Complete Genome Sequence of Streptomyces lavendulae subsp. lavendulae CCM 3239 (Formerly "Streptomyces aureofaciens CCM 3239"), a Producer of the Angucycline-Type Antibiotic Auricin.
ABSTRACT: Streptomyces lavendulae subsp. lavendulae CCM 3239 produces the angucycline antibiotic auricin and was thought to be the type strain of Streptomyces aureofaciens We report the complete genome sequence of this strain, which consists of a linear chromosome and the linear plasmid pSA3239, and demonstrate it to be S. lavendulae subsp. lavendulae.
Project description:We previously identified the aur1 gene cluster in Streptomyces lavendulae subsp. lavendulae CCM 3239 (formerly Streptomyces aureofaciens CCM 3239), which is responsible for the production of the angucycline-like antibiotic auricin (1). Preliminary characterization of 1 revealed that it possesses an aminodeoxyhexose d-forosamine and is active against Gram-positive bacteria. Here we determined the structure of 1, finding that it possesses intriguing structural features, which distinguish it from other known angucyclines. In addition to d-forosamine, compound 1 also contains a unique, highly oxygenated aglycone similar to those of spiroketal pyranonaphthoquinones griseusins. Like several other griseusins, 1 also undergoes methanolysis and displays modest cytotoxicity against several human tumor cell lines. Moreover, the central core of the aur1 cluster is highly similar to the partial gris gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of griseusin A and B in both the nature of the encoded proteins and the gene organization.
Project description:Cholesterol oxidases are important enzymes with a wide range of applications from basic research to industry. In this study, we have discovered and described the first cell-associated cholesterol oxidase, ChoD, from Streptomyces lavendulae YAKB-15. This strain is a naturally high producer of ChoD, but only produces ChoD in a complex medium containing whole yeast cells. For characterization of ChoD, we acquired a draft genome sequence of S. lavendulae YAKB-15 and identified a gene product containing a flavin adenine dinucleotide binding motif, which could be responsible for the ChoD activity. The enzymatic activity was confirmed in vitro with histidine tagged ChoD produced in Escherichia coli TOP10, which lead to the determination of basic kinetic parameters with Km 15.9?µM and kcat 10.4/s. The optimum temperature and pH was 65?°C and 5, respectively. In order to increase the efficiency of production, we then expressed the cholesterol oxidase, choD, gene heterologously in Streptomyces lividans TK24 and Streptomyces albus J1074 using two different expression systems. In S. albus J1074, the ChoD activity was comparable to the wild type S. lavendulae YAKB-15, but importantly allowed production of ChoD without the presence of yeast cells.
Project description:Anhydrotetracycline oxygenase was purified to homogeneity from Streptomyces aureofaciens, a producer of tetracycline. The enzyme was purified 60-fold in a 40% yield by a two-step procedure using a combination of hydrophobic chromatography and ion-exchange h.p.l.c. Purified anhydrotetracycline oxygenase was homogeneous according to SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, ion-exchange h.p.l.c. on a Mono Q HR 5/5 column and size-exclusion h.p.l.c. on a TSK G 3000 SW column. The enzyme consists of two subunits of Mr 57,500, as determined by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis.
Project description:DNA/DNA microarray hybridization was used to compare the genome content of Streptomyces avermitilis, Streptomyces cattleya, Streptomyces maritimus and Kitasatospora aureofaciens with that of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). The array data showed an about 93% agreement with the genome sequence data available for S. avermitilis and also showed a number of trends in the genome structure for Streptomyces and closely related Kitasatospora. A core central region was well conserved, which might be predicted from previous research and this was linked to a low degree of gene conservation in the terminal regions of the linear chromosome across all four species. Between these regions there are two areas of intermediate gene conservation by microarray analysis where gene synteny is still detectable in S. avermitilis. Nonetheless, a range of conserved genes could be identified within the terminal regions. Variation in the genes involved in differentiation, transcription, DNA replication, etc. provides interesting insights into which genes in these categories are generally conserved and which are not. The results also provide target priorities for possible gene knockouts in a group of bacteria with a very large numbers of genes with unknown functions compared to most bacterial species.
Project description:Two genes (mcrA and mcrB) from Streptomyces lavendulae that together confer resistance to mitomycin C were identified. This DNA appears to comprise a polycistronic operon with a drug-inducible leaderless mRNA. The deduced amino acid sequence of mcrA shows similarity to sequences of a special class of bacterial, plant, and animal oxygen oxidoreductases.
Project description:In previous experiments, Streptomyces aureofaciens has been shown to contain four genes hrdA, hrdB, hrdD, and hrdE, encoding polypeptides very similar to principal sigma factors of RNA polymerase. Two apparent tandem promoters were identified for each of the hrdA, hrdB and hrdD genes by S1 nuclease mapping using RNA prepared of S. aureofaciens in various developmental stages. Under all the conditions studied, tandem promoters of each gene differed significantly in their respective strengths. Transcription from the hrd promoters depended on developmental stage. While hrdB is transcribed from both promoters in all developmental stages, both tandem promoters of the hrdD gene are active only in vegetative stage and transcription of the hrdA tandem promoters temporally correlates with the aerial mycelium formation. In addition to a promoter, hrdB-P2, which lies upstream of the open reading frame, the hrdB gene, proposed to encode functional principal factor, appeared to contain at least one internal promoter, hrdB-P1. Activity of all promoters was consistent with S1 mapping experiments after insertion of promoter-bearing DNA fragments to promoter-probe vectors pIJ486 and pARC1. The results implicate temporally different expression of the hrd genes during the differentiation of S. aureofaciens.