A preliminary study on efficacy of rupatadine for the treatment of acute dengue infection.
ABSTRACT: Currently there are no specific treatments available for acute dengue infection. We considered that rupatadine, a platelet-activating factor receptor inhibitor, might modulate dengue-associated vascular leak. The effects of rupatadine were assessed in vitro, and in a dengue model, which showed that rupatadine significantly reduced endothelial permeability by dengue sera in vitro, and significantly inhibited the increased haematocrit in dengue-infected mice with dose-dependency. We conducted a randomised, placebo-controlled trial in 183 adult patients in Sri Lanka with acute dengue, which showed that rupatadine up to 40?mg daily appeared safe and well-tolerated with similar proportions of adverse events with rupatadine and placebo. Although the primary end-point of a significant reduction in fluid leakage (development of pleural effusions or ascites) was not met, post-hoc analyses revealed small but significant differences in several parameters on individual illness days - higher platelet counts and lower aspartate-aminotransferase levels on day 7 in the rupatadine group compared to the placebo group, and smaller effusions on day 8 in the subgroup of patients with pleural effusions. However, due to the small sample size and range of recruitment time, the potential beneficial effects of rupatadine require further evaluation in large studies focused on recruitment during the early febrile phase.
Project description:Background:Different clinical trials showed the superior efficacy of rupatadine compared to placebo at improving seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) symptoms, but no study has assessed if the response promoted is clinically meaningful. Methods:This study is a pooled analysis of data of seven randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled SAR studies comparing responder proportions upon treatment with rupatadine (10 or 20 mg) or placebo. We evaluated the following symptom scores at baseline (Visit 1) and over 14 days of treatment: Total 4 Nasal Symptom Score (T4NSS), Total 2 Ocular Symptom Score (T2OSS) and Total 6 Symptom Score (T6SS). The proportion of responders (50% and 75% response) and the time to response were compared between groups on days 7 (Visit 2) and 14 (Visit 3). Responder rates were compared between groups on days 7 and 14 for the complete/near-to-complete response for T4NSS (TN4SS score???2 and each symptom score???1) and T6SS (T6SS score???3 and each symptom score???1). Results:Data from 1470 patients were analyzed: 332 treated with placebo, 662 with rupatadine 10 mg and 476 with rupatadine 20 mg. The reduction in T4NSS, T2OSS and T6SS over 14 days of treatment relative to baseline was statistically higher in rupatadine groups vs the placebo group, with greater improvements in the 20 mg group. A statistically higher proportion of patients reached the 50% and 75% response for T4NSS, T2OSS and T6SS in rupatadine groups compared to the placebo group across the visits. Among rupatadine-treated patients, those receiving 20 mg compared favourably for both cut-off responses. The time to achieve a proportion of responders was shorter in the rupatadine 20 mg group than in the rupatadine 10 mg and placebo groups for all the symptom scores. The number of patients who achieved a complete/near-to-complete response for both symptom scores was higher in rupatadine groups than in the placebo group, with higher proportions in the 20 mg group. Conclusions:This responder analysis confirms the superior efficacy of rupatadine vs placebo to treat SAR. Rupatadine promoted higher proportions of responders according to stringent response criteria and in a dose-dependent manner, with faster and higher response rates in the 20 mg group.
Project description:A similar immune response is implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis and allergic disorders. We investigated the potential therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of rupatadine, a dual antagonist of histamine and platelet-activation factor (PAF), in bleomycin- (BLM-) and silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis. The indicated dosages of rupatadine were administered in rodents with bleomycin or silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis. The tissue injury, fibrosis, inflammatory cells and cytokines, and lung function were examined to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of rupatadine. The anti-fibrosis effect of rupatadine was compared with an H1 or PAF receptor antagonist, and efforts were made to reveal rupatadine's anti-fibrotic mechanism. Rupatadine promoted the resolution of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in a dose-dependent manner, as indicated by the reductions in inflammation score, collagen deposition and epithelial-mesenchymal transformation, and infiltration or expression of inflammatory cells or cytokines in the fibrotic lung tissue. Thus, rupatadine treatment improved the declined lung function and significantly decreased animal death. Moreover, rupatadine was able not only to attenuate silica-induced silicosis but also to produce a superior therapeutic efficacy compared to pirfenidone, histamine H1 antagonist loratadine, or PAF antagonist CV-3988. The anti-fibrotic action of rupatadine might relate to its attenuation of BLM- or PAF-induced premature senescence because rupatadine treatment protected against the in vivo and in vitro activation of the p53/p21-dependent senescence pathway. Our studies indicate that rupatadine promotes the resolution of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis by attenuating the PAF-mediated senescence response. Rupatadine holds promise as a novel drug to treat the devastating disease of pulmonary fibrosis.
Project description:Background:The clinical efficacy of rupatadine in terms of responders has not been previously explored in perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR). Methods:This pooled analysis included data from 6 randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials conducted in PAR patients treated with rupatadine 10 mg or 20 mg, or placebo. Participants were aged???18 years, with diagnosis of PAR and a Total 4 Nasal Symptom Score (T4NSS)???5. We evaluated the T4NSS and Total 5 Symptom Score (T5SS) for 28 days of treatment, the responder proportion (50% and 75% response), and the time to response. Results:Efficacy data from 1486 patients were analysed: 585 received placebo, 682 rupatadine 10 mg, and 219 rupatadine 20 mg. Compared with placebo, rupatadine promoted greater symptom improvements and higher responder proportions (50% and 75% response) for T4NSS and T5SS over 28 days. Symptom improvements and responder proportions were higher in the rupatadine 20 mg group vs the 10 mg group. The time to response was shorter in the rupatadine 20 mg group vs the 10 mg group for T4NSS (16 and 9 days for the 50% and 75% responses, respectively) and for T5SS (13 and 8 days for the 50% and 75% responses, respectively). Conclusions:Rupatadine was efficacious in reducing allergic rhinitis symptoms, showing high responder proportions. The faster and stronger effect of rupatadine 20 mg may suggest its use in patients with severe PAR or not responding to the standard dose.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Rupatadine is a marketed second generation antihistamine, with anti-PAF activity, indicated for symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. This study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), safety and tolerability of rupatadine in healthy Japanese subjects after single and multiple oral doses.<h4>Methods</h4>In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 27 male and female healthy Japanese subjects were administered single and multiple escalating rupatadine dose of 10, 20 and 40 mg or placebo. Blood samples were collected at different time points for PK measurements and subjects were assessed for safety and tolerability. The effect of rupatadine on cognitive functioning was evaluated by means of computerized cognitive tests: rapid visual information processing (RVP), reaction time (RT), spatial working memory (SWM) and visual analogue scales (VAS).<h4>Results</h4>Exposure to rupatadine as measured by Cmax and AUC was found to increase in a dose dependent manner over the dose range of 10-40 mg for both single and multiple dose administration. The safety assessments showed that all treatment related side effects were of mild intensity and there were no serious adverse events (SAEs) or withdrawals due to treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) in this study. The therapeutic dose of rupatadine did not show any CNS impairment in any of the cognitive tests.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study demonstrated that rupatadine is safe and well tolerated by Japanese healthy subjects. The PK-PD profile confirmed previous experience with rupatadine.
Project description:Knowledge of adult dengue virus (DENV) infection from Hanoi, Vietnam, is limited. In 2008, we prospectively studied 143 (77 male) confirmed (nonstructural 1 antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], DENV polymerase chain reaction, paired serology) adult dengue patients of median age 23.5 (range 16-72) years. They were admitted to the National Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Hanoi, on median illness day (D) 5 (range 1-8). By D8, 141 (98.6%) were afebrile. Platelet counts and hematocrit (median, interquartile range [IQR]) nadired and peaked on D5 and D4, respectively: 40,000/?L (10,000-109,000/?L), 43.4% (34.9-49.7%). Four (2.8%) patients had severe dengue: 1) D10 shock (N = 1) and 2) aspartate aminotransferase (AST) ? 1,000 IU/L (N = 3, D5 and D7). Of 143 patients, 118 (82.5%) had ? 1 warning sign (World Health Organization [WHO] 2009 criteria): mucosal bleeding 66/143 (46.1%), soft tissue edema 54/143 (37.7%), and ultrasound detected plasma leakage (pleural effusions/ascites) 30/129 (23.25%). 138 (96.5%) patients received intravenous (IV) fluids: 3 L (IQR: 0.5-8.5 L). Most patients had non-severe dengue with warning signs. High rates of edema and plasma leakage may be explained partly by liberal use of IV fluids. Studies are needed on optimizing fluid management in non-severe adult dengue.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral infection to affect humans. Although it usually manifests as a self-limited febrile illness, complications may occur as the fever subsides. A systemic vascular leak syndrome that sometimes progresses to life-threatening hypovolaemic shock is the most serious complication seen in children, typically accompanied by haemoconcentration and thrombocytopenia. Robust evidence on risk factors, especially features present early in the illness course, for progression to dengue shock syndrome (DSS) is lacking. Moreover, the potential value of incorporating serial haematocrit and platelet measurements in prediction models has never been assessed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:We analyzed data from a prospective observational study of Vietnamese children aged 5-15 years admitted with clinically suspected dengue to the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Ho Chi Minh City between 2001 and 2009. The analysis population comprised all children with laboratory-confirmed dengue enrolled between days 1-4 of illness. Logistic regression was the main statistical model for all univariate and multivariable analyses. The prognostic value of daily haematocrit levels and platelet counts were assessed using graphs and separate regression models fitted on each day of illness. Among the 2301 children included in the analysis, 143 (6%) progressed to DSS. Significant baseline risk factors for DSS included a history of vomiting, higher temperature, a palpable liver, and a lower platelet count. Prediction models that included serial daily platelet counts demonstrated better ability to discriminate patients who developed DSS from others, than models based on enrolment information only. However inclusion of daily haematocrit values did not improve prediction of DSS. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:Daily monitoring of platelet counts is important to help identify patients at high risk of DSS. Development of dynamic prediction models that incorporate signs, symptoms, and daily laboratory measurements, could improve DSS prediction and thereby reduce the burden on health services in endemic areas.
Project description:Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a common and hard to treat condition associated with a substantial negative impact on patients' quality of life (QoL). Clinical studies have shown that rupatadine is effective and safe in the treatment of CSU, but data from routine clinical care are scarce. Therefore, we assessed the effectiveness and tolerability of rupatadine in established dosages on CSU activity and patients' QoL in a routine daily practice setting.This was an open, prospective, non-interventional study performed in 146 dermatological practices in Germany. CSU patients for whom treatment with rupatadine was indicated were eligible to participate. Key symptoms of urticaria activity and their impact on patients' QoL were assessed at the beginning and the end of treatment. Adverse events (AEs) and withdrawals, as well as the dosage regimens chosen, were documented. Patients and physicians were requested to rate effectiveness and tolerability of therapy at the final visit. All statistical analyses were descriptive.The majority of the 660 patients screened to be treated (median age 44 years, IQR = 31-59 years, n = 654) received rupatadine 10 mg tablets once (477 patients) or twice (105 patients) daily for a median time of 28 days. After treatment, 93.2% of the patients (606/650) reported a clear overall improvement of symptoms. Rupatadine significantly reduced the urticaria activity score (UAS7) as well as the frequency and severity of existing angioedema episodes. Similarly all domains of the urticaria-specific QoL questionnaire (CU-Q2oL) were markedly improved. The majority of physicians and patients rated rupatadine treatment as effective and well tolerated. There were 39 (5.9%) early treatment withdrawals, and 21 patients (3.2%) experienced AEs.Rupatadine when given according to the routine treating schemes improves symptoms and CU-Q2oL of CSU patients; the drug is also safe and well tolerated.Dr. R. Pfleger GmbH.
Project description:Objective: Long-term safety and efficacy of 10- and 20-mg rupatadine in Japanese patients with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) were investigated in a 52-week open-label study (JapicCTI-152952, clinicaltrials.jp). Methods: The rupatadine dose was fixed to 10 mg once daily for the first 2 weeks. Thereafter, the study investigator was allowed to increase the dosage to 20 mg if the response was insufficient. Safety was evaluated on the basis of treatment-emergent adverse events, laboratory findings, and vital sign measurements. The primary efficacy endpoint was changed from baseline to Week 2 in the total 4 nasal symptom score. Secondary efficacy endpoints included changes over time in ocular symptoms, patient and physician clinical overall impression, and patient quality-of-life. Results: Seventy-two immunoglobulin E positive patients (mean age = 32.1 years), consisting of 58 adults (age ≥ 18 years) and 14 adolescents (12-17 years), were enrolled. Ninety-four treatment-emergent adverse events were reported in 48 patients (66.7%), including nine adverse drug reactions in nine patients (12.5%). The most frequently reported adverse drug reaction was somnolence (9.7%). The primary and secondary efficacy endpoints demonstrated a statistically significant clinical benefit with rupatadine. The rupatadine dose was increased from 10 to 20 mg in 36 patients (50.0%), which resulted in better symptom management. Conclusions: Rupatadine 10- and 20-mg once-daily doses were well tolerated in long-term use. Updosing to 20 mg is a reasonable option in PAR patients whose symptoms cannot be controlled effectively by the 10-mg dose.
Project description:Background:There are few clinical trials that assess the efficacy of antihistamines in very young children. Rupatadine is a second-generation antihistamine indicated for the treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR) and urticaria. In this study, AR symptoms were evaluated before and after daily 1 mg/mL rupatadine oral solution administration in 2-5-year-old children. Methods:A multicenter open-label study was carried out in 2-5-year-old children with AR. Safety assessments were collected during the study including spontaneous adverse events, vital signs, and electrocardiogram (QTc interval). Additionally, evaluations of Total Five Symptoms Score (T5SS, including: nasal congestion; sneezing; rhinorrhoea; itchy nose, mouth, throat, and/or ears; and itchy, watery, and red eyes) were analyzed. Symptoms were evaluated by parents/legal guardian before and after 4 weeks of rupatadine administration, dosed according to body weight. Results:A total of 44 children received the study treatment. Only 15 adverse events were reported. All of them were of mild intensity and considered not related to the study treatment. No patient exceeded the standard parameter of >450 ms in the last visit, for the QTc interval on their electrocardiograms. From a maximum score value of 15, T5SS values at Day 14 (6.35) and Day 28 (5.42) were both statistically significant different (p<0.001) from the baseline T5SS value (mean 8.65), with a reduction of 26.6% and 37.4%, respectively. All individual symptoms, including nasal congestion, showed also a decrease from baseline at both 14 and 28 days. Conclusion:Rupatadine 1 mg/mL oral solution was found to be safe in 2-5-year-old children, correlating with an improvement of AR symptoms, overall and each individually, after a daily dose administration. With this study, we enlarge the available information in this very young pediatric patients' group, in which there is a general lack of clinical evidence.
Project description:Drug-target binding kinetics are an important predictor of in vivo drug efficacy, yet the relationship between ligand structures and their binding kinetics is often poorly understood. We show that both rupatadine (1) and desloratadine (2) have a long residence time at the histamine H1 receptor (H1R). Through development of a [3H]levocetirizine radiolabel, we find that the residence time of 1 exceeds that of 2 more than 10-fold. This was further explored with 22 synthesized rupatadine and desloratadine analogues. Methylene-linked cycloaliphatic or ?-branched substitutions of desloratadine increase the residence time at the H1R, conveying a longer duration of receptor antagonism. However, cycloaliphatic substituents directly attached to the piperidine amine (i.e., lacking the spacer) have decreased binding affinity and residence time compared to their methylene-linked structural analogues. Guided by docking studies, steric constraints within the binding pocket are hypothesized to explain the observed differences in affinity and binding kinetics between analogues.