Identification and characterization of long noncoding RNA in Paulownia tomentosa treated with methyl methane sulfonate.
ABSTRACT: Paulownia is a tree native to China, with important ecological and economic value. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to play important roles in eukaryotic gene regulation. However, no lncRNAs have been reported in Paulownia so far. We performed RNA sequencing of two Paulownia tomentosa lncRNA libraries constructed from the terminal buds of normal untreated seedlings and 60 mg L-1 MMS-treated seedlings, and obtained a total of 2531 putative lncRNAs. The average length of the lncRNA transcripts was much less than the average length of the mRNA transcripts in the P. tomentosa libraries. A few of the Paulownia lncRNAs were conserved among ten species tested. We identified seven lncRNAs as precursors of 13 known miRNAs, 15 lncRNAs may act as target mimics of 19 miRNAs, and 351 unique noncoding sequences belonging to 133 conserved lncRNA families. In addition, we identified 220 lncRNAs responsive to methyl methane sulfonate (MMS), including seven phytohormone-related lncRNAs and one lncRNAs involved in base excision repair. This is the first time that lncRNAs have been explored in Paulownia. The lncRNA data may also provide new insights into the MMS-response in P. tomentosa.
Project description:Paulownia witches' broom caused by phytoplasma infection affects the production of Paulownia trees worldwide. Emerging evidence showed that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) play a protagonist role in regulating the expression of genes in plants. So far, the identification of lncRNAs has been limited to a few model plant species, and their roles in mediating responses to Paulownia tomentosa that free of phytoplasma infection are yet to be characterized. Here, whole-genome identification of lncRNAs, based on strand-specific RNA sequencing, from four Paulownia tomentosa samples, was performed and identified 3689 lncRNAs. These lncRNAs showed low conservation among plant species and some of them were miRNA precursors. Further analysis revealed that the 112 identified lncRNAs were related to phytoplasma infection. We predicted the target genes of these phytoplasma-responsive lncRNAs, and our analysis showed that 51 of the predicted target genes were alternatively spliced. Moreover, we found the expression of the lncRNAs plays vital roles in regulating the genes involved in the reactive oxygen species induced hypersensitive response and effector-triggered immunity in phytoplasma-infected Paulownia. This study indicated that diverse sets of lncRNAs were responsive to Paulownia witches' broom, and the results will provide a starting point to understand the functions and regulatory mechanisms of Paulownia lncRNAs in the future.
Project description:Phytoplasma is an insect-transmitted pathogen that causes witches' broom disease in many plants. Paulownia witches' broom is one of the most destructive diseases threatening Paulownia production. The molecular mechanisms associated with this disease have been investigated by transcriptome sequencing, but changes in protein abundance have not been investigated with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation. Previous results have shown that methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) can help Paulownia seedlings recover from the symptoms of witches' broom and reinstate a healthy morphology. In this study, a transcriptomic-assisted proteomic technique was used to analyze the protein changes in phytoplasma-infected Paulownia tomentosa seedlings, phytoplasma-infected seedlings treated with 20 and 60 mg·L-1 MMS, and healthy seedlings. A total of 2,051 proteins were obtained, 879 of which were found to be differentially abundant in pairwise comparisons between the sample groups. Among the differentially abundant proteins, 43 were related to Paulownia witches' broom disease and many of them were annotated to be involved in photosynthesis, expression of dwarf symptom, energy production, and cell signal pathways.
Project description:Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), circular RNA (circRNA), and microRNA (miRNA) are important in the regulation of life activities. However, their function is unclear in Paulownia fortunei. To identify lncRNAs, circRNAs, and miRNA, and investigate their roles in the infection progress of Paulownia witches' broom (PaWB) disease, we performed RNA sequencing of healthy and infected P. fortunei. A total of 3126 lncRNAs, 1634 circRNAs, and 550 miRNAs were identified. Among them, 229 lncRNAs, 65 circRNAs, and 65 miRNAs were differentially expressed in a significant manner. We constructed a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network, which contains 5 miRNAs, 4 circRNAs, 5 lncRNAs, and 15 mRNAs, all of which were differentially expressed between healthy and infected P. fortunei. This study provides the first catalog of candidate ceRNAs in Paulownia and gives a revealing insight into the molecular mechanism responsible for PaWB.
Project description:Paulownia is a fast-growing deciduous hardwood species native to China, which has high ecological and economic value. In an earlier study, we reported ploidy-dependent differences in Paulownia drought tolerance by the microscopic observations of the leaves. Autotetraploid Paulownia has a higher resistance to drought stress than their diploid relatives. In order to obtain genetic information on molecular mechanisms responses of Paulownia plants to drought, Illumina/Solexa Genome sequencing platform was used to de novo assemble the transcriptomes of leaves from diploid and autotetraploid Paulownia tomentosa × Paulownia fortunei seedlings (PTF2 and PTF4 respectively) grown under control conditions and under drought stress and obtained 98,671 nonredundant unigenes. A comparative transcriptome analysis revealed that hundreds of unigenes were predicted to be involved mainly in ROS-scavenging system, amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism, plant hormone biosynthesis and signal transduction, while these unigenes exhibited differential transcript alteration of the two accessions. This study provides a comprehensive map of how P. tomentosa × P. fortunei responds to drought stress at physiological and molecular levels, which may help in understanding the mechanisms involve in water-deficit response and will be useful for further study of drought tolerance in woody plants.
Project description:Paulownia witches' broom (PaWB) is a fatal disease of Paulownia caused by a phytoplasma. In previous studies, we found that plants with PaWB symptoms would revert to a healthy morphology after methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) treatment. To completely understand the gene expression profiles of the Paulownia-phytoplasma interaction, three high-throughput sequencing technologies were used to investigate changes of gene expression and microRNAs (miRNAs) in healthy Paulownia tomentosa plantlets, PaWB-infected plantlets, and PaWB-infected plantlets treated with 60 mg?·?L(-1) MMS.Transcriptome, miRNAs and degradome sequencing were performed to explore the global gene expression profiles in the process of Paulownia tomentosa with phytoplasma infection.A total of 98,714 all-unigenes, 62 conserved miRNAs, and 35 novel miRNAs were obtained, among which 902 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 24 miRNAs were found to be associated with PaWB disease. Subsequently, the target genes of these miRNAs were predicted by degradome sequencing. Interestingly, we found that 19 target genes of these differentially expressed miRNAs were among the 902 DEGs. The targets of pau-miR156g, pau-miR403, and pau-miR166c were significantly up-regulated in the P. tomentosa plantlets infected with phytoplasma. Interaction of miRNA -target genes mediated gene expression related to PaWB were identified.The results elucidated the possible roles of the regulation of genes and miRNAs in the Paulownia-phytoplasma interaction, which will enrich our understanding of the mechanisms of PaWB disease in this plant.
Project description:Paulownia witches' broom (PaWB) caused by phytoplasma might result in devastating damage to the growth and wood production of Paulownia. To study the effect of phytoplasma on DNA sequence and to discover the genes related to PaWB occurrence, DNA polymorphisms and DNA methylation levels and patterns in PaWB seedlings, the ones treated with various concentration of methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) and healthy seedlings were investigated with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). Our results indicated that PaWB seedlings recovered a normal morphology, similar to healthy seedlings, after treatment with more than 20 mg · L-1 MMS; Phytoplasma infection did not change the Paulownia genomic DNA sequence at AFLP level, but changed the global DNA methylation levels and patterns; Genes related to PaWB were discovered through MSAP and validated using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). These results implied that changes of DNA methylation levels and patterns were closely related to the morphological changes of seedlings infected with phytoplasmas.
Project description:Paulownia witches' broom (PaWB) caused by a phytoplasma, has caused extensive losses in the yields of paulownia timber and resulted in significant economic losses. However, the molecular mechanisms in Paulownia that underlie the phytoplasma stress are poorly characterized. In this study, we use an Illumina platform to sequence four small RNA libraries and four degradome sequencing libraries derived from healthy, PaWB-infected, and PaWB-infected 15 mg·L-1 and 30 mg·L-1 methyl methane sulfonate (MMS)-treated plants. In total, 125 conserved and 118 novel microRNAs (miRNAs) were identified and 33 miRNAs responsive to PaWB disease were discovered. Furthermore, 166 target genes for 18 PaWB disease-related miRNAs were obtained, and found to be involved in plant-pathogen interaction and plant hormone signal transduction metabolic pathways. Eleven miRNAs and target genes responsive to PaWB disease were examined by a quantitative real-time PCR approach. Our findings will contribute to studies on miRNAs and their targets in Paulownia, and provide new insights to further understand plant-phytoplasma interactions.
Project description:Drought stress adversely affects plant productivity. Growth and timber production of Paulownia trees are limited under drought stress. Changes in gene expression patterns and miRNA in different ploidy of Paulownia tomentosa have been investigated. However, the responses of P. tomentosa to drought stress at the microRNA (miRNA) level have not been reported so far. To identify miRNA candidates and their target genes involved in the drought stress response in diploid and tetraploid P. tomentosa, four small RNA and four degradome libraries from diploid and autotetraploid P. tomentosa under normal and drought stress conditions were constructed and sequenced. A total of 41 conserved and 90 novel miRNAs were identified. Among these miRNAs, 67 (26 conserved and 41 novel) and 53 (six conserved and 47 novel) were significantly differentially expressed in response to drought stress in diploid and autotetraploid P. tomentosa, respectively. Degradome analysis identified 356 candidate miRNA target genes that encoded proteins with functions that included plant defense, transcriptional regulation, and hormone metabolism. In particular, miR4 and miR156 were identified only in autotetraploid P. tomentosa under drought stress. These results will help us build a foundation for future studies of the biological functions of miRNA-mediated gene regulation in P. tomentosa.
Project description:Paulownia tomentosa is a fast-growing tree species with multiple uses. It is grown worldwide, but is native to China, where it is widely cultivated in saline regions. We previously confirmed that autotetraploid P. tomentosa plants are more stress-tolerant than the diploid plants. However, the molecular mechanism underlying P. tomentosa salinity tolerance has not been fully characterized. Using the complete Paulownia fortunei genome as a reference, we applied next-generation RNA-sequencing technology to analyze the effects of salt stress on diploid and autotetraploid P. tomentosa plants. We generated 175 million clean reads and identified 15,873 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from four P. tomentosa libraries (two diploid and two autotetraploid). Functional annotations of the differentially expressed genes using the Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases revealed that plant hormone signal transduction and photosynthetic activities are vital for plant responses to high-salt conditions. We also identified several transcription factors, including members of the AP2/EREBP, bHLH, MYB, and NAC families. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the expression patterns of eight differentially expressed genes. Our findings and the generated transcriptome data may help to accelerate the genetic improvement of cultivated P. tomentosa and other plant species for enhanced growth in saline soils.
Project description:To enlarge the germplasm resource of Paulownia plants, we used colchicine to induce autotetraploid Paulownia tomentosa, as reported previously. Compared with its diploid progenitor, autotetraploid P. tomentosa exhibits better photosynthetic characteristics and higher stress resistance. However, the underlying mechanism for its predominant characteristics has not been determined at the proteome level. In this study, isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was employed to compare proteomic changes between autotetraploid and diploid P. tomentosa. A total of 1427 proteins were identified in our study, of which 130 proteins were differentially expressed between autotetraploid and diploid P. tomentosa. Functional analysis of differentially expressed proteins revealed that photosynthesis-related proteins and stress-responsive proteins were significantly enriched among the differentially expressed proteins, suggesting they may be responsible for the photosynthetic characteristics and stress adaptability of autotetraploid P. tomentosa. The correlation analysis between transcriptome and proteome data revealed that only 15 (11.5%) of the differentially expressed proteins had corresponding differentially expressed unigenes between diploid and autotetraploid P. tomentosa. These results indicated that there was a limited correlation between the differentially expressed proteins and the previously reported differentially expressed unigenes. This work provides new clues to better understand the superior traits in autotetraploid P. tomentosa and lays a theoretical foundation for developing Paulownia breeding strategies in the future.