Smoking Policy Change Within Permanent Supportive Housing.
ABSTRACT: Smoke-free policies effectively reduce secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among non-smokers, and reduce consumption, encourage quit attempts, and minimize relapse to smoking among smokers. Such policies are uncommon in permanent supportive housing (PSH) for formerly homeless individuals. In this study, we collaborated with a PSH provider in San Diego, California to assess a smoke-free policy that restricted indoor smoking. Between August and November 2015, residents completed a pre-policy questionnaire on attitudes toward smoke-free policies and exposure to secondhand smoke, and then 7-9 months after policy implementation residents were re-surveyed. At follow-up, there was a 59.7% reduction in indoor smoking. The proportion of residents who identified as current smokers reduced by 13% (95% CI: -38, 10.2). The proportion of residents who reported never smelling SHS indoors (apartment 24.2%, 95% CI: 4.2, 44.1; shared areas 17.2%, 95% CI: 1.7, 32.7); in outdoor areas next to the living unit (porches or patio 56.7%, 95% CI: 40.7, 72.8); and in other outdoor areas (parking lot 28.6%, 95% CI: 8.3, 48.9) was lower post-policy compared with pre-policy. Overall, resident support increased by 18.7%; however, the greatest increase in support occurred among current smokers (from 14.8 to 37.5%). Fewer current smokers reported that the policy would enable cessation at post-policy compared to pre-policy. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of implementing smoke-free policies in PSH for formerly homeless adults. However, policy alone appears insufficient to trigger change in smoking behavior, highlighting the need for additional cessation resources to facilitate quitting.
Project description:Little research has been conducted to determine the psychosocial and behavioral impacts of smoke-free policies in middle-income countries.Cross-sectional data were analyzed from the 2006 waves of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation. Survey comparing adult smokers in Mexico (n = 1,080), where smoke-free legislation at that time was weak, and Uruguay (n = 1,002), where comprehensive smoke-free legislation was implemented. Analyses aimed to determine whether exposure to smoke-free policies and perceived antismoking social norms were associated with smokers' receiving cues about the bothersome nature of secondhand smoke (SHS), with smokers' reactance against such cues, and with smokers' level of support for smoke-free policies in different venues.In bivariate analyses, Uruguayan smokers were more likely than Mexican smokers to experience verbal anti-SHS cues, lower reactance against anti-SHS cues, stronger antismoking societal norms, and stronger support for 100% smoke-free policies in enclosed workplaces, restaurants, and bars. In multivariate models for both countries, the strength of voluntary smoke-free policies at home was independently associated with support for smoke-free policies across all venues queried, except for in bars among Uruguayans. Perceived strength of familial antismoking norms was consistently associated with all indicators of the social acceptability of smoking in Uruguay but only with the frequency of receiving anti-SHS verbal cues in Mexico.These results are generally consistent with previous research indicating that comprehensive smoke-free policies are likely to increase the social unacceptability of smoking and that resistance against such policies is likely to diminish once such policies are in place.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>We explored the impact of a temporary tobacco-free public policy for the 2008 Summer Olympics on the smoking prevalence and secondhand smoke exposure among the population of a co-hosting city, Qingdao, China.<h4>Methods</h4>The Qingdao Diabetes Survey was analyzed for 2006 (n = 4599) and 2009 (n = 4680), which are survey years before and after the tobacco-free Olympics public policy period (July 2007 to January 2009). We analyzed the differences in self-reported smoking prevalence and exposure to secondhand smoke at home and/or workplace, and compared odds of smoking by survey year and of exposure to secondhand smoke among nonsmokers.<h4>Results</h4>From 2006 to 2009, the male smoking prevalence declined from 51.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 49.0% to 53.9%) to 42.6% (95% CI = 40.2% to 45.1%), and the proportion of lighter smokers decreased more. Among nonsmokers, the secondhand smoke exposure rate declined from 62.2% (95% CI = 60.5% to 63.9%) to 56.8% (95% CI = 55.1% to 58.6%). Regression analyses show 34% lower odds of men smoking after Olympics (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.57% to 0.77%). Rural residents and individuals who are not retired were more likely to smoke. Female nonsmokers report 17% less exposure to secondhand smoke after Olympics (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.70% to 0.98%). Urban nonsmokers were more likely to be exposed than their rural counterparts.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Smoking prevalence among men and secondhand smoke exposure among women significantly decreased in Qingdao, China, after the tobacco-free Olympics public policy period. As only the proportion of lighter smokers decreased, this may help explain why urban nonsmokers reported increased exposure. Unintended increased secondhand smoke exposure and cessation support need to be addressed in large-scale policy campaigns.<h4>Implications</h4>Hosting the Olympic Games can help to initiate large-scale tobacco-free public policies for hosting cities. Although previous studies have demonstrated reduction in nonsmoker exposure to secondhand smoke, the impact on the hosting city's smoking prevalence or exposure rates is unclear. After the Olympic Games in Qingdao, China, smoking prevalence among men significantly decreased, mostly due to light smokers. Secondhand smoke exposure at home and/or workplace significantly decreased among female nonsmokers. Urban nonsmokers had an unintended consequence of increased secondhand smoke exposure after the tobacco-free Olympic policy period. Concurrent promotion of cessation support for heavier smokers may be needed.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Household smoke-free home rules cannot fully protect nonsmokers from secondhand smoke (SHS) if they live in multi-unit housing (MUH). Instead, property-level smoke-free policies are needed to prevent SHS incursion into apartment units and to keep common areas smoke-free. Smoke-free policies are usually at the discretion of property management companies and owners within the context of market-rate and privately-owned affordable housing in the U.S.<h4>Methods</h4>Semi-structured interviews on the policy development, implementation and enforcement experiences of 21 different privately-owned affordable housing management companies were conducted with representatives from properties in North Carolina and Georgia who had established smoke-free policies before 2016.<h4>Results</h4>The decision to adopt was typically made by corporate leadership, board members, owners or property managers, with relatively little resident input. Policy details were influenced by property layout, perceptions of how best to facilitate compliance and enforcement, and cost of creating a designated smoking area. Policies were implemented through inclusion in leases, lease addenda or house rules with 6 months' notice most common. Participants thought having a written policy, the norms and culture of the housing community, public norms for smoke-free environments, and resident awareness of the rules and their consequences, aided with compliance. Violations were identified through routine inspections of units and resident reporting. Resident denial and efforts to hide smoking were shared as challenges to enforcement, along with a perception that concrete evidence would be needed in eviction court and that simply the smell of SHS was insufficient evidence of violation. Over half had terminated leases or evicted residents due to violations of the smoke-free policy. The most common benefits cited were reduced turnover cost and time, and lower vacancy rates.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Understanding the smoke-free policy process in privately-owned affordable housing can help practitioners encourage policies within subsidized housing contexts. The study identified salient benefits (e.g., reduced cost, time, and vacancies) that can be highlighted when encouraging MUH partners to adopt policies. Additionally, study findings provide guidance on what to consider when designing smoke-free policies (e.g., layout, costs), and provide insights into how to enhance compliance (e.g., resident awareness) and manage enforcement (e.g., routine inspections).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Monitoring disparities in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is important for tailoring smoke-free policies to the needs of different groups. We examined disparity and trends in SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers at Japanese workplaces between 2002 and 2012. METHODS:A total of 32,940 employees in nationally representative, population-based, repeated cross-sectional surveys in 2002, 2007 and 2012 in Japan was analyzed. Adjusted rate ratios for workplace SHS exposure from other people ("everyday" and "everyday or sometimes") were calculated according to covariates, using log-binomial regression models with survey weights. In this survey, employees who do not smoke at workplace are defined as workplace-nonsmokers; and those smoke at workplace are used as workplace-smokers. SHS exposure for smokers does not involve their own SHS. RESULTS:While everyday SHS exposure prevalence in workplace-nonsmokers decreased markedly (33.2% to 11.4%), that in workplace-smokers decreased only slightly (63.3% to 55.6%). Workplace-smokers were significantly more likely to report everyday SHS exposure than workplace-nonsmokers, and the degree of association increased over time: compared with the nonsmokers (reference), covariates-adjusted rate ratio (95% confidence interval) for the smokers increased from 1.70 (1.62-1.77) in 2002 to 4.16 (3.79-4.56) in 2012. Similar results were observed for everyday or sometimes SHS exposure. Compared with complete workplace smoking bans, partial and no bans were consistently and significantly associated with high SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers. We also observed disparities in SHS exposure by employee characteristics, such as age group and worksite scale. CONCLUSIONS:Although overall SHS exposure decreased among Japanese employees between 2002 and 2012, the SHS exposure disparity between nonsmokers and smokers widened. Because smokers reported more frequent SHS exposure than nonsmokers, subsequent mortality due to SHS exposure may be higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. This information may be useful for advocating workplace smoke-free policies.
Project description:Policy at the local level is a critical component of comprehensive tobacco control programs. This study examined the relationships of individual and social factors with support for tobacco-related public policy using cross-sectional data (n = 4461) from adults participating in a statewide survey. Weighted multivariate, multinomial logistic regression examined associations between individual and social factors and support for tobacco-free city properties and support for limiting the number of stores that sell tobacco near schools. Oklahomans were more likely to favor policies that create tobacco-free city properties than policies that limit the number of stores that sell tobacco near schools. While non-smokers were most likely to favor both policies, support for both policies was greater than 50% among current smokers. Knowledge of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure harm and female gender were predictors of support for both policies and among current, former, and never smokers. Rural-urban status was a predictor of support among former smokers and never smokers. Tobacco use among friends and family was only a predictor among never smokers' support for limiting the sale of tobacco near schools. This study demonstrates that level of support differs by policy type, individual smoking status, as well as among subpopulations, and identifies critical elements in the theory of change for tobacco control programs.
Project description:To examine strict smoke-free home policies among smoking parents assessed in pediatric offices.We analyzed baseline parental survey data from 10 control practices in a national trial of pediatric office-based tobacco control interventions (Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure, CEASE). We used logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations to examine factors associated with strict smoke-free home policies.Subjects were 952 parents who were current smokers. Just over half (54.3%) reported strict smoke-free home policies. Few reported being asked (19.9%) or advised (17.1%) regarding policies by pediatricians. Factors associated with higher odds of policies were child 5 years or younger (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.53, 3.86), nonblack race/ethnicity (aORs 2.17-2.60, 95% CIs 1.25-5.00), non-Medicaid (HMO/private (aOR 1.84, 95% CI 1.31, 2.58); self-pay/other aOR 1.76, 95% CI 1.12, 2.78); well-child versus sick child visit (aOR 1.61, 95% CI 1.11, 2.34), fewer than 10 cigarettes per day (aOR 1.80, 95% CI 1.31, 2.47), no other home smokers (aOR 1.68, 95% CI 1.26, 2.25), only father smoking (aOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.06, 2.83), and strict smoke-free car policy (aOR 3.51, 95% CI 2.19, 5.64).Nearly half of smoking parents did not have strict smoke-free home policies. Parents were less likely to report policies if they were heavier smokers, black, living with other smokers, or attending a sick child visit; if they did not have a young child or smoke-free car policy; if they had a child on Medicaid; and if anyone other than only the father smoked. Few pediatricians addressed or recommended strict smoke-free home policies in an office visit. The pediatric office encounter represents a currently missed opportunity to intervene regarding smoke-free homes, particularly for high-risk groups.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Smoke-free policies shown to reduce population exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) are the norm in hospitals in many countries around the world. Armenia, a transition economy in the South Caucasus, has one of the highest male smoking rates in the European region. Although smoking in healthcare facilities has been banned since 2005, compliance with this ban has been poor due to lack of implementation and enforcement mechanisms and social acceptability of smoking. The study aimed to develop and test a model intervention to address the lack of compliance with the de jure smoking ban. The national oncology hospital was chosen as the intervention site. METHODS: This study used employee surveys and objective measurements of respirable particles (PM2.5) and air nicotine as markers of indoor air pollution before and after the intervention. The intervention developed in partnership with the hospital staff included an awareness campaign on SHS hazards, creation of no-smoking environment and building institutional capacity through training of nursing personnel on basics of tobacco control. The survey analysis included paired t-test and McNemar's test. The log-transformed air nicotine and PM2.5 data were analyzed using paired t-test. RESULTS: The survey showed significant improvement in the perceived quality of indoor air, reduced worksite exposure to SHS and increased employees' awareness of the smoke-free policy. The number of employees reporting compliance with the hospital smoke-free policy increased from 36.0% to 71.9% (p < 0.001). The overall indoor PM2.5 concentration decreased from 222 ?g/m3 GM (95% CI = 216-229) to 112 ?g/m3 GM (95% CI = 99-127). The overall air nicotine level reduced from 0.59 ?g/ m3 GM (95% CI = 0.38-0.91) to 0.48 ?g/ m3 GM (95% CI = 0.25-0.93). CONCLUSIONS: The three-faceted intervention developed and implemented in partnership with the hospital administration and staff was effective in reducing worksite SHS exposure in the hospital. This model can facilitate a tangible improvement in compliance with smoke-free policies as the first step toward a smoke-free hospital and serve as a model for similar settings in transition countries such Armenia that have failed to implement the adopted smoke-free policies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tobacco control policies have potential to be an effective strategy for the reduction of smoking prevalence and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in tertiary educational settings worldwide. The aims of this study were to collect baseline data among staff and students, to measure smoking behaviours and attitudes towards introduction of campus-wide tobacco control policies within a UK higher education setting. METHODS:Cross-sectional study using data collected by web-based questionnaire administered to employed staff and enrolled students (undergraduate/postgraduate) at the University of Birmingham from May 2016 to April 2017. Information was obtained regarding demographic characteristics, tobacco usage patterns and attitudes towards a revised campus tobacco control policy using a 21-item survey tool. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore associations between participant characteristics and support for smoke-free or tobacco-free campus policy options, evaluated by crude and adjusted Odds Radios (OR) after controlling for confounding factors (significance level: P?<?0.05). RESULTS:A total of 934 survey responses were received, of whom 780 participants provided complete information on staff or student status and were included in the present analysis. Current smoking prevalence was 14% (N?=?109; 95% confidence interval (CI) 11.6-16.6). Overall, 66.3% (95% CI: 62.9-69.7) of participants supported a smoke-free campus; 68.5% (95% CI: 65.2-71.8) endorsed restrictions for tobacco sales and just under half of respondents (47.3%; 95% CI: 43.8-50.9) supported a ban for electronic cigarettes/vaping device use on campus. Smoking status was an independent predictor of support for tobacco control, with the lowest level of support for a smoke-free campus among daily (adjusted OR 0.02; 95% CI: 0.01-0.05) and intermittent smokers (adjusted OR 0.06; 95% CI: 0.02-0.16). CONCLUSIONS:Overall, the majority of staff and students participating in this baseline survey supported implementation of a smoke-free or comprehensive tobacco-free campus policy. These findings may inform the development and future implementation of a revised tobacco control policy at the university which reflects contemporary attitudes and considers a broad range of implementation issues, including behaviour change and environmental adaptations.
Project description:Tobacco use and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) remain leading causes of preventable disease, disability, and mortality in the United States. Rural populations are among those being left behind in the recent declining smoking rates and have become a focus of discussions on tobacco-related disparities. This article describes tobacco-related disparities in rural populations including tobacco use, exposure to SHS, smoke-free policies, and tobacco taxes. Nurses, as social justice and tobacco control policy advocates, are needed especially at the local level, where much of the policy work occurs and where nursing's voice is respected and can be powerful.
Project description:To develop an approach for rapid assessment of tobacco control interventions in China. We examined the correlation between components of the Strength of Tobacco Control (SOTC) index and a proposed rapid evaluation indicator, the Policy Performance Indicator (PPI), which is based on protection of non-smokers from secondhand smoke (SHS). The PPI was used to assess the implementation of policies related to SHS at the provincial/municipal level in China.Stratified random sampling was used to select five types of organisational and household respondents in two municipalities and five provinces in China (Shanghai and Tianjin, Heilongjiang, Henan, Guangdong, Zhejiang and Jiangxi, respectively). Data collection methods included key informant interviews, observation and intercept surveys (organisations), and a modified Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) questionnaire (households). SOTC scores (SHS policy, capacity and efforts), PPI (no smoking in designated smoke-free places) and mid-term to long-term impact (knowledge, attitude and reduced exposure to SHS) were measured, and correlations among them were calculated.The PPI varied across the seven locations. Shanghai led in the component indicators (at 56.5% for indoor workplaces and 49.1% for indoor public places, respectively), followed by Guangdong, Tianjin and Zhejiang (at 30-35% for these two indicators), and finally, Henan and Jiangxi (at 20-25%). Smoke-free policies were more effectively implemented at indoor workplaces than indoor public places. The PPI correlated well with certain components of the SOTC but not with the long-term indicators.The PPI is useful for evaluating implementation of smoke-free policies. As tobacco control programmes are implemented, the PPI offers an indicator to track success and change strategies, without collecting data for a full SOTC index.