaf relative water content, and higher activity of PAL (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase), CAD (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase), PPO (polyphenol oxidase), SKDH (shikimate dehydrogenase), and more abundance of their mRNA under salinity stress. The expression of HKT1, HKT2, salt overly sensitive (SOS)1, AKT1, and NHX1 was upregulated in CM72 and Suntop, while downregulated in Sunmate. The transcription factor WRKY 10 was significantly induced in Suntop but suppressed in CM72 and Sunmate. Higher oxidized glutathione (GSSG) content was accumulated in cv. CM72 and Sunmate, but increased glutathione (GSH) content and the ratio of GSH/GSSG were observed in leaves and roots of Suntop under salinity stress. In conclusion, glutathione homeostasis and upregulation of the TaWRKY10 transcription factor played a more important role in wheat salt-tolerant cv. Suntop, which was different from barley cv. CM72 tolerance to salinity stress. This new finding could help in developing salinity tolerance in wheat and barley cultivars.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A significant mechanism of salt-tolerance in rice is the ability to remove Na+ and Cl- in the leaf sheath, which limits the entry of these toxic ions into the leaf blade. The leaf sheath removes Na+ mainly in the basal parts, and Cl- mainly in the apical parts. These ions are unloaded from the xylem vessels in the peripheral part and sequestered into the fundamental parenchyma cells at the central part of the leaf sheath. RESULTS:This study aimed to identify associated Na+ and Cl- transporter genes with this salt removal ability in the leaf sheath of rice variety FL 478. From 21 known candidate Na+ and Cl- transporter rice genes, we determined the salt responsiveness of the expression of these genes in the basal and apical parts, where Na+ or Cl- ions were highly accumulated under salinity. We also compared the expression levels of these transporter genes between the peripheral and central parts of leaf sheaths. The expression of 8 Na+ transporter genes and 3 Cl- transporter genes was up-regulated in the basal and apical parts of leaf sheaths under salinity. Within these genes, OsHKT1;5 and OsSLAH1 were expressed highly in the peripheral part, indicating the involvement of these genes in Na+ and Cl- unloading from xylem vessels. OsNHX2, OsNHX3, OsNPF2.4 were expressed highly in the central part, which suggests that these genes may function in sequestration of Na+ and Cl- in fundamental parenchyma cells in the central part of leaf sheaths under salinity. Furthermore, high expression levels of 4 candidate genes under salinity were associated with the genotypic variation of salt removal ability in the leaf sheath. CONCLUSIONS:These results indicate that the salt removal ability in rice leaf sheath may be regulated by expressing various Na+ or Cl- transporter genes tissue-specifically in peripheral and central parts. Moreover, some genes were identified as candidates whose expression levels were associated with the genotypic variation of salt removal ability in the leaf sheath. These findings will enhance the understanding of the molecular mechanism of salt removal ability in rice leaf sheath, which is useful for breeding salt-tolerant rice varieties.
Project description:Cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) is very sensitive to salt stress. So far a few rice landraces have been identified as a source of salt tolerance and utilized in rice improvement. These tolerant lines primarily use Na+ exclusion mechanism in root which removes Na+ from the xylem stream by membrane Na+ and K+ transporters, and resulted in low Na+ accumulation in shoot. Identification of a new donor source conferring high salt tolerance is imperative. Wild relatives of rice having wide genetic diversity are regarded as a potential source for crop improvement. However, they have been less exploited against salt stress. Here, we simultaneously evaluated all 22 wild Oryza species along with the cultivated tolerant lines including Pokkali, Nona Bokra, and FL478, and sensitive check varieties under high salinity (240 mM NaCl). Based on the visual salt injury score, three species (O. alta, O. latifolia, and O. coarctata) and four species (O. rhizomatis, O. eichingeri, O. minuta, and O. grandiglumis) showed higher and similar level of tolerance compared to the tolerant checks, respectively. All three CCDD genome species exhibited salt tolerance, suggesting that the CCDD genome might possess the common genetic factors for salt tolerance. Physiological and biochemical experiments were conducted using the newly isolated tolerant species together with checks under 180 mM NaCl. Interestingly, all wild species showed high Na+ concentration in shoot and low concentration in root unlike the tolerant checks. In addition, the wild-tolerant accessions showed a tendency of a high tissue tolerance in leaf, low malondialdehyde level in shoot, and high retention of chlorophyll in the young leaves. These results suggest that the wild species employ tissue tolerance mechanism to manage salt stress. Gene expression analyses of the key salt tolerance-related genes suggested that high Na+ in leaf of wild species might be affected by OsHKT1;4-mediated Na+ exclusion in leaf and the following Na+ sequestration in leaf might be occurring independent of tonoplast-localized OsNHX1. The newly isolated wild rice accessions will be valuable materials for both rice improvement to salinity stress and the study of salt tolerance mechanism in plants.
Project description:Plants show varied cellular responses to salinity that are partly associated with maintaining low cytosolic Na(+) levels and a high K(+)/Na(+) ratio. Plant metabolites change with elevated Na(+), some changes are likely to help restore osmotic balance while others protect Na(+)-sensitive proteins. Metabolic responses to salt stress are described for two barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars, Sahara and Clipper, which differed in salinity tolerance under the experimental conditions used. After 3 weeks of salt treatment, Clipper ceased growing whereas Sahara resumed growth similar to the control plants. Compared with Clipper, Sahara had significantly higher leaf Na(+) levels and less leaf necrosis, suggesting they are more tolerant to accumulated Na(+). Metabolite changes in response to the salt treatment also differed between the two cultivars. Clipper plants had elevated levels of amino acids, including proline and GABA, and the polyamine putrescine, consistent with earlier suggestions that such accumulation may be correlated with slower growth and/or leaf necrosis rather than being an adaptive response to salinity. It is suggested that these metabolites may be an indicator of general cellular damage in plants. By contrast, in the more tolerant Sahara plants, the levels of the hexose phosphates, TCA cycle intermediates, and metabolites involved in cellular protection increased in response to salt. These solutes remain unchanged in the more sensitive Clipper plants. It is proposed that these responses in the more tolerant Sahara are involved in cellular protection in the leaves and are involved in the tolerance of Sahara leaves to high Na(+).