Variable impairment of platelet functions in patients with severe, genetically linked immune deficiencies.
ABSTRACT: In patients with dysfunctions of the Ca2+ channel ORAI1, stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) or integrin-regulating kindlin-3 (FERMT3), severe immunodeficiency is frequently linked to abnormal platelet activity. In this paper, we studied platelet responsiveness by multiparameter assessment of whole blood thrombus formation under high-shear flow conditions in 9 patients, including relatives, with confirmed rare genetic mutations of ORAI1, STIM1 or FERMT3. In platelets isolated from 5 out of 6 patients with ORAI1 or STIM1 mutations, store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) was either completely or partially defective compared to control platelets. Parameters of platelet adhesion and aggregation on collagen microspots were impaired for 4 out of 6 patients, in part related to a low platelet count. For 4 patients, platelet adhesion/aggregation and procoagulant activity on von Willebrand Factor (VWF)/rhodocytin and VWF/fibrinogen microspots were impaired independently of platelet count, and were partly correlated with SOCE deficiency. Measurement of thrombus formation at low shear rate confirmed a greater impairment of platelet functionality in the ORAI1 patients than in the STIM1 patient. For 3 patients/relatives with a FERMT3 mutation, all parameters of thrombus formation were strongly reduced regardless of the microspot. Bone marrow transplantation, required by 2 patients, resulted in overall improvement of platelet function. We concluded that multiparameter assessment of whole blood thrombus formation in a surface-dependent way can detect: i) additive effects of low platelet count and impaired platelet functionality; ii) aberrant ORAI1-mediated Ca2+ entry; iii) differences in platelet activation between patients carrying the same ORAI1 mutation; iv) severe platelet function impairment linked to a FERMT3 mutation and bleeding history.
Project description:In platelets, STIM1 has been recognized as the key regulatory protein in store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) with Orai1 as principal Ca(2+) entry channel. Both proteins contribute to collagen-dependent arterial thrombosis in mice in vivo. It is unclear whether STIM2 is involved. A key platelet response relying on Ca(2+) entry is the surface exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS), which accomplishes platelet procoagulant activity. We studied this response in mouse platelets deficient in STIM1, STIM2, or Orai1. Upon high shear flow of blood over collagen, Stim1(-/-) and Orai1(-/-) platelets had greatly impaired glycoprotein (GP) VI-dependent Ca(2+) signals, and they were deficient in PS exposure and thrombus formation. In contrast, Stim2(-/-) platelets reacted normally. Upon blood flow in the presence of thrombin generation and coagulation, Ca(2+) signals of Stim1(-/-) and Orai1(-/-) platelets were partly reduced, whereas the PS exposure and formation of fibrin-rich thrombi were normalized. Washed Stim1(-/-) and Orai1(-/-) platelets were deficient in GPVI-induced PS exposure and prothrombinase activity, but not when thrombin was present as co-agonist. Markedly, SKF96365, a blocker of (receptor-operated) Ca(2+) entry, inhibited Ca(2+) and procoagulant responses even in Stim1(-/-) and Orai1(-/-) platelets. These data show for the first time that: (i) STIM1 and Orai1 jointly contribute to GPVI-induced SOCE, procoagulant activity, and thrombus formation; (ii) a compensating Ca(2+) entry pathway is effective in the additional presence of thrombin; (iii) platelets contain two mechanisms of Ca(2+) entry and PS exposure, only one relying on STIM1-Orai1 interaction.
Project description:Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) mediates the increase in intracellular calcium (Ca2+) in endothelial cells (ECs) that regulates several EC functions including tissue-fluid homeostasis. Stromal-interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), upon sensing the depletion of (Ca2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) store, organizes as puncta that trigger store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) via plasmalemmal Ca2+-selective Orai1 channels. While the STIM1 and Orai1 binding interfaces have been mapped, signaling mechanisms activating STIM1 recruitment of Orai1 and STIM1-Orai1 interaction remains enigmatic. Here, we show that ER Ca2+-store depletion rapidly induces STIM1 phosphorylation at Y361 via proline-rich kinase 2 (Pyk2) in ECs. Surprisingly, the phospho-defective STIM1-Y361F mutant formed puncta but failed to recruit Orai1, thereby preventing. SOCE Furthermore, studies in mouse lungs, expression of phosphodefective STIM1-Y361F mutant in ECs prevented the increase in vascular permeability induced by the thrombin receptor, protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1). Hence, Pyk2-dependent phosphorylation of STIM1 at Y361 is a critical phospho-switch enabling recruitment of Orai1 into STIM1 puncta leading to SOCE. Therefore, Y361 in STIM1 represents a novel target for limiting SOCE-associated vascular leak.
Project description:Eccrine sweat glands are essential for sweating and thermoregulation in humans. Loss-of-function mutations in the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel genes ORAI1 and STIM1 abolish store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), and patients with these CRAC channel mutations suffer from anhidrosis and hyperthermia at high ambient temperatures. Here we have shown that CRAC channel-deficient patients and mice with ectodermal tissue-specific deletion of Orai1 (Orai1K14Cre) or Stim1 and Stim2 (Stim1/2K14Cre) failed to sweat despite normal sweat gland development. SOCE was absent in agonist-stimulated sweat glands from Orai1K14Cre and Stim1/2K14Cre mice and human sweat gland cells lacking ORAI1 or STIM1 expression. In Orai1K14Cre mice, abolishment of SOCE was associated with impaired chloride secretion by primary murine sweat glands. In human sweat gland cells, SOCE mediated by ORAI1 was necessary for agonist-induced chloride secretion and activation of the Ca2+-activated chloride channel (CaCC) anoctamin 1 (ANO1, also known as TMEM16A). By contrast, expression of TMEM16A, the water channel aquaporin 5 (AQP5), and other regulators of sweat gland function was normal in the absence of SOCE. Our findings demonstrate that Ca2+ influx via store-operated CRAC channels is essential for CaCC activation, chloride secretion, and sweat production in humans and mice.
Project description:Chorea-Acanthocytosis (ChAc), a neurodegenerative disorder, results from loss-of-function-mutations of chorein-encoding gene VPS13A. In tumour cells chorein up-regulates ORAI1, a Ca2+-channel accomplishing store operated Ca2+-entry (SOCE) upon stimulation by STIM1. Furthermore SOCE could be up-regulated by lithium. The present study explored whether SOCE impacts on neuron apoptosis. Cortical neurons were differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells generated from fibroblasts of ChAc patients and healthy volunteers. ORAI1 and STIM1 transcript levels and protein abundance were estimated from qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively, cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i) from Fura-2-fluorescence, as well as apoptosis from annexin-V-binding and propidium-iodide uptake determined by flow cytometry. As a result, ORAI1 and STIM1 transcript levels and protein abundance and SOCE were significantly smaller and the percentage apoptotic cells significantly higher in ChAc neurons than in control neurons. Lithium treatment (2?mM, 24?hours) increased significantly ORAI1 and STIM1 transcript levels and protein abundance, an effect reversed by inhibition of Serum & Glucocorticoid inducible Kinase 1. ORAI1 blocker 2-APB (50?µM, 24?hours) significantly decreased SOCE, markedly increased apoptosis and abrogated the anti-apoptotic effect of lithium. In conclusion, enhanced neuronal apoptosis in ChAc at least partially results from decreased ORAI1 expression and SOCE, which could be reversed by lithium treatment.
Project description:Stromal interaction molecules (STIM) were identified as the endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) Ca2+ sensor controlling store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) and Ca2+-release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels in non-excitable cells. STIM proteins target Orai1-3, tetrameric Ca2+-permeable channels in the plasma membrane. Structure-function analysis revealed the molecular determinants and the key steps in the activation process of Orai by STIM. Recently, STIM1 was found to be expressed at high levels in skeletal muscle controlling muscle function and properties. Novel STIM targets besides Orai channels are emerging.Here, we will focus on the role of STIM1 in skeletal-muscle structure, development and function. The molecular mechanism underpinning skeletal-muscle physiology points toward an essential role for STIM1-controlled SOCE to drive Ca2+/calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)-dependent morphogenetic remodeling programs and to support adequate sarcoplasmic-reticulum (SR) Ca2+-store filling. Also in our hands, STIM1 is transiently up-regulated during the initial phase of in vitro myogenesis of C2C12 cells. The molecular targets of STIM1 in these cells likely involve Orai channels and canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels TRPC1 and TRPC3. The fast kinetics of SOCE activation in skeletal muscle seem to depend on the triad-junction formation, favoring a pre-localization and/or pre-formation of STIM1-protein complexes with the plasma-membrane Ca2+-influx channels. Moreover, Orai1-mediated Ca2+ influx seems to be essential for controlling the resting Ca2+ concentration and for proper SR Ca2+ filling. Hence, Ca2+ influx through STIM1-dependent activation of SOCE from the T-tubule system may recycle extracellular Ca2+ losses during muscle stimulation, thereby maintaining proper filling of the SR Ca2+ stores and muscle function. Importantly, mouse models for dystrophic pathologies, like Duchenne muscular dystrophy, point towards an enhanced Ca2+ influx through Orai1 and/or TRPC channels, leading to Ca2+-dependent apoptosis and muscle degeneration. In addition, human myopathies have been associated with dysfunctional SOCE. Immunodeficient patients harboring loss-of-function Orai1 mutations develop myopathies, while patients suffering from Duchenne muscular dystrophy display alterations in their Ca2+-handling proteins, including STIM proteins. In any case, the molecular determinants responsible for SOCE in human skeletal muscle and for dysregulated SOCE in patients of muscular dystrophy require further examination.
Project description:Impairment of renal phosphate elimination in chronic kidney disease (CKD) leads to enhanced plasma and tissue phosphate concentration, which in turn up-regulates transcription factor NFAT5 and serum & glucocorticoid-inducible kinase SGK1. The kinase upregulates ORAI1, a Ca2+-channel accomplishing store-operated Ca2+-entry (SOCE). ORAI1 is stimulated following intracellular store depletion by Ca2+-sensors STIM1 and/or STIM2. In megakaryocytes and blood platelets SOCE and thus ORAI1 are powerful regulators of activity. The present study explored whether the phosphate-donor ß-glycerophosphate augments NFAT5, ORAI1,2,3 and/or STIM1,2 expressions and thus SOCE in megakaryocytes. Human megakaryocytic Meg01cells were exposed to 2?mM of phosphate-donor ß-glycerophosphate for 24?hours. Platelets were isolated from blood samples of patients with impaired kidney function or control volunteers. Transcript levels were estimated utilizing q-RT-PCR, cytosolic Ca2+-concentration ([Ca2+]i) by Fura-2-fluorescence, and SOCE from increase of [Ca2+]i following re-addition of extracellular Ca2+ after store depletion with thapsigargin (1?µM). NFAT5 and ORAI1 protein abundance was estimated with Western blots. As a result, ß-glycerophosphate increased NFAT5, ORAI1/2/3, STIM1/2 transcript levels, as well as SOCE. Transcript levels of NFAT5, SGK1, ORAI1/2/3, and STIM1/2 as well as NFAT5 and ORAI1 protein abundance were significantly higher in platelets isolated from patients with impaired kidney function than in platelets from control volunteers. In conclusion, phosphate-donor ß-glycerophosphate triggers a signaling cascade of NFAT5/SGK1/ORAI/STIM, thus up-regulating store-operated Ca2+-entry.
Project description:STIM1 and ORAI1 regulate store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) in most cell types, and mutations in these proteins have deleterious and diverse effects. We established a mouse line expressing the STIM1 R304?W gain-of-function mutation causing Stormorken syndrome to explore effects on organ and cell physiology. While STIM1 R304?W was lethal in the homozygous state, surviving mice presented with reduced growth, skeletal muscle degeneration, and reduced exercise endurance. Variable STIM1 expression levels between tissues directly impacted cellular SOCE capacity. In contrast to patients with Stormorken syndrome, STIM1 was downregulated in fibroblasts from Stim1R304W/R304W mice, which maintained SOCE despite constitutive protein activity. In studies using foetal liver chimeras, STIM1 protein was undetectable in homozygous megakaryocytes and platelets, resulting in impaired platelet activation and absent SOCE. These data indicate that downregulation of STIM1 R304?W effectively opposes the gain-of-function phenotype associated with this mutation, and highlight the importance of STIM1 in skeletal muscle development and integrity.
Project description:Trimeric intracellular cation (TRIC) channels have been proposed to modulate Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and determine oscillatory Ca2+ signals. Here, we report that TRIC-A-mediated amplitude and frequency modulation of ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2)-mediated Ca2+ oscillations and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R)-induced cytosolic signals is based on attenuating store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Further, TRIC-A-dependent delay in ER Ca2+ store refilling contributes to shaping the pattern of Ca2+ oscillations. Upon ER Ca2+ depletion, TRIC-A clusters with stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) and Ca2+-release-activated Ca2+ channel 1 (Orai1) within ER-plasma membrane (PM) junctions and impairs assembly of the STIM1/Orai1 complex, causing a decrease in Orai1-mediated Ca2+ current and SOCE. Together, our findings demonstrate that TRIC-A is a negative regulator of STIM1/Orai1 function. Thus, aberrant SOCE could contribute to muscle disorders associated with loss of TRIC-A.
Project description:Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) is a major pathway for calcium ions influx into cells and has a critical role in various cell functions. Here we demonstrate that calcium-bound calmodulin (Ca2+-CaM) binds to the core region of activated STIM1. This interaction facilitates slow Ca2+-dependent inactivation after Orai1 channel activation by wild-type STIM1 or a constitutively active STIM1 mutant. We define the CaM-binding site in STIM1, which is adjacent to the STIM1-Orai1 coupling region. The binding of Ca2+-CaM to activated STIM1 disrupts the STIM1-Orai1 complex and also disassembles STIM1 oligomer. Based on these results we propose a model for the calcium-bound CaM-regulated deactivation of SOCE.
Project description:Astrocytes are non-excitable cells in the brain and their activity largely depends on the intracellular calcium (Ca2+) level. Therefore, maintaining the intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis is critical for proper functioning of astrocytes. One of the key regulatory mechanisms of Ca2+ homeostasis in astrocytes is the store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). This process is mediated by a combination of the Ca2+-store-depletion-sensor, Stim, and the store-operated Ca2+-channels, Orai and TrpC families. Despite the existence of all those families in astrocytes, previous studies have provided conflicting results on the molecular identification of astrocytic SOCE. Here, using the shRNA-based gene-silencing approach and Ca2+-imaging from cultured mouse astrocytes, we report that Stim1 in combination with Orai1 and Orai3 contribute to the major portion of astrocytic SOCE. Gene-silencing of Stim1 showed a 79.2% reduction of SOCE, indicating that Stim1 is the major Ca2+-store-depletion-sensor. Further gene-silencing showed that Orai1, Orai2, Orai3, and TrpC1 contribute to SOCE by 35.7%, 20.3%, 26.8% and 12.2%, respectively. Simultaneous gene-silencing of all three Orai subtypes exhibited a 67.6% reduction of SOCE. Based on the detailed population analysis, we predict that Orai1 and Orai3 are expressed in astrocytes with a large SOCE, whereas TrpC1 is exclusively expressed in astrocytes with a small SOCE. This analytical approach allows us to identify the store operated channel (SOC) subtype in each cell by the degree of SOCE. Our results propose that Stim1 in combination with Orai1 and Orai3 are the major molecular components of astrocytic SOCE under various physiological and pathological conditions.