Molecular detection of colistin resistance genes (mcr-1, mcr-2 and mcr-3) in nasal/oropharyngeal and anal/cloacal swabs from pigs and poultry.
ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial resistance against colistin has emerged worldwide and is threatening the efficacy of colistin treatment of multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, PCRs were used to detect mcr genes (mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3) in 213 anal and 1,339 nasal swabs from pigs (n?=?1,454) in nine provinces of China, and 1,696 cloacal and 1,647 oropharyngeal samples from poultry (n?=?1,836) at live-bird markets in 24 provinces. The mcr-1 prevalences in pigs (79.2%) and geese (71.7%) were significantly higher than in chickens (31.8%), ducks (34.6%) and pigeons (13.1%). The mcr-2 prevalence in pigs was 56.3%, significantly higher than in chickens (5.5%), ducks (2.3%), geese (5.5%) and pigeons (0%). The mcr-3 prevalences in pigs (18.7%), ducks (13.8%) and geese (11.9%) were significantly higher than in chickens (5.2%) and pigeons (5.1%). In total, 173 pigs and three chickens were positive for all three mcr genes. The prevalences of the mcr were significantly higher in nasal/oropharyngeal swabs than in the anal /cloacal swabs. Phylogenetic studies identified 33 new mcr-2 variants and 12 new mcr-3 variants. This study demonstrates high prevalences of mcr in pigs and poultry in China, and indicates there is need for more thorough surveillance and control programs to prevent further selection of colistin resistance.
Project description:Antimicrobial resistance against colistin has emerged worldwide threatening the efficacy of one of the last-resort antimicrobials used for the treatment of Enterobacteriaceae. To investigate the presence of the recently identified colistin resistance genes (mcr-4, mcr-5) in China, we established PCRs to detect mcr-4 and mcr-5 on 213 anal and 1,339 nasal swabs from apparently healthy pigs (n = 1,454) in nine provinces, and 1,696 cloacal and 1,647 oropharyngeal samples from poultry (n = 1,836) at live-bird markets in 24 provinces of China. The prevalence of the mcr-4 in swine swabs (41.4%; 642/1,552) was significantly higher than in swabs from poultry (11.5%; 384/3,343). The mcr-4 gene was found in geese (49.5%, 54/109), chickens (17.2%, 257/1,498), pigeons (17.2%, 17/99) and ducks (15.4%, 20/130). In a similar trend, the prevalence of the mcr-5 in swine swabs (33.1%; 514/1552) was significantly higher than in swabs from poultry (5.6%; 187/3,343). The mcr-5 was identified in geese (17.4%, 19/109), chickens (9.9%, 148/1,498), ducks (7.7%, 10/130) and pigeons (3%, 3/99). The mcr-4 prevalence in the nasal swabs from pigs (59.2%, 58/98) was significantly higher than that in anal swabs (29.6%, 29/98) (P<0.001). Similarly, the mcr-5 prevalence in the nasal swabs from pigs (61.2%, 60/98) was significantly higher than in anal swabs (44.9%, 44/98) (P = 0.02), and significantly higher in oropharyngeal swabs (7.2%, 109/1,507) than in the cloacal swabs (3.7%, 56/1,507) (P<0.001). This study further confirms the presence of the mcr-4 and mcr-5 in animals and indicates these genes are prevalent and widespread in food producing animals (pig and poultry) in China. Future studies are needed to characterize the bacteria carrying the mcr-4 and mcr-5 and their locations on plasmids and/or the bacterial chromosomes, and determine co-resistances in the mcr-4 and mcr-5 positive strains.
Project description:Colistin has been used as a growth promotant in livestock feed for many years. In China, mcr-1-positive Escherichia coli strains have been isolated from humans, chickens, and pigs. To date, there are few reports about the prevalence and molecular characteristics of fecal E. coli bearing mcr-1 in the meat ducks. In this study, the prevalence of mcr-1 gene was investigated among 120 fecal E. coli strains isolated from healthy meat ducks in Shandong province of China between October 2017 and February 2018. A total of nine mcr-1-containing E. coli strains were identified and two were identified as extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) among them. The clonal relationship of the nine E. coli strains was determined by multilocus sequencing typing (MLST) and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the results indicated that all mcr-1-carrying isolates were clonally unrelated. Two different genetic contexts of mcr-1 were identified among these isolates. Colistin-resistant phenotype of all the isolates was successfully transferred to the recipient strains by conjugation experiments and seven transconjugants carried a single plasmid. The mcr-1 was located on three replicon plasmids: IncI2 (n = 4), IncFII (n = 2) and IncN (n = 1). Complete sequence analysis of a representative plasmid pTA9 revealed that it was strikingly similar with plasmid pMCR1-IncI2 of E. coli, plasmid pHNSHP45 of E. coli, and plasmid pWF-5-19C of Cronobacter sakazakii, implying that pTA9-like plasmids may be epidemic plasmids that mediate the spread of mcr-1 among Enterobacteriaceae. These results highlight that healthy meat duck is a potential reservoir for multidrug resistant mcr-1-containing E. coli strains.
Project description:We detected the colistin resistance gene mcr-1 in four Salmonella serovars isolated from humans and animals with diarrhea. The resistance gene was carried on different plasmids. One mcr-1-carrying conjugative plasmid, a variant of pHNSHP45, was disseminated among Salmonella isolates recovered from humans, pigs, and chickens.
Project description:In this study, a total of 323 Salmonella enterica strains were isolated from 3,566 rectal swab samples of 51 poultry farms in seven regions of 12 provinces of China between 2006 and 2012. The prevalences of Salmonella sp. carriage were 12.4% in geese (66 positive/533 samples), 10.4% in turkeys (32/309), 9.8% in chickens (167/1,706), 6.8% in ducks (41/601), and 4.1% in pigeons (17/417), respectively. These isolates belonged to 20 serovars, in which the most frequent serovars were S. enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Pullorum (herein, S. Pullorum) (55 isolates, 17.0%), S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (50 isolates, 15.5%), and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis (39 isolates, 12.1%). Overall, S. Typhimurium was the most commonly detected serovar; among the individual species, S. Pullorum was most commonly isolated from chickens, S. Enteritidis was most common in ducks, S. Typhimurium was most common in geese and pigeons, and S. enterica serovar Saintpaul was most common in turkeys. PCR determination of 20 fimbrial genes demonstrated the presence of bcfD, csgA, fimA, stdB, and sthE genes and the absence of staA and stgA genes in these isolates, and other loci were variably distributed, with frequency values ranging from 11.8 to 99.1%. These 323 Salmonella isolates were subdivided into 41 different fimbrial genotypes, and of these isolate, 285 strains (88.2%) had 12 to 14 fimbrial genes. Our findings indicated that the Salmonella isolates from different poultry species were phenotypically and genetically diverse and that some fimbrial genes are more frequently associated with serovars or serogroups.
Project description:Colistin resistance by mobilisable mcr genes has been described in bacteria of food-animal origin worldwide, which has raised public health concerns about its potential foodborne transmission to human pathogenic bacteria. Here we provide baseline information on the molecular epidemiology of colistin-resistant, mcr-positive Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolates in food-producing animals in Italy in 2014-2015. A total 678, 861 and 236 indicator E. coli, Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC-producing E. coli, and Salmonella isolates, respectively, were tested for colistin susceptibility. These isolates were collected according to the EU harmonized antimicrobial resistance monitoring program and are representative of at least 90 and 80% of the Italian poultry (broiler chickens and turkeys) and livestock (pigs and bovines < 12 months) production, respectively. Whole genome sequencing by Illumina technology and bioinformatics (Center for Genomic Epidemiology pipeline) were used to type 42 mcr-positive isolates by PCR. Colistin resistance was mainly observed in the ESBL/AmpC E. coli population, and was present in 25.9, 5.3, 6.5, and 3.9% of such isolates in turkeys, broilers, pigs, and bovines, respectively. Most colistin-resistant isolates (141/161, 87.5%) harbored genes of the mcr-1 group. mcr-1 was also detected in a small proportion of Salmonella isolates (3/146, 2.0%) in turkeys. Additional mcr types were mcr-3 in four ESBL-producing E. coli from bovines, and two mcr-4 in ESBL (n = 1) and indicator E. coli (n = 1) from pigs and bovines. We describe notable diversity of mcr variants with predominance of mcr-1.1 and mcr-1.2 on conjugative IncX4 plasmids in E. coli and in Salmonella serovars Typhimurium, Newport, Blockley from turkey. A new variant, mcr-1.13 was detected in the chromosome in E. coli in turkey and pig isolates. Additionally, we describe mcr-3.2 and mcr-4.3 in E. coli from bovines, and mcr-4.2 in E. coli from pigs. These findings elucidate the epidemiology of colistin resistance in food-producing animals in Italy along with its genetic background, and highlight the likelihood of mcr horizontal transfer between commensal bacteria and major food-borne pathogens (Salmonella) within the same type of productions. Thorough action and strategies are needed in order to mitigate the risk of mcr transfer to humans, in a "One Health" perspective.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Newcastle disease (ND) is an OIE listed disease caused by virulent avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) strains, which is enzootic and causes large economic losses in the poultry sector. Genotype VII and genotype IX NDV viruses were the predominant circulating genotype in China, which may possibly be responsible for disease outbreaks in chicken flocks in recent years. While ducks and geese usually have exhibited inapparent infections. METHODS: In the present study, we investigate the complete genome sequence, the clinicopathological characterization and transmission of two virulent Newcastle disease viruses, SS-10 and NH-10, isolated from domestic ducks in Southern China in 2010. RESULTS: F, and the complete gene sequences based on phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that SS-10 (genotype VII) and NH-10 (genotype IX) belongs to class II. The deduced amino acid sequence was (112)R-R-Q-K/R-R-F(117) at the fusion protein cleavage site. Animal experiment results showed that the SS-10 virus isolated from ducks was highly pathogenic for chickens and geese, but low pathogenic for ducks. It could be detected from spleen, lung, kidney, trachea, small intestine, bursa of fabricius, thymus, pancreas and cecal tonsils, oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs, and could transmit to the naive contact birds. Moreover, it could transmit to chickens, ducks and geese by naive contact. However, the NH-10 virus isolated from ducks could infect some chickens, ducks and geese, but only caused chickens to die. Additionally, it could transmit to the naive contact chickens, ducks, and geese. CONCLUSION: The two NDV isolates exhibited different biological properties with respect to pathogenicity and transmission in chickens, ducks and geese. Therefore, no species-preference exists for chicken, duck or goose viruses and more attention should be paid to the trans-species transmission of VII NDVs between ducks, geese and chickens for the control and eradication of ND.
Project description:Colistin resistance has emerged worldwide and has been threatening the efficacy of one of the last-resort antimicrobials used for treatment of multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. While five colistin resistance genes (mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3, mcr-4 and mcr-5) have been described, few data are available on the prevalence of mcr-genes other than mcr-1 in human samples.In this study, the presence of five currently described colistin resistance genes (mcr 1-5) in vaginal swabs of women undergoing infertility evaluation was reported. Most samples were found to be positive for the mcr-4 (12.7%), followed by two for the mcr-2 (1.5%), two for the mcr-3 (1.5%), one for the mcr-1 (0.7%), and one for the mcr-5 (0.7%). Phylogenetic comparison demonstrated identical (mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3, mcr-5) or similar (mcr-4) nucleotide sequences of human samples and those of animal origins from the same city, suggesting the potential transmission of mcr genes from animals to humans. This is the first detection of mcr-2, mcr-4 and mcr-5 genes in human samples, and warrants further research to determine the spread of the mcr genes and elucidate the full epidemiology of colistin resistance genes in humans.
Project description:We investigated the consequences of colistin use in backyard chicken farms in Vietnam by examining the prevalence of mcr-1 in fecal samples from chickens and humans. Detection of mcr-1-carrying bacteria in chicken samples was associated with colistin use and detection in human samples with exposure to mcr-1-positive chickens.
Project description:To investigate the prevalence and diversity of Chlamydia spp. in domestic birds in China, oral and cloacal swabs of healthy chickens, ducks, geese and pigeons were collected nationwide from live-animal markets and examined by Chlamydia spp. 23 S rRNA gene FRET-PCR followed by high-resolution melting curve analysis and confirmatory sequencing. Overall, 26.2% of the birds (602/2,300) were positive for Chlamydia spp. and five Chlamydia spp. were identified. While occasional detection of C. suis and C. muridarum in poultry is reported here for the first time, the predominant chlamydial agent was C. gallinacea representing 63.8% of all positives (384/602) and 81.2% of positive chickens (359/442). Analysis of the C. gallinacea ompA phylogeny revealed at least 13 well segregated variants (serovars). Seven-month monitoring of C. gallinacea-infected chickens indicated that the infection was persistent. C. gallinacea-infected chickens remained without overt clinical disease, but showed body weight gains significantly reduced by 6.5-11.4% beginning in week 3 post-infection. This study indicates that C. gallinacea is the endemic chlamydial species in chickens, whereas C. psittaci dominates only in pigeons. Further studies are required to address the specific conditions under which C. gallinacea could act as an avian pathogen and possibly also a zoonotic agent.
Project description:Mortality in ducks and geese caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) infection had not been previously identified in Bangladesh. In June-July 2011, we investigated mortality in ducks, geese and chickens with suspected H5N1 infection in a north-eastern district of the country to identify the aetiologic agent and extent of the outbreak and identify possible associated human infections. We surveyed households and farms with affected poultry flocks in six villages in Netrokona district and collected cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs from sick birds and tissue samples from dead poultry. We conducted a survey in three of these villages to identify suspected human influenza-like illness cases and collected nasopharyngeal and throat swabs. We tested all swabs by real-time RT-PCR, sequenced cultured viruses, and examined tissue samples by histopathology and immunohistochemistry to detect and characterize influenza virus infection. In the six villages, among the 240 surveyed households and 11 small-scale farms, 61% (1789/2930) of chickens, 47% (4816/10 184) of ducks and 73% (358/493) of geese died within 14 days preceding the investigation. Of 70 sick poultry swabbed, 80% (56/70) had detectable RNA for influenza A/H5, including 89% (49/55) of ducks, 40% (2/5) of geese and 50% (5/10) of chickens. We isolated virus from six of 25 samples; sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase gene of these six isolates indicated clade 18.104.22.168a of H5N1 virus. Histopathological changes and immunohistochemistry staining of avian influenza viral antigens were recognized in the brain, pancreas and intestines of ducks and chickens. We identified ten human cases showing signs compatible with influenza-like illness; four were positive for influenza A/H3; however, none were positive for influenza A/H5. The recently introduced H5N1 clade 22.214.171.124a virus caused unusually high mortality in ducks and geese. Heightened surveillance in poultry is warranted to guide appropriate diagnostic testing and detect novel influenza strains.