Optical properties of dense lithium in electride phases by first-principles calculations.
ABSTRACT: The metal-semiconductor-metal transition in dense lithium is considered as an archetype of interplay between interstitial electron localization and delocalization induced by compression, which leads to exotic electride phases. In this work, the dynamic dielectric response and optical properties of the high-pressure electride phases of cI16, oC40 and oC24 in lithium spanning a wide pressure range from 40 to 200?GPa by first-principles calculations are reported. Both interband and intraband contribution to the dielectric function are deliberately treated with the linear response theory. One intraband and two interband plasmons in cI16 at 70?GPa induced by a structural distortion at 2.1, 4.1, and 7.7?eV are discovered, which make the reflectivity of this weak metallic phase abnormally lower than the insulating phase oC40 at the corresponding frequencies. More strikingly, oC24 as a reentrant metallic phase with higher conductivity becomes more transparent than oC40 in infrared and visible light range due to its unique electronic structure around Fermi surface. An intriguing reflectivity anisotropy in both oC40 and oC24 is predicted, with the former being strong enough for experimental detection within the spectrum up to 10?eV. The important role of interstitial localized electrons is highlighted, revealing diversity and rich physics in electrides.
Project description:The excitation spectrum in the region of the intraband (Dirac plasmon) and interband ( ? plasmon) plasmons in graphene/Pt-skin terminated Pt 3 Ni(111) is reproduced by using an ab-initio method and an empirical model. The results of both methods are compared with experimental data. We discover that metallic screening by the Pt layer converts the square-root dispersion of the Dirac plasmon into a linear acoustic-like plasmon dispersion. In the long-wavelength limit, the Pt d electron excitations completely quench the ? plasmon in graphene at about 4.1 eV, that is replaced by a broad peak at about 6 eV. Owing to a rather large graphene/Pt-skin separation (?3.3 Å), the graphene/Pt-skin hybridization becomes weak at larger wave vectors, so that the ? plasmon is recovered with a dispersion as in a free-standing graphene.
Project description:Decay of surface plasmons to hot carriers finds a wide variety of applications in energy conversion, photocatalysis and photodetection. However, a detailed theoretical description of plasmonic hot-carrier generation in real materials has remained incomplete. Here we report predictions for the prompt distributions of excited 'hot' electrons and holes generated by plasmon decay, before inelastic relaxation, using a quantized plasmon model with detailed electronic structure. We find that carrier energy distributions are sensitive to the electronic band structure of the metal: gold and copper produce holes hotter than electrons by 1-2 eV, while silver and aluminium distribute energies more equitably between electrons and holes. Momentum-direction distributions for hot carriers are anisotropic, dominated by the plasmon polarization for aluminium and by the crystal orientation for noble metals. We show that in thin metallic films intraband transitions can alter the carrier distributions, producing hotter electrons in gold, but interband transitions remain dominant.
Project description:In this paper, we review the principal theoretical models through which the dielectric function of metals can be described. Starting from the Drude assumptions for intraband transitions, we show how this model can be improved by including interband absorption and temperature effect in the damping coefficients. Electronic scattering processes are described and included in the dielectric function, showing their role in determining plasmon lifetime at resonance. Relationships among permittivity, electric conductivity and refractive index are examined. Finally, a temperature dependent permittivity model is presented and is employed to predict temperature and non-linear field intensity dependence on commonly used plasmonic geometries, such as nanospheres.
Project description:For many of the envisioned optoelectronic applications of graphene, it is crucial to understand the subpicosecond carrier dynamics immediately following photoexcitation and the effect of photoexcitation on the electrical conductivity-the photoconductivity. Whereas these topics have been studied using various ultrafast experiments and theoretical approaches, controversial and incomplete explanations concerning the sign of the photoconductivity, the occurrence and significance of the creation of additional electron-hole pairs, and, in particular, how the relevant processes depend on Fermi energy have been put forward. We present a unified and intuitive physical picture of the ultrafast carrier dynamics and the photoconductivity, combining optical pump-terahertz probe measurements on a gate-tunable graphene device, with numerical calculations using the Boltzmann equation. We distinguish two types of ultrafast photo-induced carrier heating processes: At low (equilibrium) Fermi energy (EF ? 0.1 eV for our experiments), broadening of the carrier distribution involves interband transitions (interband heating). At higher Fermi energy (EF ? 0.15 eV), broadening of the carrier distribution involves intraband transitions (intraband heating). Under certain conditions, additional electron-hole pairs can be created [carrier multiplication (CM)] for low EF, and hot carriers (hot-CM) for higher EF. The resultant photoconductivity is positive (negative) for low (high) EF, which in our physical picture, is explained using solely electronic effects: It follows from the effect of the heated carrier distributions on the screening of impurities, consistent with the DC conductivity being mostly due to impurity scattering. The importance of these insights is highlighted by a discussion of the implications for graphene photodetector applications.
Project description:We proposed a ferroelectric domain controlled graphene based surface plasmon polariton modulator. Ferroelectricity-induced electronic and optical property tuning of graphene by domain in lithium niobate was theoretically investigated considering both interband and intraband contributions of surface conductivity. With the corrected Sellmeier equation of lithium niobate, the propagation of transverse magnetic mode surface plasmon polaritons in an air/graphene/lithium niobate structure was studied when monolayer graphene was tuned by down polarization direction ferroelectric domain with different polarization levels. The length of the ferroelectric domain was optimized to be 90?nm for a wavelength of 5.0??m with signal extinction per unit 14.7?dB/?m, modulation depth 474.1?dB/?m and figure of merit 32.5. This work may promote the study of highly efficient modulators and other ultra-compact nonvolatile electronic and photonic devices in which two-dimensional materials and ferroelectric materials are combined.
Project description:Strong optical excitation of plasmonic nanostructures may induce simultaneous interband and intraband electronic transitions. However, interaction mechanisms between interband, intraband, and plasmon-band processes have not been thoroughly understood. In particular, optical-heating-induced lattice expansion, which definitely leads to shift of the Fermi level, has not been taken into account in plasmonic studies. Here, it is shown that plasmonic bandedge shift is responsible for the optical modulation on the boundary between plasmonic electron oscillation and interband transitions via investigations on gold nanofilms and nanoparticles. Strong optical excitation induces transient depletion of the conduction band just below the Fermi level through intraband transitions, while the subsequent lattice heating induces transient thermal expansion and hence lowers the Fermi level. Both effects reduce the threshold for interband transitions and therefore push the plasmonic bandedge to the red. These discoveries introduce a first correlation between plasmonic response and optical excitation induced thermal expansion of lattices. The revealed Fermi-level adjustment mechanism allows alignment of electronic levels at the metal-semiconductor interfaces, which applies to all conductive materials and renders reliable physics for the design of plasmonic or optoelectronic devices.
Project description:The strong ellipticity dependence of high-harmonic generation (HHG) in gases enables numerous experimental techniques that are nowadays routinely used, for instance, to create isolated attosecond pulses. Extending such techniques to solids requires a fundamental understanding of the microscopic mechanism of HHG. Here we use first-principles simulations within a time-dependent density-functional framework and show how intraband and interband mechanisms are strongly and differently affected by the ellipticity of the driving laser field. The complex interplay between intraband and interband effects can be used to tune and improve harmonic emission in solids. In particular, we show that the high-harmonic plateau can be extended by as much as 30% using a finite ellipticity of the driving field. We furthermore demonstrate the possibility to generate, from single circularly polarized drivers, circularly polarized harmonics. Our work shows that ellipticity provides an additional knob to experimentally optimize HHG in solids.The mechanisms of high-order harmonic generation in bulk system and dilute gas are different. Here the authors use first-principle methods to explore the ellipticity dependence and control of the HHG in periodic solids by involving the interband and intraband dynamics in Si and MgO.
Project description:Generating electron coherence in quantum materials is essential in optimal control of many-body interactions and correlations. In a multidomain system this signifies nonlocal coherence and emergence of collective phenomena, particularly in layered 2D quantum materials possessing novel electronic structures and high carrier mobilities. Here we report nonlocal ac electron coherence induced in dispersed MoS2 flake domains, using coherent spatial self-phase modulation (SSPM). The gap-dependent nonlinear dielectric susceptibility χ(3) measured is surprisingly large, where direct interband transition and two-photon SSPM are responsible for excitations above and below the bandgap, respectively. A wind-chime model is proposed to account for the emergence of the ac electron coherence. Furthermore, all-optical switching is achieved based on SSPM, especially with two-color intraband coherence, demonstrating that electron coherence generation is a ubiquitous property of layered quantum materials.
Project description:We investigate the effect of the Rashba interaction on two dimensional superconductivity. The presence of the Rashba interaction lifts the spin degeneracy and gives rise to the spectrum of two bands. There are intraband and interband pairs scattering which result in the coupled gap equations. We find that there are isotropic and anisotropic components in the gap function. The latter has the form of cos??k where . The former is suppressed because the intraband and the interband scatterings nearly cancel each other. Hence, -the system should exhibit the p-wave superconductivity. We perform a detailed study of electron-phonon interaction for 2DEG and find that, if only normal processes are considered, the effective coupling strength constant of this new superconductivity is about one-half of the s-wave case in the ordinary 2DEG because of the angular average of the additional in the anisotropic gap function. By taking into account of Umklapp processes, we find they are the major contribution in the electron-phonon coupling in superconductivity and enhance the transition temperature Tc.
Project description:Determining the electronic and dielectric properties of water at high pressure and temperature is an essential prerequisite to understand the physical and chemical properties of aqueous environments under supercritical conditions, for example, in the Earth interior. However, optical measurements of compressed ice and water remain challenging, and it has been common practice to assume that their band gap is inversely correlated with the measured refractive index, consistent with observations reported for hundreds of materials. Here we report ab initio molecular dynamics and electronic structure calculations showing that both the refractive index and the electronic gap of water and ice increase with increasing pressure, at least up to 30 GPa. Subtle electronic effects, related to the nature of interband transitions and band edge localization under pressure, are responsible for this apparently anomalous behaviour.