Biological conversion of aromatic monolignol compounds by a Pseudomonas isolate from sediments of the Baltic Sea.
ABSTRACT: Bacterial strains were isolated from the sediments of the Baltic Sea using ferulic acid, guaiacol or a lignin-rich softwood waste stream as substrate. In total nine isolates were obtained, five on ferulic acid, two on guaiacol and two on a lignin-rich softwood stream as a carbon source. Three of the isolates were found to be Pseudomonas sp. based on 16S rRNA sequencing. Among them, isolate 9.1, which showed the fastest growth in defined M9 medium, was tentatively identified as a Pseudomonas deceptionensis strain based on the gyrB sequencing. The growth of isolate 9.1 was further examined on six selected lignin model compounds (ferulate, p-coumarate, benzoate, syringate, vanillin and guaiacol) from different upper funneling aromatic pathways and was found able to grow on four out of these six compounds. No growth was detected on syringate and guaiacol. The highest specific growth and uptake rates were observed for benzoate (0.3 h-1 and 4.2 mmol g CDW-1 h-1) whereas the lowest were for the compounds from the coniferyl branch. Interestingly, several pathway intermediates were excreted during batch growth. Vanillyl alcohol was found to be excreted during growth on vanillin. Several other intermediates like cis,cis-muconate, catechol, vanillate and 4-hydroxybenzoate from the known bacterial catabolic pathways were excreted during growth on the model compounds.
Project description:Background:Lignin is a potential feedstock for microbial conversion into various chemicals. However, the microbial degradation rate of native or technical lignin is low, and chemical depolymerization is needed to obtain reasonable conversion rates. In the current study, nine bacterial strains belonging to the Pseudomonas and Rhodococcus genera were evaluated for their ability to grow on alkaline-treated softwood lignin as a sole carbon source. Results:Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 50090 and Rhodococcus opacus DSM1069 showed the best growth of the tested species on plates with lignin. Further evaluation of P. fluorescens and R. opacus was made in liquid cultivations with depolymerized softwood Kraft lignin (DL) at a concentration of 1 g/L. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) showed that R. opacus consumed most of the available lower-molecular weight compounds (approximately 0.1-0.4 kDa) in the DL, but the weight distribution of larger fractions was almost unaffected. Importantly, the consumed compounds included guaiacol-one of the main monomers in the DL. SEC analysis of P. fluorescens culture broth, in contrast, did not show a large conversion of low-molecular weight compounds, and guaiacol remained unconsumed. However, a significant shift in molecular weight distribution towards lower average weights was seen after cultivation with P. fluorescens. Conclusions:Rhodococcus opacus and P. fluorescens were identified as two potential microbial candidates for the conversion/consumption of base-catalyzed depolymerized lignin, acting on low- and high-molecular weight lignin fragments, respectively. These findings will be of relevance for designing bioconversion of softwood Kraft lignin.
Project description:Background:Lignin is the second most abundant natural polymer on earth. Industries using lignocellulosic biomass as feedstock generate a considerable amount of lignin as a byproduct with minimal usage. For a sustainable biorefinery, the lignin must be utilized in improved ways. Lignin is recalcitrant to degradation due to the complex and heterogeneous structure. The depolymerization of lignin and its conversion into specific product stream are the major challenges associated with lignin valorization. The blend of oligomeric, dimeric and monomeric lignin-derived compounds (LDCs) generated during depolymerization can be utilized by microbes for production of bioproducts. Results:In the present study, a novel bacterium Burkholderia sp. strain ISTR5 (R5), a proteobacteria belonging to class betaproteobacteria, order Burkholderiales and family Burkholderiaceae, was isolated and characterized for the degradation of LDCs. R5 strain was cultured on 12 LDCs in mineral salt medium (MSM) supplemented with individual compounds such as syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, vanillin, vanillic acid, guaiacol, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, benzoic acid, syringaldehyde, veratryl alcohol and catechol. R5 was able to grow and utilize all the selected LDCs. The degradation of selected LDCs was monitored by bacterial growth, total organic carbon (TOC) removal and UV-Vis absorption spectra in scan mode. TOC reduction shown in the sample contains syringic acid 80.7%, ferulic acid 84.1%, p-coumaric acid 85.9% and benzoic acid 83.2%. In UV-Vis absorption spectral scan, most of the lignin-associated peaks were found at or near 280 nm wavelength in the obtained absorption spectra. Enzyme assay for the ligninolytic enzymes was also performed, and it was observed that lignin peroxidase and laccase were predominantly expressed. Furthermore, the GC-MS analysis of LDCs was performed to identify the degradation intermediates from these compounds. The genomic analysis showed the robustness of this strain and identified various candidate genes responsible for the degradation of aromatic or lignin derivatives, detoxification mechanism, oxidative stress response and fatty acid synthesis. The presence of peroxidases (13%), laccases (4%), monooxygenases (23%), dioxygenase (44%), NADPH: quinone oxidoreductases (16%) and many other related enzymes supported the degradation of LDCs. Conclusion:Numerous pathway intermediates were observed during experiment. Vanillin was found during growth on syringic acid, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. Some other intermediates like catechol, acetovanillone, syringaldehyde and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde from the recognized bacterial metabolic pathways existed during growth on the LDCs. The ortho- and meta cleavage pathway enzymes, such as the catechol-1,2-dioxygenase, protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase, catechol-2,3-dioxygenase and toluene-2,3-dioxygenase, were observed in the genome. In addition to the common aromatic degradation pathways, presence of the epoxyqueuosine reductase, 1,2-epoxyphenylacetyl-CoA isomerase in the genome advocates that this strain may follow the epoxy Coenzyme A thioester pathway for degradation.
Project description:Starting from mature vegetable compost, four bacterial strains were selected using a lignin-rich medium. 16S ribosomal RNA identification of the isolates showed high score similarity with Pseudomonas spp. for three out of four isolates. Further characterization of growth on mixtures of six selected lignin model compounds (vanillin, vanillate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, p-coumarate, benzoate, and ferulate) was carried out with three of the Pseudomonas isolates and in addition with the strain Pseudomonas putida KT2440 from a culture collection. The specific growth rates on benzoate, p-coumarate, and 4-hydroxybenzoate were considerably higher (0.26-0.27 h-1) than those on ferulate and vanillate (0.21 and 0.22 h-1), as were the uptake rates. There was no direct growth of P. putida KT2440 on vanillin, but instead, vanillin was rapidly converted into vanillate at a rate of 4.87 mmol (gCDW h)-1 after which the accumulated vanillate was taken up. The growth curve reflected a diauxic growth when mixtures of the model compounds were used as carbon source. Vanillin, 4-hydroxybenzoate, and benzoate were preferentially consumed first, whereas ferulate was always the last substrate to be taken in. These results contribute to a better understanding of the aromatic metabolism of P. putida in terms of growth and uptake rates, which will be helpful for the utilization of these bacteria as cell factories for upgrading lignin-derived mixtures of aromatic molecules.
Project description:Background:Lignin is a potential feedstock for microbial conversion into various chemicals. However, the degradation rate of native or technical lignin is low, and depolymerization is needed to obtain reasonable conversion rates. In the current study, base-catalyzed depolymerization-using NaOH (5 wt%)-of softwood Kraft lignin was conducted in a continuous-flow reactor system at temperatures in the range 190-240 °C and residence times of 1 or 2 min. The ability of growth of nine bacterial strains belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Rhodococcus was tested using the alkaline-treated lignin as a sole carbon source. Results:Pseudomonas fluorescens and Rhodococcus opacus showed the best growth of the tested species on plates with lignin. Further evaluation of P. fluorescens and R. opacus was made in liquid cultivations with depolymerized lignin (DL) at a concentration of 1 g/L. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) showed that R. opacus consumed most of the available lower molecular weight compounds (approximately 0.1-0.4 kDa) in the DL, but the weight distribution of larger fractions was almost unaffected. Importantly, the consumed compounds included guaiacol-one of the main monomers in the DL. SEC analysis of P. fluorescens culture broth, in contrast, did not show a large conversion of low molecular weight compounds, and guaiacol remained unconsumed. However, a significant shift in molecular weight distribution towards lower average weights was seen. Conclusions:Rhodococcus opacus and P. fluorescens were identified as two potential microbial candidates for the conversion/consumption of base-catalyzed depolymerized lignin, acting on low and high molecular weight lignin fragments, respectively. These findings will be of relevance for designing bioconversion of softwood Kraft lignin.
Project description:The production of fuels or chemicals from lignocellulose currently requires thermochemical pretreatment to release fermentable sugars. These harsh conditions also generate numerous small-molecule inhibitors of microbial growth and fermentation, limiting production. We applied small-insert functional metagenomic selections to discover genes that confer microbial tolerance to these inhibitors, identifying both individual genes and general biological processes associated with tolerance to multiple inhibitory compounds. Having screened over 248 Gb of DNA cloned from 16 diverse soil metagenomes, we describe gain-of-function tolerance against acid, alcohol, and aldehyde inhibitors derived from hemicellulose and lignin, demonstrating that uncultured soil microbial communities hold tremendous genetic potential to address the toxicity of pretreated lignocellulose. We recovered genes previously known to confer tolerance to lignocellulosic inhibitors as well as novel genes that confer tolerance via unknown functions. For instance, we implicated galactose metabolism in overcoming the toxicity of lignin monomers and identified a decarboxylase that confers tolerance to ferulic acid; this enzyme has been shown to catalyze the production of 4-vinyl guaiacol, a valuable precursor to vanillin production. These metagenomic tolerance genes can enable the flexible design of hardy microbial catalysts, customized to withstand inhibitors abundant in specific bioprocessing applications.
Project description:Iodine is a well known antimicrobial compound. Laccase, an oxidoreductase which couples the one electron oxidation of diverse phenolic and non-phenolic substrates to the reduction of oxygen to water, is capable of oxidizing unreactive iodide to reactive iodine. We have shown previously that laccase-iodide treatment of spruce wood results in a wash-out resistant antimicrobial surface. In this study, we investigated whether phenolic compounds such as vanillin, which resembles sub-structures of softwood lignin, can be directly iodinated by reacting with laccase and iodide, resulting in compounds with antifungal activity. HPLC-MS analysis showed that vanillin was converted to iodovanillin by laccase catalysis at an excess of potassium iodide. No conversion of vanillin occurred in the absence of enzyme. The addition of redox mediators in catalytic concentrations increased the rate of iodide oxidation ten-fold and the yield of iodovanillin by 50%. Iodinated phenolic products were also detected when o-vanillin, ethyl vanillin, acetovanillone and methyl vanillate were incubated with laccase and iodide. At an increased educt concentration of 0.1 M an almost one to one molar ratio of iodide to vanillin could be used without compromising conversion rate, and the insoluble iodovanillin product could be recovered by simple centrifugation. The novel enzymatic synthesis procedure fulfills key criteria of green chemistry. Biocatalytically produced iodovanillin and iodo-ethyl vanillin had significant growth inhibitory effects on several wood degrading fungal species. For Trametes versicolor, a species causing white rot of wood, almost complete growth inhibition and a partial biocidal effect was observed on agar plates. Enzymatic tests indicated that the iodinated compounds acted as enzyme responsive, antimicrobial materials.
Project description:Genetic engineering is a powerful tool to steer bio-oil composition towards the production of speciality chemicals such as guaiacols, syringols, phenols, and vanillin through well-defined biomass feedstocks. Our previous work demonstrated the effects of lignin biosynthesis gene modification on the pyrolysis vapour compositions obtained from wood derived from greenhouse-grown poplars. In this study, field-grown poplars downregulated in the genes encoding CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE (CAD), CAFFEIC ACID O-METHYLTRANSFERASE (COMT) and CAFFEOYL-CoA O-METHYLTRANSFERASE (CCoAOMT), and their corresponding wild type were pyrolysed in a Py-GC/MS. This work aims at capturing the effects of downregulation of the three enzymes on bio-oil composition using principal component analysis (PCA). 3,5-methoxytoluene, vanillin, coniferyl alcohol, 4-vinyl guaiacol, syringol, syringaldehyde, and guaiacol are the determining factors in the PCA analysis that are the substantially affected by COMT, CAD and CCoAOMT enzyme downregulation. COMT and CAD downregulated transgenic lines proved to be statistically different from the wild type because of a substantial difference in S and G lignin units. The sCAD line lead to a significant drop (nearly 51%) in S-lignin derived compounds, while CCoAOMT downregulation affected the least (7-11%). Further, removal of extractives via pretreatment enhanced the statistical differences among the CAD transgenic lines and its wild type. On the other hand, COMT downregulation caused 2-fold reduction in S-derived compounds compared to G-derived compounds. This study manifests the applicability of PCA analysis in tracking the biological changes in biomass (poplar in this case) and their effects on pyrolysis-oil compositions.
Project description:The digestion of lignin and lignin-related phenolic compounds from bamboo by giant pandas has puzzled scientists because of the lack of lignin-degrading genes in the genome of the bamboo-feeding animals. We constructed a 16S rRNA gene library from the microorganisms derived from the giant panda feces to identify the possibility for the presence of potential lignin-degrading bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the phylotypes of the intestinal bacteria were affiliated with the phyla Proteobacteria (53%) and Firmicutes (47%). Two phylotypes were affiliated with the known lignin-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas putida and the mangrove forest bacteria. To test the hypothesis that microbes in the giant panda gut help degrade lignin, a metagenomic library of the intestinal bacteria was constructed and screened for clones that contained genes encoding laccase, a lignin-degrading related enzyme. A multicopper oxidase gene, designated as lac51, was identified from a metagenomic clone. Sequence analysis and copper content determination indicated that Lac51 is a laccase rather than a metallo-oxidase and may work outside its original host cell because it has a TAT-type signal peptide and a transmembrane segment at its N-terminus. Lac51 oxidizes a variety of lignin-related phenolic compounds, including syringaldazine, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, ferulic acid, veratryl alcohol, guaiacol, and sinapinic acid at conditions that simulate the physiologic environment in giant panda intestines. Furthermore, in the presence of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), syringic acid, or ferulic acid as mediators, the oxidative ability of Lac51 on lignin was promoted. The absorbance of lignin at 445 nm decreased to 36% for ABTS, 51% for syringic acid, and 51% for ferulic acid after incubation for 10 h. Our findings demonstrate that the intestinal bacteria of giant pandas may facilitate the oxidation of lignin moieties, thereby clarifying the digestion of bamboo lignin by the animal.
Project description:Vanillin and syringaldehyde obtained from lignin are essential intermediates for the production of basic chemicals using microbial cell factories. However, in contrast to vanillin, the microbial conversion of syringaldehyde is poorly understood. Here, we identified an aromatic aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene responsible for syringaldehyde catabolism from 20 putative ALDH genes of Sphingobium sp. strain SYK-6. All these genes were expressed in Escherichia coli, and nine gene products, including previously characterized BzaA, BzaB, and vanillin dehydrogenase (LigV), exhibited oxidation activities for syringaldehyde to produce syringate. Among these genes, SLG_28320 (desV) and ligV were most highly and constitutively transcribed in the SYK-6 cells. Disruption of desV in SYK-6 resulted in a significant reduction in growth on syringaldehyde and in syringaldehyde oxidation activity. Furthermore, a desV ligV double mutant almost completely lost its ability to grow on syringaldehyde. Purified DesV showed similar kcat/Km values for syringaldehyde (2100?s-1·mM-1) and vanillin (1700?s-1·mM-1), whereas LigV substantially preferred vanillin (8800?s-1·mM-1) over syringaldehyde (1.4?s-1·mM-1). These results clearly demonstrate that desV plays a major role in syringaldehyde catabolism. Phylogenetic analyses showed that DesV-like ALDHs formed a distinct phylogenetic cluster separated from the vanillin dehydrogenase cluster.
Project description:Vanillin is one of the most commonly used natural products, which can also be produced from lignin-derived feedstocks. The chemical synthesis of vanillin is well-established in large-scale production from petrochemical-based starting materials. To overcome this problem, lignin-derived monomers (such as eugenol, isoeugenol, ferulic acid etc.) have been effectively used in the past few years. However, selective and efficient production of vanillin from these feedstocks still remains an issue to replace the existing process. In this work, new transition metal-based catalysts were proposed to investigate their efficiency in vanillin production. Reduced graphene oxide supported Fe and Co catalysts showed high conversion of isoeugenol under mild reaction conditions using H2O2 as oxidizing agent. Fe catalysts were more selective as compared to Co catalysts, providing a 63% vanillin selectivity at 61% conversion in 2 h. The mechanochemical process was demonstrated as an effective approach to prepare supported metal catalysts that exhibited high activity for the production of vanillin from isoeugenol.