CD Obesity-Prone Rats, but not Obesity-Resistant Rats, Robustly Ferment Resistant Starch Without Increased Weight or Fat Accretion.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:This study used CD obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rats to examine how weight gain and fat accretion relate to fermentation levels and microbiota composition after feeding resistant starch (RS). METHODS:After feeding OP rats and OR rats a high-fat (HF) diet for 4 weeks, rats were stratified into three groups: they were fed either an HF diet (group 1: HF-HF) or were switched to a low-fat (LF) diet (group 2: HF-LF) or an LF diet supplemented with 20% RS by weight for 4 weeks (group 3: HF-LFRS). Energy intake, body weight, fermentation variables, and microbiota composition were determined. RESULTS:In OP rats, RS elicited robust fermentation (increased cecal contents, short-chain fatty acids, and serum glucagon-like peptide 1). Total bacteria, species of the Bacteroidales family S24-7, and the archaean Methanobrevibacter smithii increased. The robust fermentation did not elicit higher weight or fat accretion when compared with that of control rats fed the same isocaloric diets (HF-LF?±?RS). In OR rats, body weight and fat accretion were also not different between HF-LF?±?RS diets, but RS elicited minimal changes in fermentation and microbiota composition. CONCLUSIONS:Robust fermentation did not contribute to greater weight. Fermentation levels and changes in microbiota composition in response to dietary RS differed by obesity phenotype.
Project description:Like humans, outbred Sprague-Dawley CD rats exhibit a polygenic pattern of inheritance of the obese phenotype and not all individuals exposed to a high calorie intake develop obesity. We hypothesized that differences in gut microbiota composition account for phenotype differences between obese prone (OP) and obese resistant (OR) rats. We studied the gut microbiota composition of OPand OR rats after a high fat (HF) diet and how they respond to fermentation of resistant starch (RS). In phase 1 of the study 28 OP and 28 OR rats were fed a HF diet. In order to determine causal role of microbiota on phenotypes, In phase 2, a microbiota transplant between the two phenotypes was performed before switching all rats to a HF diet supplemented with 20% RS. We determined microbiota composition by 16S sequencing and predicted microbiota function by PICRUSt2. Despite a similar calorie intake, in phase 2 OP rats gained more weight and accumulated more abdominal fat in both phase 1 and 2 compared to OR rats (<i>P</i> < 0.001; <i>n</i> = 6). The OP rats fermented RS more robustly compared with OR rats with an increase in total bacteria, short chain fatty acids, and increased weight of the cecum, but microbiota of OP rats had much lower alpha diversity and evenness. The microbiota of OP rats, had higher amounts of bacteria from order Bacteroidales, specifically family Muribaculaceae (<i>S24-7</i>), which is known to possess several starch degrading enzymes and was reported in previous studies to increase with fermentation of RS. The OR rats fermented RS less but had higher bacterial diversity and evenness and had significantly higher bacterial counts from phylum Firmicutes particularl<i>y</i> order Clostridiales, genus <i>Clostridium</i> and an uncultured bacterium of the genus <i>Akkermansia</i>. The microbiota of OR rats had enhanced bacterial chemotaxis, phosphotransferase system (PTS), and fatty acid biosynthesis compared to OP rats whose microbiota had higher glycan degradation and LPS biosynthesis pathways. The microbiota transplant did not change obesity phenotype or microbiota composition. In conclusion, a higher alpha-diversity and evenness of the microbiota and higher proportions of Clostridiales and <i>Akkermansia</i> in OR rats were associated with a better metabolic phenotype with lower body fat. However, robust RS fermentation caused a lower diversity and evenness and did not result in a leaner phenotype.
Project description:(1) High-fat (HF) diet leads to gut microbiota dysbiosis which is associated with systemic inflammation. Bacterial-driven inflammation is sufficient to alter vagally mediated satiety and induce hyperphagia. Promoting bacterial fermentation improves gastrointestinal (GI) epithelial barrier function and reduces inflammation. Resistant starch escape digestion and can be fermented by bacteria in the distal gut. Therefore, we hypothesized that potato RS supplementation in HF-fed rats would lead to compositional changes in microbiota composition associated with improved inflammatory status and vagal signaling. (2) Male Wistar rats (n = 8/group) were fed a low-fat chow (LF, 13% fat), HF (45% fat), or an isocaloric HF supplemented with 12% potato RS (HFRS) diet. (3) The HFRS-fed rats consumed significantly less energy than HF animals throughout the experiment. Systemic inflammation and glucose homeostasis were improved in the HFRS compared to HF rats. Cholecystokinin-induced satiety was abolished in HF-fed rats and restored in HFRS rats. HF feeding led to a significant decrease in positive c fiber staining in the brainstem which was averted by RS supplementation. (4) The RS supplementation prevented dysbiosis and systemic inflammation. Additionally, microbiota manipulation via dietary potato RS prevented HF-diet-induced reorganization of vagal afferent fibers, loss in CCK-induced satiety, and hyperphagia.
Project description:Background:Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been linked to obesity-associated chronic inflammation. Microbiota manipulation may therefore affect obesity-related comorbidities. Blueberries are rich in anthocyanins, which have anti-inflammatory properties and may alter the gut microbiota. Objective:We hypothesized that blueberry supplementation would alter the gut microbiota, reduce systemic inflammation, and improve insulin resistance in high-fat (HF)-diet-fed rats. Methods:Twenty-four male Wistar rats (260-270 g; n = 8/group) were fed low-fat (LF; 10% fat), HF (45% fat), or HF with 10% by weight blueberry powder (HF_BB) diets for 8 wk. LF rats were fed ad libitum, whereas HF and HF_BB rats were pair-fed with diets matched for fiber and sugar contents. Glucose tolerance, microbiota composition (16S ribosomal RNA sequencing), intestinal integrity [villus height, gene expression of mucin 2 (Muc2) and ?-defensin 2 (Defb2)], and inflammation (gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines) were assessed. Results:Blueberry altered microbiota composition with an increase in Gammaproteobacteria abundance (P < 0.001) compared with LF and HF rats. HF feeding led to an ?15% decrease in ileal villus height compared with LF rats (P < 0.05), which was restored by blueberry supplementation. Ileal gene expression of Muc2 was ?150% higher in HF_BB rats compared with HF rats (P < 0.05), with expression in the LF group not being different from that in either the HF or HF_BB groups. Tumor necrosis factor ? (Tnfa) and interleukin 1? (Il1b) gene expression in visceral fat was increased by HF feeding when compared with the LF group (by 300% and 500%, respectively; P < 0.05) and normalized by blueberry supplementation. Finally, blueberry improved markers of insulin sensitivity. Hepatic insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) phosphorylation at serine 307:IRS1 ratio was ?35% higher in HF rats compared with LF rats (P < 0.05) and HF_BB rats. Conclusion:In HF-diet-fed male rats, blueberry supplementation led to compositional changes in the gut microbiota associated with improvements in systemic inflammation and insulin signaling.
Project description:UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND: Animal studies show that diets containing resistant starch (RS) at levels not achievable in the human diet result in lower body weight and/or adiposity in rodents. We aimed to determine whether RS dose-dependently reduces adiposity in obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=120) were fed a moderate-fat, high-energy diet for 4 wk. Rats that gained the most weight (40%) were classified as obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rats were the 40% that gained the least weight. OP and OR rats were randomly allocated to one of six groups (n=8 for each phenotype). One group was killed for baseline measurements, the other five groups were allocated to AIN-93 based diets that contained 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16% RS (as high amylose maize starch) for 4 wk. These diets were matched for total carbohydrate content. At 0, 4 and 7 wk from the start of the study insulin sensitivity was calculated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and adiposity was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). At 8 wk, rats were euthanized and fat pad weights, intestinal digesta short chain fatty acid (SCFA) pools and plasma gut hormone levels were determined. RESULTS: Obesity prone rats gained less weight with 4, 12 and 16% RS compared to 0% RS, but the effect in OR animals was significant only at 16% RS. Irrespective of phenotype, diets containing ?8% RS reduced adiposity compared to 0% RS. Energy intake decreased by 9.8 kJ/d for every 4% increase in RS. All diets containing RS increased total SCFA pools in the caecum and lowered plasma GIP concentrations compared to the 0% RS, whereas plasma GLP-1 and PYY were increased when the diet contained at least 8% RS. Insulin sensitivity was not affected by RS. CONCLUSION: RS in amounts that could be potentially consumed by humans were effective in reducing adiposity and weight gain in OP and OR rats, due in part to a reduction in energy intake, and changes in gut hormones and large bowel carbohydrate fermentation.
Project description:The gut microbiota and associated metabolites have emerged as potential modulators of pathophysiological changes in obesity and related metabolic disorders. Butyrate, a product of bacterial fermentation, has been shown to have beneficial effects in obesity and rodent models of diet-induced obesity. Here, we aimed to determine the beneficial effects of butyrate (as glycerol ester of butyrate monobutyrin, MB) supplementation on metabolic phenotype, intestinal permeability and inflammation, feeding behavior, and the gut microbiota in low-fat (LF)- and high-fat (HF)-fed mice. Two cohorts (separated by 2 weeks) of male C57BL/6J mice (<i>n</i> = 24 in each cohort, 6/group/cohort; 6 weeks old) were separated into four weight-matched groups and fed either a LF (10 % fat/kcal) or HF (45% fat/kcal) with or without supplementation of MB (LF/MB or HF/MB) at 0.25% (<i>w</i>/<i>v</i>) in drinking water for 6 weeks. Metabolic phenotypes (body weight and adiposity), intestinal inflammation, feeding behavior, and fecal microbiome and metabolites were measured. Despite identical genetic and experimental conditions, we found marked differences between cohorts in the response (body weight gain, adiposity, and intestinal permeability) to HF-diet and MB. Notably, the composition of the gut microbiota was significantly different between cohorts, characterized by lower species richness and differential abundance of a large number of taxa, including subtaxa from five phyla, including increased abundance of the genera <i>Bacteroides</i>, <i>Proteobacteria,</i> and <i>Parasutterella</i> in cohort 2 compared to cohort 1. These differences may have contributed to the differential response in intestinal permeability to the HF diet in cohort 2. MB supplementation had no significant effect on metabolic phenotype, but there was a trend to protect from HF-induced impairments in intestinal barrier function in cohort 1 and in sensitivity to cholecystokinin (CCK) in both cohorts. These data support the concept that microbiota composition may have a crucial effect on metabolic responses of a host to dietary interventions and highlight the importance of taking steps to ensure reproducibility in rodent studies.
Project description:To determine if whole-grain (WG) flour with resistant starch (RS) will produce greater fermentation than isolated RS in obese Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats, and whether greater fermentation results in different microbiota, reduced abdominal fat, and increased insulin sensitivity.This study utilized four groups fed diets made with either isolated digestible control starch, WG control flour (6.9% RS), isolated RS-rich corn starch (25% RS), or WG corn flour (25% RS). ZDF rats fermented RS and RS-rich WG flour to greatest extent among groups. High-RS groups had increased serum glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) active. Feeding isolated RS showed greater Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes phyla among groups, and rats consuming low RS diets possessed more bacteria in Lactobacillus genus. However, no differences in abdominal fat were observed, but rats with isolated RS had greatest insulin sensitivity among groups.Data demonstrated ZDF rats (i) possess a microbiota that fermented RS, and (ii) WG high-RS fermented better than purified RS. However, fermentation and microbiota changes did not translate into reduced abdominal fat. The defective leptin receptor may limit ZDF rats from responding to increased GLP-1 and different microbiota for reducing abdominal fat, but did not prevent improved insulin sensitivity.
Project description:Studies have suggested links between colonic fermentation of dietary fibers and improved metabolic health. The objectives of this study were to determine if non-digestible feruloylated oligo- and polysaccharides (FOPS), a maize-derived dietary fiber, could counteract the deleterious effects of high-fat (HF) feeding in mice and explore if metabolic benefits were linked to the gut microbiota. C57BL/6J mice (n = 8/group) were fed a low-fat (LF; 10 kcal% fat), HF (62 kcal% fat), or HF diet supplemented with FOPS (5%, w/w). Pronounced differences in FOPS responsiveness were observed: four mice experienced cecal enlargement and enhanced short chain fatty acid production, indicating increased cecal fermentation (F-FOPS). Only these mice displayed improvements in glucose metabolism compared with HF-fed mice. Blooms in the gut microbial genera Blautia and Akkermansia were observed in three of the F-FOPS mice; these shifts were associated with reductions in body and adipose tissue weights compared with the HF-fed control mice. No improvements in metabolic markers or weights were detected in the four mice whose gut microbiota did not respond to FOPS. These findings demonstrate that FOPS-induced improvements in weight gain and metabolic health in mice depended on the ability of an individual's microbiota to ferment FOPS.
Project description:Apples contain bioactive compounds with the potential to alleviate clinical signs associated with obesity, a phenomenon likely related to the composition and function of the gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of apple supplementation on the fecal microbiota and gut metabolites of Dawley Sprague rats fed a high-fat (HF group) or a low-fat (LF group) diet. The fecal microbiota was examined using 16S marker sequencing targeting the V4 region in a MiSeq instrument (Illumina). With the exception of Blautia, which was higher in supplemented rats compared to controls within the LF group, significant differences in fecal microbiota between supplemented rats and controls were only found in the HF group. This suggests that the effect of apple supplementation on the gut microbiota is strongly dependent on the composition of the diet, a phenomenon with potential consequences for obese human patients. Principal Coordinate Analysis of unweighted UniFrac distances revealed a clear strong separation of bacterial communities based on diet (HF and LF, P = 0.001, R = 0.69, ANOSIM test) and based on apple supplementation within the HF group, albeit less strongly (P = 0.006, R = 0.27, ANOSIM test). No differences were found for fecal SCFAs but proteomics and metabolomics analyses showed differential expression of both proteins and metabolites between supplemented rats and controls in the HF group. The results of this study can guide future explorations of the effect of apple supplementation on human health.
Project description:Dietary fat is known to modulate the hindgut microbiota in rodents; however, there is no clear evidence on the impact of high-fat diets on canine gut microbiota. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding of diets differing in the amount of ME provided by fat and starch on the composition and activity of canine fecal microbiota. Twelve adult (3 to 7 yr of age) spayed Beagle dogs received a low-fat-high-starch diet (LF-HS; approximately 23%, 42%, and 25% ME provided by fat, starch, and CP, respectively) and a high-fat-low-starch diet (HF-LS; approximately 43%, 22%, and 25% ME provided by fat, starch, and CP, respectively) following a 2-period crossover arrangement. The higher amount of fat in the HF-LS diet was provided by lard, whereas the higher amount of starch in the LF-HS diet was provided primarily by maize and broken rice. Each period lasted 7 wk and included 4 wk for diet adaptation. Dogs were fed to meet their daily energy requirements (set at 480 kJ ME/kg BW0.75). Fecal samples were collected on weeks 5 and 6 of each period for the analysis of bacterial richness, diversity, and composition [by Ion-Torrent next-generation sequencing], bile acids, ammonia, and VFA. Additional fecal samples were collected from four dogs per diet and period to use as inocula for in vitro fermentation using xylan and pectin as substrates. Gas production was measured at 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h of incubation. On week 7, blood samples were collected at 0- and 180-min postfeeding for the analysis of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Feeding the HF-LS diet led to a greater (P < 0.05) fecal bile acid concentration compared with the LF-HS diet. Bacterial richness and diversity did not differ between diets (P > 0.10). However, dogs showed a lower relative abundance of Prevotella (P < 0.01), Solobacterium (P < 0.05), and Coprobacillus (P ? 0.05) when fed of the HF-LS diet. Fecal ammonia and VFA contents were not affected by diet (P > 0.10). Relative to the LF-HS diet, in vitro fermentation of xylan using feces of dogs fed the HF-LS diet produced less gas at 6 h (P < 0.01) and 9 h (P < 0.05). Blood LPS did not increase at 180-min postfeeding with either diet (P < 0.10). These findings indicate that feeding a HF-LS diet to dogs does not affect bacterial diversity or fermentative end products in feces, but may have a negative impact on Prevotella and xylan fermentation.
Project description:We studied the effect of dietary fat type, varying in polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio's (P/S) on development of metabolic syndrome. C57Bl/6J mice were fed purified high-fat diets (45E% fat) containing palm oil (HF-PO; P/S 0.4), olive oil (HF-OO; P/S 1.1) or safflower oil (HF-SO; P/S 7.8) for 8 weeks. A low-fat palm oil diet (LF-PO; 10E% fat) was used as a reference. Additionally, we analyzed diet-induced changes in gut microbiota composition and mucosal gene expression. The HF-PO diet induced a higher body weight gain and liver triglyceride content compared to the HF-OO, HF-SO or LF-PO diet. In the intestine, the HF-PO diet reduced microbial diversity and increased the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. Although this fits a typical obesity profile, our data clearly indicate that an overflow of the HF-PO diet to the distal intestine, rather than obesity itself, is the main trigger for these gut microbiota changes. A HF-PO diet-induced elevation of lipid metabolism-related genes in the distal small intestine confirmed the overflow of palm oil to the distal intestine. Some of these lipid metabolism-related genes were previously already associated with the metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, our data indicate that saturated fat (HF-PO) has a more stimulatory effect on weight gain and hepatic lipid accumulation than unsaturated fat (HF-OO and HF-SO). The overflow of fat to the distal intestine on the HF-PO diet induced changes in gut microbiota composition and mucosal gene expression. We speculate that both are directly or indirectly contributive to the saturated fat-induced development of obesity and hepatic steatosis. Keywords: Diet intervention study Nine-week-old C57Bl/6J mice were fed a low-fat diet (LF-PO) and three different types of high-fat diet, based on palm oil (HF-PO; P/S1.0), olive oil (HF-OO; P/S4.6) and safflower oil (HF-SO; P/S10.1) for 8 weeks. Body weight was recorded weekly and after 7 weeks of diet intervention an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. After 2 weeks of diet intervention, 6 mice per high-fat diet group were anaesthetized with a mixture of isofluorane (1.5%), nitrous oxide (70%) and oxygen (30%) and the small intestines were excised. Adhering fat and pancreatic tissue were carefully removed. The small intestines were divided in three equal parts along the proximal to distal axis (SI 1, SI 2 and SI 3) and microarray analysis was performed on mucosal scrapings.