MUC13 contributes to rewiring of glucose metabolism in pancreatic cancer.
ABSTRACT: Pancreatic tumors are rewired for high-glucose metabolism and typically present with exceptionally poor prognosis. Recently, we have shown that MUC13, which is highly expressed in pancreatic tumors, promotes tumor progression via modulation of HER2 receptor tyrosine kinase activity. Herein, we investigate a novel, MUC13-mediated molecular mechanism responsible for higher glucose metabolism in pancreatic tumors. Our results demonstrate that MUC13 expression leads to the activation/nuclear translocation of NF-?B p65 and phosphorylation of I?B, which in turn upregulates the expression of important proteins (Glut-1, c-Myc, and Bcl-2) that are involved in glucose metabolism. MUC13 functionally interacts and stabilizes Glut-1 to instigate downstream events responsible for higher glucose uptake in pancreatic cancer cells. Altered MUC13 expression by overexpression and knockdown techniques effectively modulated glucose uptake, lactate secretion, and metastatic phenotypes in pancreatic cancer cells. NF-?B inhibitor, Sulfasalazine, abrogates the MUC13 and Glut-1 interaction, and attenuates events associated with MUC13-induced glucose metabolism. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patient tissue samples also show a positive correlation between the expression of these two proteins. These results delineate how MUC13 rewire aberrant glucose metabolism to enhance aggressiveness of pancreatic cancer and revealed a novel mechanism to develop newer therapeutic strategies for this exceptionally difficult cancer.
Project description:The high death rate of pancreatic cancer is attributed to the lack of reliable methods for early detection and underlying molecular mechanisms of its aggressive pathogenesis. Although MUC13, a newly identified transmembrane mucin, is known to be aberrantly expressed in ovarian and gastro-intestinal cancers, its role in pancreatic cancer is unknown. Herein, we investigated the expression profile and functions of MUC13 in pancreatic cancer progression. The expression profile of MUC13 in pancreatic cancer was investigated using a recently generated monoclonal antibody (clone PPZ0020) and pancreatic tissue microarrays. The expression of MUC13 was significantly (P < 0.005) higher in cancer samples compared with normal/nonneoplastic pancreatic tissues. For functional analyses, full-length MUC13 was expressed in MUC13 null pancreatic cancer cell lines, MiaPaca and Panc1. MUC13 overexpression caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in cell motility, invasion, proliferation, and anchorage-dependent or -independent clonogenicity while decreasing cell-cell and cell-substratum adhesion. Exogenous MUC13 expression significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced pancreatic tumor growth and reduced animal survival in a xenograft mouse model. These tumorigenic characteristics correlated with the upregulation/phosphorylation of HER2, p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Akt, and metastasin (S100A4), and the suppression of p53. Conversely, suppression of MUC13 in HPAFII pancreatic cancer cells by short hairpin RNA resulted in suppression of tumorigenic characteristics, repression of HER2, PAK1, ERK, and S100A4, and upregulation of p53. MUC13 suppression also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced tumor growth and increased animal survival. These results imply a role of MUC13 in pancreatic cancer and suggest its potential use as a diagnostic and therapeutic target.
Project description:Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis due to late diagnosis and ineffective therapeutic multimodality. MUC13, a transmembrane mucin is highly involved in pancreatic cancer progression. Thus, understanding its regulatory molecular mechanisms may offer new avenue of therapy for prevention/treatment of pancreatic cancer. Herein, we report a novel microRNA (miR-145)-mediated mechanism regulating aberrant MUC13 expression in pancreatic cancer. We report that miR-145 expression inversely correlates with MUC13 expression in pancreatic cancer cells and human tumor tissues. miR-145 is predominantly present in normal pancreatic tissues and early Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) precursor lesions (PanIN I) and is progressively suppressed over the course of development from PanIN II/III to late stage poorly differentiated PDAC. We demonstrate that miR-145 targets 3' untranslated region of MUC13 and thus downregulates MUC13 protein expression in cells. Interestingly, transfection of miR-145 inhibits cell proliferation, invasion and enhances gemcitabine sensitivity. It causes reduction of HER2, P-AKT, PAK1 and an increase in p53. Similar results were found when MUC13 was specifically inhibited by shRNA directed at MUC13. Additionally, intratumoral injections of miR-145 in xenograft mice inhibited tumor growth via suppression of MUC13 and its downstream target, HER2. These results suggest miR-145 as a novel regulator of MUC13 in pancreatic cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer (PanCa) is associated with lack of an effective early diagnostic biomarker. This study elucidates significance of MUC13, as a diagnostic/prognostic marker of PanCa. METHODS:MUC13 was assessed in tissues using our in-house generated anti-MUC13 mouse monoclonal antibody and analyzed for clinical correlation by immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, RT-PCR, computational and submicron scale mass-density fluctuation analyses, ROC and Kaplan Meir curve analyses. RESULTS:MUC13 expression was detected in 100% pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions (Mean composite score: MCS = 5.8; AUC >0.8, P < 0.0001), 94.6% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) samples (MCS = 9.7, P < 0.0001) as compared to low expression in tumor adjacent tissues (MCS = 4, P < 0.001) along with faint or no expression in normal pancreatic tissues (MCS = 0.8; AUC >0.8; P < 0.0001). Nuclear MUC13 expression positively correlated with nodal metastasis (P < 0.05), invasion of cancer to peripheral tissues (P < 0.5) and poor patient survival (P < 0.05; prognostic AUC = 0.9). Submicron scale mass density and artificial intelligence based algorithm analyses also elucidated association of MUC13 with greater morphological disorder (P < 0.001) and nuclear MUC13 as strong predictor for cancer aggressiveness and poor patient survival. CONCLUSION:This study provides significant information regarding MUC13 expression/subcellular localization in PanCa samples and supporting the use anti-MUC13 MAb for the development of PanCa diagnostic/prognostic test.
Project description:MUC13 is a transmembrane mucin glycoprotein that is over produced by many cancers, although its functions are not fully understood. Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) is a key transcription factor promoting cancer cell survival, but therapeutically targeting this pathway has proved difficult because NF-?B has pleiotropic functions. Here, we report that MUC13 prevents colorectal cancer cell death by promoting two distinct pathways of NF-kB activation, consequently upregulating BCL-X<sub>L</sub>. MUC13 promoted tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced NF-?B activation by interacting with TNFR1 and the E3 ligase, cIAP1, to increase ubiquitination of RIPK1. MUC13 also promoted genotoxin-induced NF-?B activation by increasing phosphorylation of ATM and SUMOylation of NF-?B essential modulator. Moreover, elevated expression of cytoplasmic MUC13 and NF-?B correlated with colorectal cancer progression and metastases. Our demonstration that MUC13 enhances NF-?B signaling in response to both TNF and DNA-damaging agents provides a new molecular target for specific inhibition of NF-?B activation. As proof of principle, silencing MUC13 sensitized colorectal cancer cells to killing by cytotoxic drugs and inflammatory signals and abolished chemotherapy-induced enrichment of CD133<sup>+</sup> CD44<sup>+</sup> cancer stem cells, slowed xenograft growth in mice, and synergized with 5-fluourouracil to induce tumor regression. Therefore, these data indicate that combining chemotherapy and MUC13 antagonism could improve the treatment of metastatic cancers.
Project description:Although MUC13, a transmembrane mucin, is aberrantly expressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and generally correlates with increased expression of HER2, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Herein, we found that MUC13 co-localizes and interacts with HER2 in PDAC cells (reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, proximity ligation, co-capping assays) and tissues (immunohistofluorescence). The results from this study demonstrate that MUC13 functionally interacts and activates HER2 at p1248 in PDAC cells, leading to stimulation of HER2 signaling cascade, including ERK1/2, FAK, AKT and PAK1 as well as regulation of the growth, cytoskeleton remodeling and motility, invasion of PDAC cells-all collectively contributing to PDAC progression. Interestingly, all of these phenotypic effects of MUC13-HER2 co-localization could be effectively compromised by depleting MUC13 and mediated by the first and second EGF-like domains of MUC13. Further, MUC13-HER2 co-localization also holds true in PDAC tissues with a strong functional correlation with events contributing to increased degree of disorder and cancer aggressiveness. In brief, findings presented here provide compelling evidence of a functional ramification of MUC13-HER2: this interaction could be potentially exploited for targeted therapeutics in a subset of patients harboring an aggressive form of PDAC.
Project description:MUC13 is overexpressed and aberrantly localized in colon cancer tissue; however, the specific functions and regulation of MUC13 expression are unknown.Stable cell lines with either overexpressed or suppressed MUC13 levels were analyzed to determine cell growth, colony formation, cell migration, and cell invasion assays. The molecular mechanisms involved in MUC13 regulation were elucidated via chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and analysis of interleukin 6 (IL6) treatments. Colon cancer tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the protein levels of MUC13 and P-STAT5 in colon cancer cells.Overexpression of MUC13 increased cell growth, colony formation, cell migration, and invasion. In concordance, MUC13 silencing decreased these tumorigenic features. Overexpression of MUC13 also modulated various cancer-associated proteins, including telomerase reverse transcriptase, sonic hedgehog, B cell lymphoma murine like site 1, and GATA like transcription factor 1. Additionally, MUC13-overexpressing cells showed increased HER2 and P-ERK expression. ChIP analysis revealed binding of STAT5 to the predicted MUC13 promoter. IL6 treatment of colon cancer cells increased the expression of MUC13 via activation of the JAK2/STAT5 signaling pathway. Suppression of JAK2 and STAT5 signaling by chemical inhibitors abolished IL6-induced MUC13 expression. IHC analysis showed increased expression of both P-STAT5 and MUC13 in colon cancer as compared to adjacent normal tissue.The results of this study, for the first time, suggest functional roles of MUC13 in colon cancer progression and provide information regarding the regulation of MUC13 expression via JAK2/STAT5 which may reveal promising therapeutic approaches for colon cancer treatment.
Project description:Cancer research of the Warburg effect, a hallmark metabolic alteration in tumors, focused attention on glucose metabolism whose targeting uncovered several agents with promising anticancer effects at the preclinical level. These agents' monotherapy points to their potential as adjuvant combination therapy to existing standard chemotherapy in human trials. Accordingly, several studies on combining glucose transporter (GLUT) inhibitors with chemotherapeutic agents, such as doxorubicin, paclitaxel, and cytarabine, showed synergistic or additive anticancer effects, reduced chemo-, radio-, and immuno-resistance, and reduced toxicity due to lowering the therapeutic doses required for desired chemotherapeutic effects, as compared with monotherapy. The combinations have been specifically effective in treating cancer glycolytic phenotypes, such as pancreatic and breast cancers. Even combining GLUT inhibitors with other glycolytic inhibitors and energy restriction mimetics seems worthwhile. Though combination clinical trials are in the early phase, initial results are intriguing. The various types of GLUTs, their role in cancer progression, GLUT inhibitors, and their anticancer mechanism of action have been reviewed several times. However, utilizing GLUT inhibitors as combination therapeutics has received little attention. We consider GLUT inhibitors agents that directly affect glucose transporters by binding to them or indirectly alter glucose transport by changing the transporters' expression level. This review mainly focuses on summarizing the effects of various combinations of GLUT inhibitors with other anticancer agents and providing a perspective on the current status.
Project description:Cancer cells develop mechanisms that increase nutrient uptake, including key nutrient carriers, such as amino acid transporter 1 (LAT-1) and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1), regulated by the oxygen-sensing Von Hippel Lindau-hypoxia-inducible factor (VHL-HIF) transcriptional pathway. We aimed to analyze these metabolic players in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NET) and correlate them with tumor malignancy and progression. LAT-1, GLUT-1, and pVHL expression was analyzed in 116 GEP-NETs and 48 peritumoral tissue samples by immunohistochemistry. LAT-1 was stably silenced using specific shRNA in the human NET BON cell line. LAT-1 expression was significantly increased in tumor tissue compared to non-tumor tissue in both gastrointestinal (67% vs. 44%) and pancreatic NETs (54% vs. 31%). Similarly, GLUT-1 was substantially elevated in gastrointestinal (74% vs. 19%) and pancreatic (58% vs. 4%) NETs. In contrast, pVHL expression was decreased (85% vs. 58%) in pancreatic NETs. Tumors with metastases at diagnosis displayed increased LAT-1 and GLUT-1 and decreased pVHL expression (p < 0.001). In accordance with these data, silencing LAT-1 curtailed cell proliferation in BON cells. These findings suggest that specific mechanisms that increase nutrient uptake, such as LAT-1 and GLUT-1, are increased in GEP-NETs, whereas pVHL is decreased. These markers might be related to the proliferation and metastatic capacity of these tumors.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Integrin beta-5 (ITGB5) and mucin 13 (MUC13) genes are highly expressed on the apical surface of intestinal epithelia and are thought to be candidate genes for controlling the expression of the receptor for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) F4ac. Human MUC13 protein has an expected role in protecting intestinal mucosal surfaces and porcine ITGB5 is a newly identified potential receptor for ETEC F4ac.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>To test the hypothesis that ITGB5 and MUC13 both play key roles in protection of the intestinal mucosa against pathogenic bacterium, porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) were transfected with ITGB5-targeting, MUC13-targeting or negative control small interfering RNA (siRNA), respectively. Firstly, we measured mRNA expression levels of mucin genes (MUC4, MUC20), pro-inflammatory genes (IL8, IL1A, IL6, CXCL2), anti-inflammatory mediator SLPI, and PLAU after RNAi treatments with and without ETEC infection. Secondly, we compared the adhesions of ETEC to the pre- and post-knockdown IPEC-J2 cells of ITGB5 and MUC13, respectively. We found that ITGB5 and MUC13 knockdown both had small but significant effects in attenuating the inflammation induced by ETEC infection, and both increased bacterial adhesion in response to F4ac ETEC exposure.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Our current study first reported that ITGB5 and MUC13 are important adhesion molecules of mucosal epithelial signaling in response to Escherichia coli in pigs. These data suggest that both ITGB5 and MUC13 play key roles in defending the attachment and adhesion of ETEC to porcine jejunal cells and in maintaining epithelial barrier and immunity function.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Cancer cells drastically increase the uptake of glucose and glucose metabolism by overexpressing class I glucose transporters (GLUT1-4) to meet their energy and biomass synthesis needs and are very sensitive and vulnerable to glucose deprivation. Although targeting glucose uptake via GLUTs has been an attractive anticancer strategy, the relative anticancer efficacy of multi-GLUT targeting or single GLUT targeting is unclear. Here, we report DRB18, a synthetic small molecule, is a potent anticancer compound whose pan-class I GLUT inhibition is superior to single GLUT targeting.<h4>Methods</h4>Glucose uptake and MTT/resazurin assays were used to measure DRB18's inhibitory activities of glucose transport and cell viability/proliferation in human lung cancer and other cancer cell lines. Four HEK293 cell lines expressing GLUT1-4 individually were used to determine the IC<sub>50</sub> values of DRB18's inhibitory activity of glucose transport. Docking studies were performed to investigate the potential direct interaction of DRB18 with GLUT1-4. Metabolomics analysis was performed to identify metabolite changes in A549 lung cancer cells treated with DRB18. DRB18 was used to treat A549 tumor-bearing nude mice. The GLUT1 gene was knocked out to determine how the KO of the gene affected tumor growth.<h4>Results</h4>DRB18 reduced glucose uptake mediated via each of GLUT1-4 with different IC<sub>50</sub>s, which match with the docking glidescores with a correlation coefficient of 0.858. Metabolomics analysis revealed that DRB18 altered energy-related metabolism in A549 cells by changing the abundance of metabolites in glucose-related pathways in vitro and in vivo. DRB18 eventually led to G1/S phase arrest and increased oxidative stress and necrotic cell death. IP injection of DRB18 in A549 tumor-bearing nude mice at 10 mg/kg body weight thrice a week led to a significant reduction in the tumor volume compared with mock-treated tumors. In contrast, the knockout of the GLUT1 gene did not reduce tumor volume.<h4>Conclusions</h4>DRB18 is a potent pan-class I GLUT inhibitor in vitro and in vivo in cancer cells. Mechanistically, it is likely to bind the outward open conformation of GLUT1-4, reducing tumor growth through inhibiting GLUT1-4-mediated glucose transport and metabolisms. Pan-class I GLUT inhibition is a better strategy than single GLUT targeting for inhibiting tumor growth.