Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex genotypes circulating in Nigeria based on spoligotyping obtained from Ziehl-Neelsen stained slides extracted DNA.
ABSTRACT: All State TB control programmes in Nigeria were requested to submit 25-50 smear-positive Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stained slides for screening during 2013-2014. DNA was extracted from 929 slides for spoligotyping and drug-resistance analysis using microbead-based flow-cytometry suspension arrays.Spoligotyping results were obtained for 549 (59.1%) of 929 samples. Lineage 4 Cameroon sublineage (L4.6.2) represented half of the patterns, Mycobacterium africanum (L5 and L6) represented one fifth of the patterns, and all other lineages, including other L4 sublineages, represented one third of the patterns. Sublineage L4.6.2 was mostly identified in the north of the country whereas L5 was mostly observed in the south and L6 was scattered. The spatial distribution of genotypes had genetic geographic gradients. We did not obtain results enabling the detection of drug-resistance mutations.We present the first national snapshot of the M. tuberculosis spoligotypes circulating in Nigeria based on ZN slides. Spoligotyping data can be obtained in a rapid and high-throughput manner with DNA extracted from ZN-stained slides, which may potentially improve our understanding of the genetic epidemiology of TB.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and identification of strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to anti-TB drugs are considered the main factors for disease control. OBJECTIVES:To standardise a real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay technique and apply it to identify mutations involved in M. tuberculosis resistance to Isoniazid (INH) directly in Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stained slides. METHODS:Were analysed 55 independent DNA samples extracted from clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis by sequencing. For application in TB diagnosis resistance, 59 ZN-stained slides were used. The sensitivity, specificity and Kappa index, with a 95% confidence interval (CI95%), were determined. FINDINGS:The agreement between the tests was, for the katG target, the Kappa index of 0.89 (CI95%: 0.7-1.0). The sensitivity and specificity were 97.6% (CI95%: 87.7-99.9) and 91.7% (CI95%: 61.5-99.5), respectively. For inhA, the Kappa index was 0.92 (CI95%: 0.8-1.0), the sensitivity and specificity were 94.4% (CI95%: 72.7-99.8) and 97.3% (CI95%: 85.8-99.9), respectively. The use of ZN-stained slides for drug-resistant TB detection showed significant results when compared to other standard tests for drug resistance. MAIN CONCLUSIONS:qPCR genotyping proved to be an efficient method to detect genes that confer M. tuberculosis resistance to INH. Thus, qPCR genotyping may be an alternative instead of sequencing.
Project description:Mycobacterium africanum (Maf) causes a substantial proportion of human tuberculosis in some countries of West Africa, but little is known on this pathogen. We compared the genomes of 253 Maf clinical isolates from Ghana, including N?=?175 Lineage 5 (L5) and N?=?78 Lineage 6 (L6). We found that the genomic diversity of L6 was higher than in L5 despite the smaller sample size. Regulatory proteins appeared to evolve neutrally in L5 but under purifying selection in L6. Even though over 90% of the human T cell epitopes were conserved in both lineages, L6 showed a higher ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous single nucleotide variation in these epitopes overall compared to L5. Of the 10% human T cell epitopes that were variable, most carried mutations that were lineage-specific. Our findings indicate that Maf L5 and L6 differ in some of their population genomic characteristics, possibly reflecting different selection pressures linked to distinct ecological niches.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Phylogeographic composition of M. tuberculosis populations reveals associations between lineages and human populations that might have implications for the development of strategies to control the disease. In Latin America, lineage 4 or the Euro-American, is predominant with considerable variations among and within countries. In Colombia, although few studies from specific localities have revealed differences in M. tuberculosis populations, there are still areas of the country where this information is lacking, as is a comparison of Colombian isolates with those from the rest of the world.<h4>Principal findings</h4>A total of 414 M. tuberculosis isolates from adult pulmonary tuberculosis cases from three Colombian states were studied. Isolates were genotyped using IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), spoligotyping, and 24-locus Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units variable number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs). SIT42 (LAM9) and SIT62 (H1) represented 53.3% of isolates, followed by 8.21% SIT50 (H3), 5.07% SIT53 (T1), and 3.14% SIT727 (H1). Composite spoligotyping and 24-locus MIRU- VNTR minimum spanning tree analysis suggest a recent expansion of SIT42 and SIT62 evolved originally from SIT53 (T1). The proportion of Haarlem sublineage (44.3%) was significantly higher than that in neighboring countries. Associations were found between M. tuberculosis MDR and SIT45 (H1), as well as HIV-positive serology with SIT727 (H1) and SIT53 (T1).<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study showed the population structure of M. tuberculosis in several regions from Colombia with a dominance of the LAM and Haarlem sublineages, particularly in two major urban settings (Medellín and Cali). Dominant spoligotypes were LAM9 (SIT 42) and Haarlem (SIT62). The proportion of the Haarlem sublineage was higher in Colombia compared to that in neighboring countries, suggesting particular conditions of co-evolution with the corresponding human population that favor the success of this sublineage.
Project description:Cortical layers (L) 5 and 6 are populated by intermingled cell-types with distinct inputs and downstream targets. Here, we made optogenetically guided recordings from L5 corticofugal (CF) and L6 corticothalamic (CT) neurons in the auditory cortex of awake mice to discern differences in sensory processing and underlying patterns of functional connectivity. Whereas L5 CF neurons showed broad stimulus selectivity with sluggish response latencies and extended temporal non-linearities, L6 CTs exhibited sparse selectivity and rapid temporal processing. L5 CF spikes lagged behind neighboring units and imposed weak feedforward excitation within the local column. By contrast, L6 CT spikes drove robust and sustained activity, particularly in local fast-spiking interneurons. Our findings underscore a duality among sub-cortical projection neurons, where L5 CF units are canonical broadcast neurons that integrate sensory inputs for transmission to distributed downstream targets, while L6 CT neurons are positioned to regulate thalamocortical response gain and selectivity.
Project description:Rodents move their whiskers to locate and identify objects. Cortical areas involved in vibrissal somatosensation and sensorimotor integration include the vibrissal area of the primary motor cortex (vM1), primary somatosensory cortex (vS1; barrel cortex), and secondary somatosensory cortex (S2). We mapped local excitatory pathways in each area across all cortical layers using glutamate uncaging and laser scanning photostimulation. We analyzed these maps to derive laminar connectivity matrices describing the average strengths of pathways between individual neurons in different layers and between entire cortical layers. In vM1, the strongest projection was L2/3?L5. In vS1, strong projections were L2/3?L5 and L4?L3. L6 input and output were weak in both areas. In S2, L2/3?L5 exceeded the strength of the ascending L4?L3 projection, and local input to L6 was prominent. The most conserved pathways were L2/3?L5, and the most variable were L4?L2/3 and pathways involving L6. Local excitatory circuits in different cortical areas are organized around a prominent descending pathway from L2/3?L5, suggesting that sensory cortices are elaborations on a basic motor cortex-like plan.
Project description:Injuries to the conus medullaris and cauda equina portions of the spinal cord result in neurological impairments, including paralysis, autonomic dysfunction, and pain. In experimental studies, earlier investigations have shown that a lumbosacral ventral root avulsion (VRA) injury results in allodynia, which may be ameliorated by surgical replantation of the avulsed ventral roots. Here, we investigated the long-term effects of an L6 + S1 VRA injury on the plasticity of three populations of afferent projections to the dorsal horn in rats. At 8 weeks after a unilateral L6 + S1 VRA injury, quantitative morphological studies of the adjacent L5 dorsal horn showed reduced immunoreactivity (IR) for the vesicular glutamate transporter, VGLUT1 and isolectin B4 (IB4) binding, whereas IR for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was unchanged. The IR for VGLUT1 and CGRP as well as IB4 binding was at control levels in the L5 dorsal horn at 8 weeks following an acute surgical replantation of the avulsed L6 + S1 ventral roots. Quantitative morphological studies of the L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) showed unchanged neuronal numbers for both the VRA and replanted series compared to shams. The portions of L5 DRG neurons expressing IR for VGLUT1 and CGRP, and IB4 binding were also the same between the VRA, replanted, and sham-operated groups. We conclude that the L5 dorsal horn shows selective plasticity for VGLUT1 and IB4 primary afferent projections after an L6 + S1 VRA injury and surgical repair.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate the effect of estrogen withdrawal on bone tissue in adult female marmoset monkeys. In a 1-year follow-up study we used quantitative computer tomography to measure total bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal tibia and the second-last lumbar vertebral body (L5/L6) before and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after ovariectomy. Body mass did not significantly change during the 1-year observation period. However, a significant decline of total BMD after ovariectomy was observed in the proximal tibia but not in L5/L6. In addition, regression analysis showed a significant positive relationship between BMD and body mass in both tibia and L5/L6. The results of our study support the idea that ovariectomized marmoset monkeys may serve as a model to investigate bone loss related to decline of estrogen production.
Project description:A new oxaliplatin analog [Pt(dach)(L5)] (1) was synthesized and characterized as a continuation of a study of the previously reported [Pt(dach)(L6)] (2), where dach = (1R,2R)-diaminocyclohexane, L5 = 3-carboxyboldine, and L6 = 3-carboxypredicentrine. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited a substantially enhanced antioxidant activity compared to oxaliplatin (130 and 30 times for 1 and 13 and 4 times for 2 using the DPPH and FRAP assays, resp.). In addition, 1 and 2 exhibited cytotoxic activity in the same range as oxaliplatin toward the two human tumor cell lines (MCF-7 and HT-29) studied and two to four times lower activity in the human colon nontumor cell line (CCD-841). Preadministration of L5 or L6 to the colon tumor (HT-29) and the colon nontumor (CCD-841) cell lines prior to oxaliplatin addition increased the viability of the nontumor cell line to a greater extent than that of the tumor cell line.
Project description:The corticospinal (CS) tract is involved in controlling discrete voluntary skilled movements in mammals. The CS tract arises exclusively from layer (L) 5 projection neurons of the cerebral cortex, and its formation requires L5 activity of Fezf2 (Fezl, Zfp312). How this L5-specific pattern of Fezf2 expression and CS axonal connectivity is established with such remarkable fidelity had remained elusive. Here we show that the transcription factor TBR1 directly binds the Fezf2 locus and represses its activity in L6 corticothalamic projection neurons to restrict the origin of the CS tract to L5. In Tbr1 null mutants, CS axons ectopically originate from L6 neurons in a Fezf2-dependent manner. Consistently, misexpression of Tbr1 in L5 CS neurons suppresses Fezf2 expression and effectively abolishes the CS tract. Taken together, our findings show that TBR1 is a direct transcriptional repressor of Fezf2 and a negative regulator of CS tract formation that restricts the laminar origin of CS axons specifically to L5.
Project description:Neuronal hyperexcitability in both injured and adjacent uninjured neurons is associated with states of chronic injury and pain and is likely subject to neuroinflammatory processes. Chronic inflammatory responses are largely orchestrated by chemokines. One chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), in the presence of its cognate receptor, the beta chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), produces neural activity in dissociated neuronal cultures of neonatal dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Using a neuropathic pain model, chronic compression of the DRG (CCD), we compared anatomically separate populations of noncompressed lumbar DRG (L3/L6) with compressed lumbar DRG (L4/L5) for changes in the gene expression of CCR2. In situ hybridization revealed that CCR2 mRNA was up-regulated in neurons and nonneuronal cells present in both compressed L4/L5 and ipsilateral noncompressed L3/L6 DRGs at postoperative day 5 (POD5). The total percentages of compressed and noncompressed neurons exhibiting CCR2 mRNA transcripts in L3, L5, and L6 DRG were 33 +/- 3.5%, 49 +/- 6.2%, and 41 +/- 5.6%, respectively, and included cell bodies of small, medium, and large size. In addition, the preferred CCR2 ligand, MCP-1, was up-regulated by POD5 in both compressed L4/L5 and noncompressed L3/L6 DRG neurons. Application of MCP-1 to the cell bodies of the intact formerly compressed DRG in vitro produced potent excitatory effects not observed in control ganglia. MCP-1/CCR2 signaling is directly involved with a chronic compression injury and may contribute to associated neuronal hyperexcitability and neuropathic pain.