ICU team composition and its association with ABCDE implementation in a quality collaborative.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:Awakening, Breathing Coordination, Delirium, and Early Mobility bundle (ABCDE) should involve an interprofessional team, yet no studies describe what team composition supports implementation. MATERIALS & METHODS:We administered a survey at MHA Keystone Center ICU 2015 workshop. We measured team composition by the frequency of nurse, respiratory therapist, physician, physical therapist, nurse practitioner/physician assistant or nursing assistant involvement in 1) spontaneous awakening trials (SATs), 2) spontaneous breathing trials, 3) delirium and 4) early mobility. We assessed ABCDE implementation using a 5-point Likert ("routine part of every patient's care" - "no plans to implement"). We used ordinal logistic regression to examine team composition and ABCDE implementation, adjusting for confounders and clustering. RESULTS:From 293 surveys (75% response rate), we found that frequent nurse [OR 6.1 (1.1-34.9)] and physician involvement [OR 4.2 (1.3-13.4)] in SATs, nurse [OR 4.7 (1.6-13.4)] and nursing assistant's involvement [OR 3.9 (1.2-13.5)] in delirium and nurse [OR 2.8 (1.2-6.7)], physician [OR (3.6 (1.2-10.3)], and nursing assistants' involvement [OR 2.3 (1.1-4.8)] in early mobility were significantly associated with higher odds of routine ABCDE implementation. CONCLUSIONS:ABCDE implementation was associated with frequent involvement of team members, suggesting a need for role articulation and coordination.
Project description:PURPOSE:Poor coordination may impede delivery of the Awakening, Breathing Coordination, Delirium monitoring/management and Early exercise/mobility (ABCDE) bundle. Developing a shared mental model (SMM), where all team members are on the same page, may support coordination. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We administered a survey at the 2016 MHA Keystone Center ICU workshop. We measured different components of SMMs using five items from a validated survey, each on a 5-point Likert scale (strongly agree-strongly disagree). We measured self-reported routine ABCDE implementation using a single item 4-point Likert scale (ABCDE is routine-Made no steps to implement ABCDE). We examined the relationship between SMMs and routine ABCDE implementation using logistic regression, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS:Among the 206 (75%) responses, 157 (84%) reported using the ABCDE bundle and 80 (51% of 157) reported routine use. When clinicians agreed it was difficult to predict team members' behaviors, the odds of reporting routine ABCDE implementation significantly decreased [0.26 (0.10-0.66)]. Other SMM components related to knowing team members' skills, access to information, team adaptability, and team help behavior, were not significantly associated with the outcome. CONCLUSION:Increasing awareness of team members' behaviors may be a mechanism to improve the implementation of complex care bundles like ABCDE.
Project description:Background:Early rehabilitation has been found to prevent delirium and weakness that can hamper the recovery of intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. Integrated clinical practice guidelines for managing patient pain, agitation and delirium (PAD) have been developed. The Awakening and Breathing Coordination, Delirium monitoring/management, and Early exercise/mobility (ABCDE) bundle provides a strategy to implement PAD guidelines into everyday clinical practice. However, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of the ABCDE bundle in the literature.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a full-scale randomised controlled trial comparing the ABCDE bundle to standard care in an ICU. Trial feasibility was defined as the successful recruitment and retention of trial participants, adherence to the intervention, identification of barriers to the intervention, and the rigorous collection of outcome data. Methods:A prospective, single-centre, randomised controlled feasibility study was conducted. Thirty adult mechanically ventilated participants were recruited from an eight-bed ICU in south east Queensland, Australia, between April 2015 and December 2015. Participants were randomised to receive either the ABCDE bundle or standard routine management. The ABCDE bundle integrated prescribed awakening and breathing trials, delirium monitoring and management, and prescribed exercise and mobility regimes. Feasibility outcomes measured included recruitment and retention rates, intervention fidelity, and the feasibility of participant outcome data collection. Outcome measurement assessors were blinded to participant assignment. It was not possible to blind the research team or the participant to group assignment. Results:In total, 30 (81.1%) of 37 eligible participants consented and were randomised to the intervention group (n?=?15) or the control group (n?=?15). Of these, 23 (76.6%) participants successfully completed the 90-day post discharge assessment. A lengthy recruitment period of 8 months was related to overly stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria. Intervention adherence exceeded defined success rates with participation in awakening and breathing trials, delirium monitoring and exercise interventions performed on 80.2, 97.4 and 90.2% of ventilated days respectively. Outcome assessments were successfully and accurately performed at ICU and hospital discharge and 90-day post hospital discharge. Intervention participants were deemed to be delirious on 39.6% of mechanically ventilated days indicating a requirement for a scripted regime to prevent delirium. Conclusions:With minor adjustment of inclusion and exclusion criteria, the inclusion of delirium management protocols, and encouragement of family engagement and involvement, a large-scale definitive randomised controlled trial to test the impact of the ABCDEF bundle will be feasible. Trial registration:Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry 12614000763640 Date registered 17/08/2014.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Improved outcomes are associated with the Awakening and Breathing Coordination, Delirium, and Early exercise/mobility bundle (ABCDE); however, implementation issues are common. As yet, no study has integrated the barriers to ABCDE to provide an overview of reasons for less successful efforts. The purpose of this review was to identify and catalog the barriers to ABCDE delivery based on a widely used implementation framework, and to provide a resource to guide clinicians in overcoming barriers to implementation. METHODS:We searched MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus for original research articles from January 1, 2007, to August 31, 2016, that identified barriers to ABCDE implementation for adult patients in the ICU. Two reviewers independently reviewed studies, extracted barriers, and conducted thematic content analysis of the barriers, guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Discrepancies were discussed, and consensus was achieved. RESULTS:Our electronic search yielded 1,908 articles. After applying our inclusion/exclusion criteria, we included 49 studies. We conducted thematic content analysis of the 107 barriers and identified four classes of ABCDE barriers: (1) patient-related (ie, patient instability and safety concerns); (2) clinician-related (ie, lack of knowledge, staff safety concerns); (3) protocol-related (ie, unclear protocol criteria, cumbersome protocols to use); and, not previously identified in past reviews, (4) ICU contextual barriers (ie, interprofessional team care coordination). CONCLUSIONS:We provide the first, to our knowledge, systematic differential diagnosis of barriers to ABCDE delivery, moving beyond the conventional focus on patient-level factors. Our analysis offers a differential diagnosis checklist for clinicians planning ABCDE implementation to improve patient care and outcomes.
Project description:The ABCDE interprofessional bundle (Awakening and Breathing Coordination, Delirium monitoring and management, and Early mobility) reduces delirium and weakness in critically ill patients.To understand the relationship between organizational domains and provider attitudes.A 1-time electronic survey of 315 care providers in 10 intensive care units across the country to examine associations between organizational domains (policy/protocol factors, unit milieu, tasks, labor quality, labor quantity, and physical environment) and provider attitudes about perceived ease of completion, perceived safety, confidence, and perceived strength of evidence regarding the ABCDE bundle. Spearman correlations (rs) were used to examine the associations between organizational domains and provider attitude subscales (rs ? 0.32 was considered clinically important).Protocol attributes (rs = 0.37-0.58), role clarity (rs = 0.38-0.59), training/understanding (rs = 0.33-0.46), coordination (rs = 0.32-0.46), and peer advocates (rs = 0.37-0.48) were associated with less difficulty performing the bundle and better confidence, perceived safety, and strength of evidence. Participants also reported less difficulty carrying out the bundle when the team worked well together. Task autonomy was associated with better perceived safety (rs = 0.35) and confidence (rs = 0.47) related to the bundle.Focusing interventions on policy and protocol factors, unit milieu, and task autonomy, which have the strongest associations with providers' attitudes, may facilitate ABCDE bundle uptake.
Project description:A 2001 survey found that most healthcare professionals considered intensive care unit (ICU) delirium as a serious problem, but only 16% used a validated delirium screening tool. Our objective was to assess beliefs and practices regarding ICU delirium and sedation management.Between October 2006 and May 2007, a survey was distributed to ICU practitioners in 41 North American hospitals, seven international critical care meetings and courses, and the American Thoracic Society e-mail database.A convenience sample of 1384 healthcare professionals including 970 physicians, 322 nurses, 23 respiratory care practitioners, 26 pharmacists, 18 nurse practitioners and physicians' assistants, and 25 others.A majority [59% (766 of 1300)] estimated that more than one in four adult mechanically ventilated patients experience delirium. More than half [59% (774 of 1302)] screen for delirium, with 33% of those respondents (258 of 774) using a specific screening tool. A majority of respondents use a sedation protocol, but 29% (396 of 1355) still do not. A majority (76%, 990 of 1309) has a written policy on spontaneous awakening trials (SATs), but the minority of respondents (44%, 446 of 1019) practice spontaneous awakening trials on more than half of ICU days.Delirium is considered a serious problem by a majority of healthcare professionals, and the percent of practitioners using a specific screening tool has increased since the last published survey data. Although most respondents have adopted specific sedation protocols and have an approved approach to stopping sedation daily, few report even modest compliance with daily cessation of sedation.
Project description:ICUs are experiencing an epidemic of patients with acute brain dysfunction (delirium) and weakness, both associated with increased mortality and long-term disability. These conditions are commonly acquired in the ICU and are often initiated or exacerbated by sedation and ventilation decisions and management. Despite > 10 years of evidence revealing the hazards of delirium, the quality chasm between current and ideal processes of care continues to exist. Monitoring of delirium and sedation levels remains inconsistent. In addition, sedation, ventilation, and physical therapy practices proven successful at reducing the frequency and severity of adverse outcomes are not routinely practiced. In this article, we advocate for the adoption and implementation of a standard bundle of ICU measures with great potential to reduce the burden of ICU-acquired delirium and weakness. Individual components of this bundle are evidence based and can help standardize communication, improve interdisciplinary care, reduce mortality, and improve cognitive and functional outcomes. We refer to this as the "ABCDE bundle," for awakening and breathing coordination, delirium monitoring, and exercise/early mobility. This evidence-based bundle of practices will build a bridge across the current quality chasm from the "front end" to the "back end" of critical care and toward improved cognitive and functional outcomes for ICU survivors.
Project description:Background:While understanding of critical illness and delirium continue to evolve, the impact on clinical practice is often unknown and delayed. Our purpose was to provide insight into practice changes by characterizing analgesia and sedation usage and occurrence of delirium in different years and international regions. Methods:We performed a retrospective analysis of two multicenter, international, prospective cohort studies. Mechanically ventilated adults were followed for up to 28?days in 2010 and 2016. Proportion of days utilizing sedation, analgesia, and performance of a spontaneous awakening trial (SAT), and occurrence of delirium were described for each year and region and compared between years. Results:A total of 14,281 patients from 6 international regions were analyzed. Proportion of days utilizing analgesia and sedation increased from 2010 to 2016 (p?<?0.001 for each). Benzodiazepine use decreased in every region but remained the most common sedative in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Performance of SATs increased overall, driven mostly by the US/Canada region (24 to 35% of days with sedation, p?<?0.001). Any delirium during admission increased from 7 to 8% of patients overall and doubled in the US/Canada region (17 to 36%, p?<?0.001). Conclusions:Analgesia and sedation practices varied widely across international regions and significantly changed over time. Opportunities for improvement in care include increasing delirium monitoring, performing SATs, and decreasing use of sedation, particularly benzodiazepines.
Project description:We face a profound and emerging public health problem in the form of acute and chronic brain dysfunction. This affects both young and elderly intensive care unit survivors and is altering the landscape of society. Two-thirds of intensive care unit patients develop delirium, and this is associated with longer stays, increased costs, and excess mortality. In addition, over half of intensive care unit survivors suffer a dementia-like illness that impacts their physical and cognitive functional abilities and which appears to be related to the duration of their intensive care unit delirium. A new paradigm of how intensivists handle the brain is required. We propose a three-step approach to address this emerging epidemic, which includes Screening, Prevention, and Restoration of brain function (SPR). Screening combines risk factor identification and delirium assessment using validated instruments. Prevention of acute and chronic brain dysfunction requires implementation of a core model of care that combines evidence-based practices: awakening and breathing, coordination with target-based sedation, delirium monitoring, and exercise/early mobility (ABCDE). Restoration introduces strategies of ongoing screening and treatment for intensive care unit survivors at high risk of ongoing brain dysfunction. This practical system applying many evidence-based concepts incorporates personalized medicine, systems-based practice, and continuing research and development toward improving acute and chronic cognitive outcomes.
Project description:The ICU Liberation (ABCDEF) Bundle can help to improve care and outcomes for ICU patients, but bundle implementation is far from universal. Understanding how ICU organizational characteristics influence bundle implementation could inform quality improvement efforts. We surveyed all hospitals in Michigan with adult ICUs to determine whether organizational characteristics were associated with bundle implementation and to determine the level of agreement between ICU physician and nurse leaders around ICU organizational characteristics and bundle implementation. Design:We surveyed ICU physician and nurse leaders, assessing their safety culture, ICU team collaboration, and work environment. Using logistic and linear regression models, we compared these organizational characteristics to bundle element implementation, and also compared physician and nurse leaders' perceptions about organizational characteristics and bundle implementation. Setting:All (n = 72) acute care hospitals with adult ICUs in Michigan. Subjects:ICU physician and nurse leader pairs from each hospital's main ICU. Interventions:We developed, pilot-tested, and deployed an electronic survey to all subjects over a 3 month period in 2016. Results:Results from 73 surveys (28 physicians, 45 nurses, 60% hospital response rate) demonstrated significant variation in hospital and ICU size and type, organizational characteristics, and physician/nurse perceptions of ICU organization and bundle implementation. We found that a robust safety culture and collaborative work environment that uses checklists to facilitate team communication are strongly associated with bundle implementation. There is also a significant dose-response effect between safety culture, a collaborative work environment, and overall bundle implementation. Conclusions:We identified several specific ICU practices that can facilitate ABCDEF Bundle implementation. Our results can be used to develop effective bundle implementation strategies that leverage safety culture, interprofessional collaboration, and routine checklist use in ICUs to improve bundle implementation and performance.
Project description:Delirium is a common yet under-diagnosed syndrome of acute brain dysfunction, which is characterized by inattention, fluctuating mental status, altered level of consciousness, or disorganized thinking. Although our recognition of risk factors for delirium has progressed, our understanding of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms remains limited. Improvements in monitoring and assessment for delirium (particularly in the intensive care setting) have resulted in validated and reliable tools such as arousal scales and bedside delirium monitoring instruments. Once delirium is recognized and the modifiable risk factors are addressed, the next step in management (if delirium persists) is often pharmacological intervention. The sedatives, analgesics, and hypnotics most often used in the intensive care unit (ICU) to achieve patient comfort are all too frequently deliriogenic, resulting in a longer duration of ICU and hospital stay, and increased costs. Therefore, identification of safe and efficacious agents to reduce the incidence, duration, and severity of ICU delirium is a hot topic in critical care. Recognizing that there are no medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the prevention or treatment of delirium, we chose anti-psychotics and alpha-2 agonists as the general pharmacological focus of this article because both were subjects of relatively recent data and ongoing clinical trials. Emerging pharmacological strategies for addressing delirium must be combined with nonpharmacological approaches (such as daily spontaneous awakening trials and spontaneous breathing trials) and early mobility (combined with the increasingly popular approach called: Awakening and Breathing Coordination, Delirium Monitoring, Early Mobility, and Exercise [ABCDE] of critical care) to develop evidence-based approaches that will ensure safer and faster recovery of the sickest patients in our healthcare system.