PCDHGA9 acts as a tumor suppressor to induce tumor cell apoptosis and autophagy and inhibit the EMT process in human gastric cancer.
ABSTRACT: The results of a cDNA array revealed that protocadherin gamma subfamily A, 9 (PCDHGA9) was significantly decreased in SGC-7901 gastric cancer (GC) cells compared with GES-1 normal gastric cells and was strongly associated with the Wnt/?-catenin and transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?)/Smad2/3 signaling pathway. As a member of the cadherin family, PCDHGA9 functions in both cell-cell adhesion and nuclear signaling. However, its role in tumorigenicity or metastasis has not been reported. In the present study, we found that PCDHGA9 was decreased in GC tissues compared with corresponding normal mucosae and its expression was correlated with the GC TNM stage, the UICC stage, differentiation, relapse, and metastasis (p?
Project description:Gastric cancer (GC) has a high mortality rate, and metastasis is the main reason for treatment failure. It is important to study the mechanism of tumour invasion and metastasis based on the regulation of key genes. In a previous study comparing the expression differences between GES-1 and SGC-7901 cells, PCDHGA9 was selected for further research. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that PCDHGA9 inhibited invasion and metastasis. A cluster analysis suggested that PCDHGA9 inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through the Wnt/?-catenin and TGF-? pathways. Laser confocal techniques and western blotting revealed that PCDHGA9 inhibited the nuclear translocation of ?-catenin, regulated T cell factor (TCF)/ /lymphoid enhancer factor (LEF) transcriptional activity, directly impacted the signal transmission of the TGF-?/Smad2/3 pathway, strengthened the adhesion complex, weakened the effects of TGF-?, and blocked the activation of the Wnt pathway. In addition, PCDHGA9 expression was regulated by methylation, which was closely related to poor clinical prognosis. The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanism by which PCDHGA9 inhibits EMT and metastasis in GC to provide a new theoretical basis for identifying GC metastasis and a new target for improving the outcome of metastatic GC.
Project description:The therapeutic strategies for advanced gastric cancer (GC) remain unsatisfying and limited. Therefore, it is still imperative to fully elucidate the mechanisms underlying GC aggressive progression. The prognostic value and biological functions of low density lipoprotein receptor class A domain containing protein 2 (LDLRAD2) in GC have never been studied yet. We found that LDLRAD2 expression was significantly upregulated in GC and closely correlated with poor prognosis in GC patients. Functionally, LDLRAD2 promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migration and invasion, and metastasis of GC cells. Mechanistically, LDLRAD2 interacted with and inhibited Axin1 from binding to cytoplasmic ?-catenin, which facilitated the nuclear translocation of ?-catenin, thereby activating Wnt/?-catenin pathway. Inhibition of ?-catenin activity markedly abolished LDLRAD2-induced migration, invasion and metastasis. Together, these results suggested that LDLRAD2 contributed to invasion and metastasis of GC through activating Wnt/?-catenin pathway. LDLRAD2/ Wnt/?-catenin axis may be a potential therapeutic target for GC treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common human cancers with the high rate of recurrence, metastasis and mortality. Aberrantly expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with invasion and metastasis in various human cancers. Recently, miR-188-5p has been indicated as an oncogene in GC since it promotes GC cell growth and metastasis. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be fully defined. METHODS:Using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) screening, we identified that miR-188-5p is associated with overall survival and lymph node metastasis in patients with GC. The functional impact of miR-188-5p on GC metastasis was validated using in vitro and in vivo assays. The regulatory function of miR-188-5p on Wnt/β-catenin signaling activation through directly targeting PTEN was proven using quantitative real-time PCR, western blot analysis, a dual-luciferase assay, a Transwell assay, and immunofluorescence. Immunohistochemical analyses further confirmed the clinical significance of miR-188-5p in GC. RESULTS:MiR-188-5p diminishes tumor suppressor PTEN expression, and further increases phospho-Ser9 of GSK3β to activate Wnt/β-catenin signaling in GC. Consequently, miR-188-5p enhanced the migration and invasion of GC cells in vitro and tumor metastasis in vivo, whereas inhibition of miR-188-5p had the opposite effects. Moreover, miR-188-5p was negatively correlated with PTEN expression but positively correlated with nuclear β-catenin staining in GC samples. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings revealed a model of the miR-188-5p-PTEN-β-catenin axis in GC, which mediates the constitutive activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and promotes tumor metastasis, inferring that miR-188-5p is a potential therapeutic target to treat GC.
Project description:Rationale: Peritoneal metastasis predicts poor prognosis of gastric cancer (GC) patients, and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Methods: The 2-DIGE, MALDI-TOF/TOF MS and single-cell transcriptome were used to detect differentially expressed proteins among normal gastric mucosa, primary GC and peritoneal metastatic tissues. Lentiviruses carrying shRNA and transcription activator-like effector nuclease technology were used to knock down myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9) expression in GC cell lines. Immunofluorescence, immune transmission electron microscopy, chromatin fractionation, co-immunoprecipitation, and assays for chromatin immunoprecipitation, dual luciferase reporter, agarose-oligonucleotide pull-down, flow cytometry and cell anoikis were performed to uncover nuclear MYH9-induced ?-catenin (CTNNB1) transcription in vitro. Nude mice and conditional transgenic mice were used to investigate the findings in vivo. Results: We observed that MYH9 was upregulated in metastatic GC tissues and was associated with a poor prognosis of GC patients. Mechanistically, we confirmed that MYH9 was mainly localized in the GC cell nuclei by four potential nuclear localization signals. Nuclear MYH9 bound to the CTNNB1 promoter through its DNA-binding domain, and interacted with myosin light chain 9, ?-actin and RNA polymerase II to promote CTNNB1 transcription, which conferred resistance to anoikis in GC cells in vitro and in vivo. Staurosporine reduced nuclear MYH9 S1943 phosphorylation to inhibit CTNNB1 transcription, Wnt/?-catenin signaling activation and GC progression in both orthotropic xenograft GC nude mouse and transgenic GC mouse models. Conclusion: This study identified that nuclear MYH9-induced CTNNB1 expression promotes GC metastasis, which could be inhibited by staurosporine, indicating a novel therapy for GC peritoneal metastasis.
Project description:MIR17HG, located on chromosome 13, is a class of Pri-miRNAs that generates six miRNAs: miR-17, miR-18a, miR-19a, miR-20a, miR-19b-1 and miR-92-1. These miRNAs are ubiquitously overexpressed in diverse tumour types and exhibit complex biological links to tumour metastasis. We demonstrated that MIR17HG-derived miR-18a and miR-19a coordinately mediate gastric cancer cell metastasis by directly inhibiting SMAD2 expression and upregulating Wnt/?-catenin signalling. Based on previous studies, we hypothesised that an investigation of MIR17HG inhibition would be beneficial to clinical gastric cancer treatment, and systematically coupled bioinformatics analyses brought interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) to our attention. We then established stable clones in gastric cancer cells containing a doxycycline-inducible IRF-1 expression system and found that the expression of IRF-1 downregulates the embedded miRNAs of MIR17HG in gastric cancer cells and inhibits gastric cancer cell metastasis by attenuating Wnt/?-catenin signalling. Further rescue assays confirmed the crucial roles of miR-18a and miR-19a in the IRF-1-mediated inhibition of Wnt/?-catenin signalling. We also demonstrated that IRF-1 binds to the transcriptional site in the MIR17HG promoter and inhibits MIR17HG expression. Moreover, IFN-? induced the IRF-1-mediated downregulation of MIR17HG in gastric cancer cells. Our hypothesis was supported by the results of immunohistochemistry analyses of clinical gastric cancer samples, and we also demonstrated the role of IRF-1 in inhibiting MIR17HG expression and tumour metastasis in vivo. We conclude that IRF-1 inhibits gastric cancer metastasis by downregulating MIR17HG-miR-18a/miR-19a axis expression and attenuating Wnt/?-catenin signalling.
Project description:BACKGROUND:EphA2 is a crucial oncogene in gastric cancer (GC) development and metastasis, this study aims to identify microRNAs that target it and serve as key regulators of gastric carcinogenesis. METHODS:We identified several potential microRNAs targeting EphA2 by bioinformatics websites and then analyzed the role of miR-302b in modulating EphA2 in vitro and in vivo of GC, and it's mechanism. RESULTS:Our analysis identified miR-302b, a novel regulator of EphA2, as one of the most significantly downregulated microRNA (miRNA) in GC tissues. Overexpression of miR-302b impaired GC cell migratory and invasive properties robustly and suppressed cell proliferation by arresting cells at G0-G1 phase in vitro. miR-302b exhibited anti-tumor activity by reversing EphA2 regulation, which relayed a signaling transduction cascade that attenuated the functions of N-cadherin, ?-catenin, and Snail (markers of Wnt/?-catenin and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, EMT). This modulation of EphA2 also had distinct effects on cell proliferation and migration in GC in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:miR-302b serves as a critical suppressor of GC cell tumorigenesis and metastasis by targeting the EphA2/Wnt/?-catenin/EMT pathway.
Project description:Aberrant activation of Wnt signaling is a crucial event in tumor development and metastasis. Wnt signaling is commonly divided into canonical and non-canonical signaling pathways based on whether ?-catenin is activated (canonical). The two signaling pathways are initiated by Wnt ligand binding to the surface Frizzled (FZD) receptors, and regulate cancer stem cell self-renewal and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Frizzled 7 (FZD7), a member of Frizzled family, promotes cell proliferation and invasiveness in many cancers, suggesting that FZD7 transmitting Wnt signaling is important for driving cancer growth. FZD7 expression has been reported to be up-regulated in human primary gastric cancer tissues. However, the molecular mechanism by which FZD7 promotes gastric cancer(GC) development and progression is not fully understood. Our present study showed that FZD7 was overexpressed in clinical GC samples, and thus was correlated with tumor invasion, lymphatic and organ metastasis, late TNM stages and poor patient survival. The endogenous expression of FZD7 was significantly increased in cancer stem cell-enriched spheres compared with adherent cells. Furthermore, RNA interference-mediated silencing of FZD7 inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion in gastric cancer cells. Moreover, ablation of FZD7 down-regulated EMT and the expression levels of cancer stem cell markers, and these inhibitions were associated with attenuated canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling. The results suggest that Wnt canonical pathway may contribute to tumorigenesis and metastasis, indicating that FZD7 could be a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer.
Project description:A growing body of evidence shows that the development and progression of gastric cancer (GC) is mainly associated to the presence of gastric cancer stem-like cells (GCSLCs). However, it is unclear how GCSLC population is maintained. This study aimed to explore the role of capillary morphogenesis gene 2 (CMG2) in GCSLC maintenance and the relevance to GC progression. We found that CMG2 was highly expressed in GC tissues and the expression levels were associated with the invasion depth and lymph node metastasis of GC, and inversely correlated with the survival of GC patients. Sorted CMG2High GC cells preferentially clustered in CD44High stem-like cell population, which expressed high levels of stemness-related genes with increased capabilities of self-renewal and tumorigenicity. Depletion of CMG2 gene resulted in reduction of GCSLC population with attenuated stemness and decrease of invasive and metastatic capabilities with subdued epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype in GC cells. Mechanistically, CMG2 interacted with LRP6 in GCSLCs to activate a Wnt/?-catenin pathway. Thus, our results demonstrate that CMG2 promotes GC progression by maintaining GCSLCs and can serve as a new prognostic indicator and a target for human GC therapy.
Project description:In this study, we investigated the role of SERPINH1 in gastric cancer (GC) progression. GC patient tissues show significantly higher SERPINH1 mRNA and protein levels than normal gastric mucosal tissues. GC patients with high SERPINH1 expression are associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis. SERPINH1 mRNA levels negatively correlate with E-cadherin mRNA levels and positively correlate with levels of N-cadherin, MMP2, and MMP9 mRNA levels. This suggests SERPINH1 regulates epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). SERPINH1 expression was significantly higher in the HGC-27, AGS, MGC-803, and SGC-7901 GC cell lines than in the GES-1 normal gastric mucosal cell line. In SERPINH1-silenced SGC-7901 cells, survival, colony formation, migration and invasion were all reduced, whereas they were all enhanced in SERPINH1-overexpressing MGC-803 cells. Levels of WNT/?-catenin signaling pathway proteins, including ?-catenin, Wnt2, GSK-3?, p-GSK-3?, NF-?B P65, Snail1, Slug and TWIST, were all reduced in SERPINH1-silenced SGC-7901 cells, and increased in the SERPINH1-overexpressing MGC-803 cells. Inhibition of SERPINH1 protein using Co1003 significantly decreased survival, invasion, and migration of GC cells. SERPINH1 thus appears to regulate EMT and GC progression via the Wnt/?-catenin pathway, making SERPINH1 a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target in GC patients.
Project description:It has become increasingly important to identify valuable therapeutic targets to improve the prognosis of cancer patients. Although emerging evidence has suggested TYRO3 as a potential therapeutic target in various types of cancers, less is known about its role in gastric cancer (GC) development. Herein, we investigated the functional and molecular mechanisms by which TYRO3 influenced GC. TYRO3 mRNA and protein were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Other methods including stable transfection of TYRO3 into GC cells, wound healing, Transwell assays, CCK-8 assays, colony formation assays, immunocytochemistry in vitro, and tumorigenesis in vivo were also conducted. Our results indicated that high levels of TYRO3 significantly correlated with clinical metastasis and poor prognoses in patients with GC. In addition, TYRO3 silencing distinctively suppressed GC cell growth, invasion, and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, TYRO3 overexpression led to the opposite effects. Mechanistic analyses revealed that the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway might be involved in TYRO3-facilitated GC cell behavior. Collectively, we demonstrated that elevated TYRO3 expression contributed to GC cell growth and metastasis via the Wnt/?-catenin pathway, suggesting a novel therapeutic target for GC.