Gadolinium-Free Cardiac MR Stress T1-Mapping to Distinguish Epicardial From Microvascular Coronary Disease.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Novel cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) stress T1 mapping can detect ischemia and myocardial blood volume changes without contrast agents and may be a more comprehensive ischemia biomarker than myocardial blood flow. OBJECTIVES:This study describes the performance of the first prospective validation of stress T1 mapping against invasive coronary measurements for detecting obstructive epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD), defined by fractional flow reserve (FFR <0.8), and coronary microvascular dysfunction, defined by FFR ?0.8 and the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR ?25 U), compared with first-pass perfusion imaging. METHODS:Ninety subjects (60 patients with angina; 30 healthy control subjects) underwent CMR (1.5- and 3-T) to assess left ventricular function (cine), ischemia (adenosine stress/rest T1 mapping and perfusion), and infarction (late gadolinium enhancement). FFR and IMR were assessed ?7 days post-CMR. Stress and rest images were analyzed blinded to other information. RESULTS:Normal myocardial T1 reactivity (?T1) was 6.2 ± 0.4% (1.5-T) and 6.2 ± 1.3% (3-T). Ischemic viable myocardium downstream of obstructive CAD showed near-abolished T1 reactivity (?T1 = 0.7 ± 0.7%). Myocardium downstream of nonobstructive coronary arteries with microvascular dysfunction showed less-blunted T1 reactivity (?T1 = 3.0 ± 0.9%). Stress T1 mapping significantly outperformed gadolinium-based first-pass perfusion, including absolute quantification of myocardial blood flow, for detecting obstructive CAD (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve: 0.97 ± 0.02 vs. 0.91 ± 0.03, respectively; p < 0.001). A ?T1 of 1.5% accurately detected obstructive CAD (sensitivity: 93%; specificity: 95%; p < 0.001), whereas a less-blunted ?T1 of 4.0% accurately detected microvascular dysfunction (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve: 0.95 ± 0.03; sensitivity: 94%; specificity: 94%: p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:CMR stress T1 mapping accurately detected and differentiated between obstructive epicardial CAD and microvascular dysfunction, without contrast agents or radiation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In patients with angina and nonobstructive coronary artery disease (NOCAD), confirming symptoms due to coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) remains challenging. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) assesses myocardial perfusion with high spatial resolution and is widely used for diagnosing obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). OBJECTIVES:The goal of this study was to validate CMR for diagnosing microvascular angina in patients with NOCAD, compared with patients with obstructive CAD and correlated to the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) during invasive coronary angiography. METHODS:Fifty patients with angina (65 ± 9 years of age) and 20 age-matched healthy control subjects underwent adenosine stress CMR (1.5- and 3-T) to assess left ventricular function, inducible ischemia (myocardial perfusion reserve index [MPRI]; myocardial blood flow [MBF]), and infarction (late gadolinium enhancement). During subsequent angiography within 7 days, 28 patients had obstructive CAD (fractional flow reserve [FFR] ?0.8) and 22 patients had NOCAD (FFR >0.8) who underwent 3-vessel IMR measurements. RESULTS:In patients with NOCAD, myocardium with IMR <25 U had normal MPRI (1.9 ± 0.4 vs. controls 2.0 ± 0.3; p = 0.49); myocardium with IMR ?25 U had significantly impaired MPRI, similar to ischemic myocardium downstream of obstructive CAD (1.2 ± 0.3 vs. 1.2 ± 0.4; p = 0.61). An MPRI of 1.4 accurately detected impaired perfusion related to CMD (IMR ?25 U; FFR >0.8) (area under the curve: 0.90; specificity: 95%; sensitivity: 89%; p < 0.001). Impaired MPRI in patients with NOCAD was driven by impaired augmentation of MBF during stress, with normal resting MBF. Myocardium with FFR >0.8 and normal IMR (<25 U) still had blunted stress MBF, suggesting mild CMD, which was distinguishable from control subjects by using a stress MBF threshold of 2.3 ml/min/g with 100% positive predictive value. CONCLUSIONS:In angina patients with NOCAD, CMR can objectively and noninvasively assess microvascular angina. A CMR-based combined diagnostic pathway for both epicardial and microvascular CAD deserves further clinical validation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Preliminary semi-quantitative cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) perfusion studies have demonstrated reduced myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) in patients with angina and risk factors for microvascular disease (MVD), however fully quantitative CMR has not been studied. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether fully quantitative CMR identifies reduced MPR in this population, and to investigate the relationship between epicardial atherosclerosis, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), extracellular volume (ECV), and perfusion. METHODS:Forty-six patients with typical angina and risk factors for MVD (females, or males with diabetes or metabolic syndrome) who had no obstructive coronary artery disease by coronary angiography and 20 healthy control subjects underwent regadenoson stress CMR perfusion imaging using a dual-sequence quantitative spiral pulse sequence to quantify MPR. Subjects also underwent T1 mapping to quantify ECV, and computed tomographic (CT) coronary calcium scoring to assess atherosclerosis burden. RESULTS:In patients with risk factors for MVD, both MPR (2.21 [1.95,2.69] vs. 2.93 [2.763.19], p?<?0.001) and stress myocardial perfusion (2.65?±?0.62 ml/min/g, vs. 3.17?±?0.49 ml/min/g p?<?0.002) were reduced as compared to controls. These differences remained after adjusting for age, left ventricular (LV) mass, body mass index (BMI), and gender. There were no differences in native T1 or ECV between subjects and controls. CONCLUSIONS:Stress myocardial perfusion and MPR as measured by fully quantitative CMR perfusion imaging are reduced in subjects with risk factors for MVD with no obstructive CAD as compared to healthy controls. Neither myocardial hypertrophy nor fibrosis accounts for these differences.
Project description:Even in absence of obstructive coronary artery disease women with angina pectoris have a poor prognosis possibly due to coronary microvascular disease. Coronary microvascular disease can be assessed by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography measuring coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) and by positron emission tomography measuring myocardial blood flow reserve (MBFR). Diffuse myocardial fibrosis can be assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) T1 mapping. We hypothesized that coronary microvascular disease is associated with diffuse myocardial fibrosis.Women with angina, a clinically indicated coronary angiogram with <50 % stenosis and no diabetes were included. CFVR was measured using dipyridamole (0.84 mg/kg) and MBFR using adenosine (0.84 mg/kg). Focal fibrosis was assessed by 1.5 T CMR late gadolinium enhancement (0.1 mmol/kg) and diffuse myocardial fibrosis by T1 mapping using a modified Look-Locker pulse sequence measuring T1 and extracellular volume fraction (ECV).CFVR and CMR were performed in 64 women, mean (SD) age 62.5 (8.3) years. MBFR was performed in a subgroup of 54 (84 %) of these women. Mean native T1 was 1023 (86) and ECV (%) was 33.7 (3.5); none had focal fibrosis. Median (IQR) CFVR was 2.3 (1.9; 2.7), 23 (36 %) had CFVR < 2 indicating coronary microvascular disease, and median MBFR was 2.7 (2.2; 3.0) and 19 (35 %) had a MBFR value below 2.5. No significant correlations were found between CFVR and ECV or native T1 (R (2) = 0.02; p = 0.27 and R (2) = 0.004; p = 0.61, respectively). There were also no correlations between MBFR and ECV or native T1 (R (2) = 0.1; p = 0.13 and R (2) = 0.004, p = 0.64, respectively). CFVR and MBFR were correlated to hypertension and heart rate.In women with angina and no obstructive coronary artery disease we found no association between measures of coronary microvascular disease and myocardial fibrosis, suggesting that myocardial ischemia induced by coronary microvascular disease does not elicit myocardial fibrosis in this population. The examined parameters seem to provide independent information about myocardial and coronary disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to screen for silent myocardial ischaemia in asymptomatic high risk patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) has never been performed, and its effectiveness is unknown. Our aim was to determine the feasibility of a screening programme using stress CMR by obtaining preliminary data on the prevalence of silent ischaemia caused by obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) and quantify myocardial perfusion in asymptomatic high risk patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS:In this prospective cohort study, we recruited 63 asymptomatic DM patients (mean age 66 years?±?4.4 years; 77.8% male); with Framingham risk score???20% from 3 sites from June 2017 to August 2018. Normal volunteers were recruited to determine normal global myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI). Adenosine stress CMR and global MPRI was performed and measured in all subjects. Positive stress CMR cases were referred for catheter coronary angiography (CCA) with/without fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurements. Positive CCA was defined as an FFR???0.8 or coronary narrowing???70%. Patients were followed up for major adverse cardiovascular events. Prevalence is presented as patient numbers and percentage. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare global MPRI between patients and normal volunteers. RESULTS:13 patients had positive stress CMR with positive CCA (20.6% of patient population), while 9 patients with positive stress CMR examinations had a negative CCA. 5 patients (7.9%) had infarcts detected of which 2 patients had no stress perfusion defects. 12 patients had coronary artery stents inserted, whilst 1 patient declined stent placement. DM patients had lower global MPRI than normal volunteers (n?=?7) (1.43?±?0.27 vs 1.83?±?0.31 respectively; p?<?0.01). After a median follow-up of 653 days, there was no death, heart failure, acute coronary syndrome hospitalisation or stroke. CONCLUSION:20.6% of asymptomatic DM patients (with Framingham risk???20%) had silent obstructive CAD. Furthermore, asymptomatic patients have reduced global MPRI than normal volunteers. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov Registration Number: NCT03263728 on 28th August 2017; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03263728.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) myocardial perfusion imaging has been suggested as a non-invasive alternative to pressure wire guided fractional flow reserve (FFR) in detecting haemodynamically significant obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). The objective of this systematic review is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of CMR and to compare it to FFR. METHODS/DESIGN: A systematic review of diagnostic test accuracy of CMR and FFR will be conducted. Relevant English-language articles published before November 2013 in Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Google scholar, Scopus and Cochrane databases will be identified. Relevant referenced articles from those selected will also be analysed. Articles describing diagnostic studies that compared CMR to FFR in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease will be included. Two investigators will independently screen, assess quality and extract data from the selected articles. The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2) tool will be used to assess methodological quality. STATA 13 (the xtmelogit command) software will be used to calculate bivariate random effects models and estimate pooled sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals. Forests plots and summary receiver operating characteristics curves will also be generated. Sub-group pooled analyses using image quality of CMR (in terms of magnetic flux density - Tesla) and basis of analyses (coronary arterial territory vs. patients basis) at different FFR cutoffs (?0.75 and ?0.8) will also be performed. DISCUSSION: This systematic review will help to determine if CMR is an adequate alternative to FFR in the diagnosis of significant and obstructive CAD. We will also be able to assess diagnostic accuracy of specific types of CMR scan at different FFR cutoffs. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: This systematic review had been registered at PROSPERO and the registration number is CRD42013006180.
Project description:The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of T1 mapping at rest and during adenosine stress as a novel method for ischemia detection without the use of gadolinium contrast.In chronic coronary artery disease (CAD), accurate detection of ischemia is important because targeted revascularization improves clinical outcomes. Myocardial blood volume (MBV) may be a more comprehensive marker of ischemia than myocardial blood flow. T1 mapping using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is highly sensitive to changes in myocardial water content, including MBV. We propose that T1 mapping at rest and during adenosine vasodilatory stress can detect MBV changes in normal and diseased myocardium in CAD.Twenty normal controls (10 at 1.5-T; 10 at 3.0-T) and 10 CAD patients (1.5-T) underwent conventional CMR to assess for left ventricular function (cine), infarction (late gadolinium enhancement [LGE]) and ischemia (myocardial perfusion reserve index [MPRI] on first-pass perfusion imaging during adenosine stress). These were compared to novel pre-contrast stress/rest T1 mapping using the Shortened Modified Look-Locker Inversion recovery technique, which is heart rate independent. T1 values were derived for normal myocardium in controls and for infarcted, ischemic, and remote myocardium in CAD patients.Normal myocardium in controls (normal wall motion, MPRI, no LGE) showed normal resting T1 (954 ± 19 ms at 1.5-T; 1,189 ± 34 ms at 3.0-T) and significant positive T1 reactivity during adenosine stress compared to baseline (6.2 ± 0.5% at 1.5-T; 6.3 ± 1.1% at 3.0-T; all p < 0.0001). Infarcted myocardium showed the highest resting T1 of all tissue classes (1,442 ± 84 ms), without significant T1 reactivity (0.2 ± 1.5%). Ischemic myocardium showed elevated resting T1 compared to normal (987 ± 17 ms; p < 0.001) without significant T1 reactivity (0.2 ± 0.8%). Remote myocardium, although having comparable resting T1 to normal (955 ± 17 ms; p = 0.92), showed blunted T1 reactivity (3.9 ± 0.6%; p < 0.001).T1 mapping at rest and during adenosine stress can differentiate between normal, infarcted, ischemic, and remote myocardium with distinctive T1 profiles. Stress/rest T1 mapping holds promise for ischemia detection without the need for gadolinium contrast.
Project description:Dual-energy CT (DECT) has potential to improve myocardial perfusion for physiologic assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD). Diagnostic performance of rest-stress DECT perfusion (DECTP) is unknown.DECIDE-Gold is a prospective multicenter study to evaluate the accuracy of DECT to detect hemodynamic (HD) significant CAD, as compared to fractional flow reserve (FFR) as a reference standard.Eligible participants are subjects with symptoms of CAD referred for invasive coronary angiography (ICA). Participants will undergo DECTP, which will be performed by pharmacological stress, and participants will subsequently proceed to ICA and FFR. HD-significant CAD will be defined as FFR ? 0.80. In those undergoing myocardial stress imaging (MPI) by positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, ischemia will be graded by % ischemic myocardium. Blinded core laboratory interpretation will be performed for CCTA, DECTP, MPI, ICA, and FFR.Primary endpoint is accuracy of DECTP to detect ?1 HD-significant stenosis at the subject level when compared to FFR. Secondary and tertiary endpoints are accuracies of combinations of DECTP at the subject and vessel levels compared to FFR and MPI.DECIDE-Gold will determine the performance of DECTP for diagnosing ischemia.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) offers assessment of ventricular function, myocardial perfusion and viability in a single examination to detect coronary artery disease (CAD). We developed an in-scanner exercise stress CMR (ExCMR) protocol using supine cycle ergometer and aimed to examine the diagnostic value of a multiparametric approach in patients with suspected CAD, compared with invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) as the reference gold standard.<h4>Methods</h4>In this single-centre prospective study, patients who had symptoms of angina and at least one cardiovascular disease risk factor underwent both ExCMR and invasive angiography with FFR. Rest-based left ventricular function (ejection fraction, regional wall motion abnormalities), tissue characteristics and exercise stress-derived (perfusion defects, inducible regional wall motion abnormalities and peak exercise cardiac index percentile-rank) CMR parameters were evaluated in the study.<h4>Results</h4>In the 60 recruited patients with intermediate CAD risk, 50% had haemodynamically significant CAD based on FFR. Of all the CMR parameters assessed, the late gadolinium enhancement, stress-inducible regional wall motion abnormalities, perfusion defects and peak exercise cardiac index percentile-rank were independently associated with FFR-positive CAD. Indeed, this multiparametric approach offered the highest incremental diagnostic value compared to a clinical risk model (?<sup>2</sup> for the diagnosis of FFR-positive increased from 7.6 to 55.9; P?<?0.001) and excellent performance [c-statistic area under the curve 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94-1.00)] in discriminating between FFR-normal and FFR-positive patients.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The study demonstrates the clinical potential of using in-scanner multiparametric ExCMR to accurately diagnose CAD.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03217227, Registered 11 July 2017-Retrospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03217227?id=NCT03217227&draw=2&rank=1&load=cart.
Project description:Computed tomography (CT) can perform comprehensive cardiac imaging. We compared CT coronary angiography (CTCA) and CT myocardial perfusion (CTP) with 15O-water positron emission tomography (PET) and invasive coronary angiography (ICA) with fractional flow reserve (FFR).51 patients (63 (61-65) years, 80 % male) with known/suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent 320-multidetector CTCA followed by "snapshot" adenosine stress CTP. Of these 22 underwent PET and 47 ICA/FFR. Obstructive CAD was defined as CTCA stenosis >50 % and CTP hypoperfusion, ICA stenosis >70 % or FFR <0.80.PET hyperaemic myocardial blood flow (MBF) was lower in obstructive than non-obstructive territories defined by ICA/FFR (1.76 (1.32-2.20) vs 3.11 (2.44-3.79) mL/(g/min), P?<?0.001) and CTCA/CTP (1.76 (1.32-2.20) vs 3.12 (2.44-3.79) mL/(g/min), P?<?0.001). Baseline and hyperaemic CT attenuation density was lower in obstructive than non-obstructive territories (73 (71-76) vs 86 (84-88) HU, P?<?0.001 and 101 (96-106) vs 111 (107-114) HU, P?0.001). PET hyperaemic MBF corrected for rate pressure product correlated with CT attenuation density (r?=?0.579, P?<?0.001). There was excellent per-patient sensitivity (96 %), specificity (85 %), negative predictive value (90 %) and positive predictive value (94 %) for CTCA/CTP vs ICA/FFR.CT myocardial attenuation density correlates with 15O-water PET MBF. CTCA and CTP can accurately identify obstructive CAD.•CT myocardial perfusion can aid the assessment of suspected coronary artery disease. • CT attenuation density from "snapshot" imaging is a marker of myocardial perfusion. • CT myocardial attenuation density correlates with 15 O-water PET myocardial blood flow. • CT attenuation density is lower in obstructive territories defined by invasive angiography. • Diagnostic accuracy of CTCA+CTP is comparable to invasive angiography + fractional flow reserve.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In patients with angina undergoing invasive management, no obstructive coronary artery disease (NOCAD) is a common finding, and angina may persist following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Coronary microvascular dysfunction may be relevant. We aimed to assess the proportion of patients presenting with suspected CAD who had coronary microvascular dysfunction.<h4>Methods</h4>Clinical Evaluation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Coronary Heart Disease 2 (CE-MARC 2) was a prospective multicenter randomised controlled trial of functional imaging versus guideline-based management in patients with suspected CAD. Invasive coronary angiography was protocol-directed. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) and parameters of microvascular function (coronary flow reserve (CFR), index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR), resistance reserve ratio (RRR)) were measured in major epicardial coronary arteries with ?40-?90% diameter stenosis. An FFR value ?0.80 indicated the presence of obstructive CAD.<h4>Results</h4>267/1202 (22.2%) patients underwent angiography and 81 (30%) patients had FFR measured. 63 (78%) of these patients had microvascular function assessed in 85 arteries (mean age 58.5?±?8.2?years; 47 (75%) male). 25/63 (40%) patients had NOCAD, and of these, 17 (68%) had an abnormality ?1 parameter of microvascular function (abnormal IMR (?25), abnormal CFR (<2.0), and abnormal RRR (<2.0) occurred in 10 (40%), 12 (48%), and 11 (44%), respectively). 38/63 (60%) patients had obstructive epicardial CAD. Of these patients, 15/38 (39%), 20/38 (53%), and 12/38 (32%) had an abnormal IMR, CFR and RRR, respectively.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Coronary microvascular dysfunction is common in patients with angina. Invasive assessment of microvascular function may be informative and relevant for decision-making in patients with both NOCAD and obstructive epicardial CAD.<h4>Clinical trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01664858.