Genome wide in vivo mouse screen data from studies to assess host regulation of metastatic colonisation.
ABSTRACT: The process of metastasis is a multi-stage cascade with prior studies suggesting that the colonisation of the secondary site is the rate limiting step. This process involves contributions from the tumour cells and also non-tumour intrinsic factors such as the stroma and the haematopoietic system. In this study, we present data from screening 810 genetically-modified mouse lines with the experimental metastasis assay where intravenous delivery of murine metastatic melanoma B16-F10 cells was used to assess the formation of pulmonary metastasic foci. To date, these data have been studied with a two-step process cumulating in an integrative data analysis to identify genes controlling metastatic colonisation. We present the raw data, and a description to support fresh analyses where researchers can look both within and across gene sets to further elucidate process that regulate metastatic colonisation.
Project description:Lymph node (LN) metastasis is an important prognostic parameter in breast carcinoma, a crucial site for tumour-immune cell interaction and a gateway for further dissemination of tumour cells to other metastatic sites. To gain insight into the underlying molecular changes from the pre-metastatic, via initial colonisation to the fully involved LN, we reviewed transcriptional research along the evolving microenvironment of LNs in human breast cancers patients. Gene expression studies were compiled and subjected to pathway-based analyses, with an emphasis on immune cell-related genes. Of 366 studies, 14 performed genome-wide gene expression comparisons and were divided into six clinical-biological scenarios capturing different stages of the metastatic pathway in the LN, as follows: metastatically involved LNs are compared to their patient-matched primary breast carcinomas (scenario 1) or the normal breast tissue (scenario 2). In scenario 3, uninvolved LNs were compared between LN-positive patients and LN-negative patients. Scenario 4 homed in on the residual uninvolved portion of involved LNs and compared it to the patient-matched uninvolved LNs. Scenario 5 contrasted uninvolved and involved LNs, whilst in scenario 6 involved (sentinel) LNs were assessed between patients with other either positive or negative LNs (non-sentinel).Gene lists from these chronological steps of LN metastasis indicated that gene patterns reflecting deficiencies in dendritic cells and hyper-proliferation of B cells parallel to tumour promoting pathways, including cell adhesion, extracellular matrix remodelling, cell motility and DNA repair, play key roles in the changing microenvironment of a pro-metastatic to a metastatically involved LN. Similarities between uninvolved LNs and the residual uninvolved portion of involved LNs hinted that LN alterations expose systemic tumour-related immune responses in breast cancer patients. Despite the diverse settings, gene expression patterns at different stages of metastatic colonisation in LNs were recognised and may provide potential avenues for clinical interventions to counteract disease progression for breast cancer patients.
Project description:Dissemination of tumour cells to the bone marrow is an early event in breast cancer, however cells may lie dormant for many years before bone metastases develop. Treatment for bone metastases is not curative, therefore new adjuvant therapies which prevent the colonisation of disseminated cells into metastatic lesions are required. There is evidence that cancer stem cells (CSCs) within breast tumours are capable of metastasis, but the mechanism by which these colonise bone is unknown. Here, we establish that bone marrow-derived IL1β stimulates breast cancer cell colonisation in the bone by inducing intracellular NFkB and CREB signalling in breast cancer cells, leading to autocrine Wnt signalling and CSC colony formation. Importantly, we show that inhibition of this pathway prevents both CSC colony formation in the bone environment, and bone metastasis. These findings establish that targeting IL1β-NFKB/CREB-Wnt signalling should be considered for adjuvant therapy to prevent breast cancer bone metastasis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is overexpressed and associated with poor prognosis in several human cancers. Here, we investigate the effect of FASN inhibitors on the metastatic spread and angiogenesis in experimental melanomas and cultured melanoma cells. METHODS: The lung colonisation assay and cutaneous melanomas were performed by the inoculation of mouse melanoma B16-F10 cells in C57BL6 mice. Blood vessel endothelial cells (RAEC and HUVEC) were applied to determine cell proliferation, apoptosis, and the formation of capillary-like structures. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) expression was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA in B16-F10, human melanoma (SK-MEL-25), and human oral squamous carcinoma (SCC-9) cells. Conditioned media from these cancer cell lines were used to study the effects of FASN inhibitors on endothelial cells. RESULTS: B16-F10 melanoma-induced metastases and angiogenesis were significantly reduced in orlistat-treated mice. Fatty acid synthase inhibitors reduced the viability, proliferation, and the formation of capillary-like structures by RAEC cells, as well as the tumour cell-mediated formation of HUVEC capillary-like structures. Cerulenin and orlistat stimulated the production of total VEGFA in B16-F10, SK-MEL-25, and SCC-9 cells. Both drugs also enhanced VEGFA(121), (165), (189,) and (165b) in SK-MEL-25 and SCC-9 cells. CONCLUSION: FASN inhibitors reduce metastasis and tumour-induced angiogenesis in experimental melanomas, and differentially modulate VEGFA expression in B16-F10 cells.
Project description:The different stages of the metastatic cascade present distinct metabolic challenges to tumour cells and an altered tumour metabolism associated with successful metastatic colonisation provides a therapeutic vulnerability in disseminated disease. We identify the aldo-keto reductase AKR1B10 as a metastasis enhancer that has little impact on primary tumour growth or dissemination but promotes effective tumour growth in secondary sites and, in human disease, is associated with an increased risk of distant metastatic relapse. AKR1B10High tumour cells have reduced glycolytic capacity and dependency on glucose as fuel source but increased utilisation of fatty acid oxidation. Conversely, in both 3D tumour spheroid assays and in vivo metastasis assays, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation blocks AKR1B10High-enhanced metastatic colonisation with no impact on AKR1B10Low cells. Finally, mechanistic analysis supports a model in which AKR1B10 serves to limit the toxic side effects of oxidative stress thereby sustaining fatty acid oxidation in metabolically challenging metastatic environments.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Dissemination of breast cancers to the brain is associated with poor patient outcome and limited therapeutic options. In this study we sought to identify novel regulators of brain metastasis by profiling mouse mammary carcinoma cells spontaneously metastasising from the primary tumour in an immunocompetent syngeneic host. METHODS:4T1 mouse mammary carcinoma sublines derived from primary tumours and spontaneous brain and lung metastases in BALB/c mice were subject to genome-wide expression profiling. Two differentially expressed genes, Id2 and Aldh3a1, were validated in in-vivo models using mouse and human cancer cell lines. Clinical relevance was investigated in datasets of breast cancer patients with regards to distant metastasis-free survival and brain metastasis relapse-free survival. The role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)7 in regulating Id2 expression and promoting cell survival was investigated in two-dimensional and three-dimensional in-vitro assays. RESULTS:In the spontaneous metastasis model, expression of Id2 and Aldh3a1 was significantly higher in 4T1 brain-derived sublines compared with sublines from lung metastases or primary tumour. Downregulation of expression impairs the ability of cells to colonise the brain parenchyma whereas ectopic expression in 4T1 and human MDA-MB-231 cells promotes dissemination to the brain following intracardiac inoculation but has no impact on the efficiency of lung colonisation. Both genes are highly expressed in oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancers and, within this poor prognosis sub-group, increased expression correlates with reduced distant metastasis-free survival. ID2 expression also associates with reduced brain metastasis relapse-free survival. Mechanistically, BMP7, which is present at significantly higher levels in brain tissue compared with the lungs, upregulates ID2 expression and, after BMP7 withdrawal, this elevated expression is retained. Finally, we demonstrate that either ectopic expression of ID2 or BMP7-induced ID2 expression protects tumour cells from anoikis. CONCLUSIONS:This study identifies ID2 as a key regulator of breast cancer metastasis to the brain. Our data support a model in which breast cancer cells that have disseminated to the brain upregulate ID2 expression in response to astrocyte-secreted BMP7 and this serves to support metastatic expansion. Moreover, elevated ID2 expression identifies breast cancer patients at increased risk of developing metastatic relapse in the brain.
Project description:Epithelial cancers including breast and prostate commonly progress to form incurable bone metastases. For this to occur, cancer cells must adapt their phenotype and behaviour to enable detachment from the primary tumour, invasion into the vasculature, and homing to and subsequent colonisation of bone. It is widely accepted that the metastatic process is driven by the transformation of cancer cells from a sessile epithelial to a motile mesenchymal phenotype through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Dissemination of these motile cells into the circulation provides the conduit for cells to metastasise to distant organs. However, accumulating evidence suggests that EMT is not sufficient for metastasis to occur and that specific tissue-homing factors are required for tumour cells to lodge and grow in bone. Once tumour cells are disseminated in the bone environment, they can revert into an epithelial phenotype through the reverse process of mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) and form secondary tumours. In this review, we describe the molecular alterations undertaken by breast cancer cells at each stage of the metastatic cascade and discuss how these changes facilitate bone metastasis.
Project description:Metastatic colonization, whereby a disseminated tumor cell is able to survive and proliferate at a secondary site, involves both tumor cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic factors. To identify tumor cell-extrinsic (microenvironmental) factors that regulate the ability of metastatic tumor cells to effectively colonize a tissue, we performed a genome-wide screen utilizing the experimental metastasis assay on mutant mice. Mutant and wildtype (control) mice were tail vein-dosed with murine metastatic melanoma B16-F10 cells and 10 days later the number of pulmonary metastatic colonies were counted. Of the 1,300 genes/genetic locations (1,344 alleles) assessed in the screen 34 genes were determined to significantly regulate pulmonary metastatic colonization (15 increased and 19 decreased; P < 0.005 and genotype effect <-55 or >+55). While several of these genes have known roles in immune system regulation (Bach2, Cyba, Cybb, Cybc1, Id2, Igh-6, Irf1, Irf7, Ncf1, Ncf2, Ncf4 and Pik3cg) most are involved in a disparate range of biological processes, ranging from ubiquitination (Herc1) to diphthamide synthesis (Dph6) to Rho GTPase-activation (Arhgap30 and Fgd4), with no previous reports of a role in the regulation of metastasis. Thus, we have identified numerous novel regulators of pulmonary metastatic colonization, which may represent potential therapeutic targets.
Project description:Breast cancer specific mortality results from tumour cell dissemination and metastatic colonisation. Identification of the cells and processes responsible for metastasis will enable better prevention and control of metastatic disease, thus reducing relapse and mortality. To better understand these processes, we prospectively collected 307 patient-derived breast cancer samples (n = 195 early breast cancers (EBC) and n = 112 metastatic samples (MBC)). We assessed colony-forming activity in vitro by growing isolated cells in both primary (formation) and secondary (self-renewal) mammosphere culture, and tumour initiating activity in vivo through subcutaneous transplantation of fragments or cells into mice. Metastatic samples formed primary mammosphere colonies significantly more frequently than early breast cancers and had significantly higher primary mammosphere colony formation efficiency (0.9 % vs. 0.6 %; p < 0.0001). Tumour initiation in vivo was significantly higher in metastatic than early breast cancer samples (63 % vs. 38 %, p = 0.04). Of 144 breast cancer samples implanted in vivo, we established 20 stable patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models at passage 2 or greater. Lung metastases were detected in mice from 14 PDX models. Mammosphere colony formation in vitro significantly correlated with the ability of a tumour to metastasise to the lungs in vivo (p = 0.05), but not with subcutaneous tumour initiation. In summary, the breast cancer stem cell activities of colony formation and tumour initiation are increased in metastatic compared to early samples, and predict metastasis in vivo. These results suggest that breast stem cell activity will predict for poor outcome tumours, and therapy targeting this activity will improve outcomes for patients with metastatic disease.
Project description:Cancer progression towards metastasis follows a defined sequence of events described as the metastatic cascade. For extravasation and transendothelial migration metastatic cells interact first with endothelial cells. Yet the role of endothelial cells during the process of metastasis formation and extravasation is still unclear, and the interaction between metastatic and endothelial cells during transendothelial migration is poorly understood. Since tumor cells are well known to express TGF-?, and the compact endothelial layer undergoes a series of changes during metastatic extravasation (cell contact disruption, cytoskeletal reorganization, enhanced contractility), we hypothesized that an EndMT may be necessary for metastatic extravasation. We demonstrate that primary cultured rat brain endothelial cells (BEC) undergo EndMT upon TGF-?1 treatment, characterized by the loss of tight and adherens junction proteins, expression of fibronectin, ?1-integrin, calponin and ?-smooth muscle actin (SMA). B16/F10 cell line conditioned and activated medium (ACM) had similar effects: claudin-5 down-regulation, fibronectin and SMA expression. Inhibition of TGF-? signaling during B16/F10 ACM stimulation using SB-431542 maintained claudin-5 levels and mitigated fibronectin and SMA expression. B16/F10 ACM stimulation of BECs led to phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3. SB-431542 prevented SMA up-regulation upon stimulation of BECs with A2058, MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 ACM as well. Moreover, B16/F10 ACM caused a reduction in transendothelial electrical resistance, enhanced the number of melanoma cells adhering to and transmigrating through the endothelial layer, in a TGF-?-dependent manner. These effects were not confined to BECs: HUVECs showed TGF-?-dependent SMA expression when stimulated with breast cancer cell line ACM. Our results indicate that an EndMT may be necessary for metastatic transendothelial migration, and this transition may be one of the potential mechanisms occurring during the complex phenomenon known as metastatic extravasation.