PD-1 (PDCD1) Promoter Methylation Is a Prognostic Factor in Patients With Diffuse Lower-Grade Gliomas Harboring Isocitrate Dehydrogenase (IDH) Mutations.
ABSTRACT: Immune checkpoints are important targets for immunotherapies. However, knowledge on the epigenetic modification of immune checkpoint genes is sparse. In the present study, we investigated promoter methylation of CTLA4, PD-L1, PD-L2, and PD-1 in diffuse lower-grade gliomas (LGG) harboring isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations with regard to mRNA expression levels, clinicopathological parameters, previously established methylation subtypes, immune cell infiltrates, and survival in a cohort of 419 patients with IDH-mutated LGG provided by The Cancer Genome Atlas. PD-L1, PD-L2, and CTLA-4 mRNA expression levels showed a significant inverse correlation with promoter methylation (PD-L1: p=0.005; PD-L2: p<0.001; CTLA-4: p<0.001). Furthermore, immune checkpoint methylation was significantly associated with age (PD-L2: p=0.003; PD-1: p=0.015), molecular alterations, i.e. MGMT methylation (PD-L1: p<0.001; PD-L2: p<0.001), ATRX mutations (PD-L2: p<0.001, PD-1: p=0.001), and TERT mutations (PD-L1: p=0.035, PD-L2: p<0.001, PD-1: p<0.001, CTLA4: p<0.001) as well as methylation subgroups and immune cell infiltrates. In multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis, PD-1 methylation qualified as strong prognostic factor (HR=0.51 [0.34-0.76], p=0.001). Our findings suggest an epigenetic regulation of immune checkpoint genes via DNA methylation in LGG. PD-1 methylation may assist the identification of patients that might benefit from an alternative treatment, particularly in the context of emerging immunotherapies.
Project description:Background:Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) are targets of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Methods:Forty-three World Health Organization (WHO) grade II/III gliomas (39 IDH-mutant [mut], 4 IDH-wildtype [wt]) and 14 IDH-mut glioblastomas (GBM) were analyzed for TIL (CD3+; PD1+) infiltration and PD-L1 expression. Results were compared with the data of a previously published series of 117 IDH-wt glioblastomas. PD-L1 gene expression levels were evaluated in 677 diffuse gliomas grades II-IV from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Results:TIL and PD-L1 expression were observed in approximately half of WHO grade II/III gliomas. IDH-wt status was associated with significantly higher TIL infiltration and PD-L1 expression among all (grades II-IV) cases (n = 174, P < 0.001) and within the cohort of glioblastomas (n = 131, P < 0.001). In low-grade glioma (LGG) and glioblastoma cohorts of TCGA, significantly higher PD-L1 gene expression levels were evident in IDH-wt compared with IDH-mut samples (LGG: N = 516; P = 1.933e-11, GBM: N = 161; P < 0.009). Lower PD-L1 gene expression was associated with increased promoter methylation (Spearman correlation coefficient -0.36; P < 0.01) in the LGG cohort of TCGA. IDH-mut gliomas had higher PD-L1 gene promoter methylation levels than IDH-wt gliomas (P < 0.01). Conclusions:The immunological tumor microenvironment of diffuse gliomas differs in association with IDH mutation status. IDH-wt gliomas display a more prominent TIL infiltration and higher PD-L1 expression than IDH-mut cases. Mechanistically this may be at least in part due to differential PD-L1 gene promoter methylation levels. Our findings may be relevant for immune modulatory treatment strategies in glioma patients.
Project description:DNA methylation of the immune checkpoint gene PD-L1 has recently been shown to be associated with PD-L1 mRNA expression in various malignancies. This study aimed to investigate the association of PD-L1 and PD-L2 methylation with mRNA expression, immune cell infitration, protein expression and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients.DNA methylation of PD-L1 and PD-L2 correlates inversely with mRNA expression (PD-L1: p ? 0.002; PD-L2: p ? 0.014). Methylation of specific CpG-sites of both PD-L1 and PD-L2 were further significantly associated with HPV infection in the TCGA cohort. Immune cell infiltrates correlated significantly with PD-L1 and PD-L2 methylation. In the validation cohort, PD-L1 protein expression was associated with PD-L1 hypomethylation (p = 0.012).DNA methylation of PD-L1 and PD-L2 is associated with transcriptional silencing and HPV infection in HNSCCs. Additional studies are warranted to test PD-L1 and PD-L2 methylation as predictive biomarkers for response to immunotherapies (e.g. pembrolizumab and nivolumab) that target the PD-L1/PD-L2/PD-1 immune checkpoint axis.PD-L1 and PD-L2 promoter methylation and its mRNA expression were analyzed based on Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip and RNA-Seq (both Illumina, Inc.) data in a representative HNSCC patient cohort (n = 528) enrolled by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network. A validation cohort consisting of 168 HNSCC patients treated at the University Hospital Bonn was analyzed regarding PD-L1 and PD-L2 promoter methylation by means of methylation-specific quantitative real-time PCR. PD-L1 protein expression in the validation cohort was quantified via immunohistochemistry (PD-L1 antibody clone 22C3, Dako/Agilent Technologies, Inc.).
Project description:Encouraging clinical results using immune checkpoint therapies to target the PD-1 axis in a variety of cancer types have paved the way for new immune therapy trials in brain tumor patients. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate expression of the PD-1 pathway ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, remain poorly understood. To address this, we explored the cell-intrinsic mechanisms of constitutive PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression in brain tumors. PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression was assessed by flow cytometry and qRT-PCR in brain tumor cell lines and patient tumor-derived brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs). Immunologic effects of PD-L2 overexpression were evaluated by IFN-? ELISPOT. CD274 and PDCD1LG2 cis-regulatory regions were cloned from genomic DNA and assessed in full or by mutating and/or deleting regulatory elements by luciferase assays. Correlations between clinical responses and PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression status were evaluated in TCGA datasets in LGG and GBM patients. We found that a subset of brain tumor cell lines and BTICs expressed high constitutive levels of PD-L1 and PD-L2 and that PD-L2 overexpression inhibited neoantigen specific T cell IFN-? production. Characterization of novel cis-regulatory regions in CD274 and PDCD1LG2 lead us to identify that GATA2 is sufficient to drive PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression and is necessary for PD-L2 expression. Importantly, in TCGA datasets, PD-L2 correlated with worse clinical outcomes in glioma patients.. By perturbing GATA2 biology, targeted therapies may be useful to decrease inhibitory effects of PD-L2 in the microenvironment.
Project description:Recent evidence has confirmed that a mutation of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene occurs early in gliomagenesis and contributes to suppressed immunity. The present study aimed to determine the candidate genes associated with IDH mutation status that could serve as biomarkers of immune suppression for improved prognosis prediction. Clinical information and RNA-seq gene expression data were collected for 932 glioma samples from the CGGA and TCGA databases, and differentially expressed genes in both lower-grade glioma (LGG) and glioblastoma (GBM) samples were identified according to IDH mutation status. Only one gene, interferon-stimulated exonuclease gene 20 (ISG20), with reduced expression in IDH mutant tumors, demonstrated significant prognostic value. ISG20 expression level significantly increased with increasing tumor grade, and its high expression was associated with a poor clinical outcome. Moreover, increased ISG20 expression was associated with increased infiltration of monocyte-derived macrophages and neutrophils, and suppressed adaptive immune response. ISG20 expression was also positively correlated with PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA4 expression, along with the levels of several chemokines. We conclude that ISG20 is a useful biomarker to identify IDH-mediated immune processes in glioma and may serve as a potential therapeutic target.
Project description:In recent years, immune checkpoint inhibitor has achieved remarkable success in multiple cancer treatment. However, how to pre-judge which patients are suitable for immune checkpoint inhibitor is a difficult problem. We use the existing public bioinformatics database to comprehensively analyze the relationship between clinical data of various cancers with immune checkpoint blocking molecules and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and try to find the potential predictive value of lncRNA for immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors. In this study, we found that: (a) high expression of lncRNA MIR155 host gene (MIR155HG) was closely related to better overall survival (OS) in cholangiocarcinoma (CHOL), lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), and skin cutaneous melanoma (SKCM), and have better disease-free survival (DFS) in CHOL. Meanwhile, the high level of MIR155HG was associated with poorer OS in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC), brain lower grade glioma (LGG), and uveal melanoma (UVM). (b) The expression of MIR155HG was significantly correlated with infiltrating levels of immune cells and immune molecules, especially with immune checkpoint molecules such as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1), and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) in most kinds of cancers. (c) Detection of clinical CHOL and liver hepatocellular carcinoma tissues confirmed that there was a strong positive correlation between MIR155HG expression and the levels of CTLA4 and PD-L1. MIR155 host gene can be used as a prognostic marker in multiple cancers, and of great value in predicting the curative effect of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy owing to it is closely related with immune cells infiltration and immune checkpoint molecules expression.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> PR domain zinc finger protein 1 (PRDM1) is a regulator of both B cell and T cell differentiation and plays a critical role in immunosuppression. Its role in tumor immunity and correlation with drug response remain unknown. <b>Methods:</b> This work comprehensively analyzed the transcriptional expression pattern of the PRDM1 among 33 types of malignancies from The Cancer Genome Atlas and the Genotype-Tissue Expression projects. Besides, correlation of the PRDM1 with cancer prognosis, immune infiltrates, checkpoint markers, cancer stemness and drug response were explored. <b>Results:</b> High expression level of PRDM1 were observed in ACC, COAD, LAML, LGG, LUAD, OV, PAAD, STAD, TGCT. Cox regression model showed high expression of PRDM1 in tumor samples correlates with poor prognosis in LGG, PAAD, UVM while favorable prognosis in KIRC, SKCM and THCA. PRDM1 expression positively correlates with the expression of LAG3, CTLA4, PDCD1 (PD-1), CD274 (PD-L1), PDCD1LG2 (PD-L2), TIGIT in the majority of 33 cancer types. PRDM1 positively correlated with TNFRSF14 in LGG and UVM among cancers with unfavorable prognosis; this correlation were weak or even negative in cancers with favorable prognosis. The top negatively enriched KEGG terms in high PRDM1 subgroup were B cell receptor signaling, T cell receptor signaling, and the top negatively enriched HALLMARK terms included IL-2-STAT5 signaling and allograft rejection. The expression of PRDM1 was found positively correlated with cancer stemness in CHOL, KIRP, TGCT, THYM and UVM. A series of targeted drugs and small-molecule drugs with promising efficacy predicted by PRDM1 level were identified. <b>Conclusion:</b> The clinical significance and biological impact of high transcriptional expression of PRDM1 differs across different cancers. Inhibiting the PRDM1-dependent signaling could be a novel and promising strategy of immunotherapy in cancers including LGG, PAAD and UVM.
Project description:Viruses often subvert antiviral immune responses by taking advantage of inhibitory immune signaling. We investigated if hantaviruses use this strategy. Hantaviruses cause viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) which is associated with strong immune activation resulting in vigorous CD8+ T cell responses. Surprisingly, we observed that hantaviruses strongly upregulate PD-L1 and PD-L2, the ligands of checkpoint inhibitor programmed death-1 (PD-1). We detected high amounts of soluble PD-L1 (sPD-L1) and soluble PD-L2 (sPD-L2) in sera from hantavirus-infected patients. In addition, we observed hantavirus-induced PD-L1 upregulation in mice with a humanized immune system. The two major target cells of hantaviruses, endothelial cells and monocyte-derived dendritic cells, strongly increased PD-L1 and PD-L2 surface expression upon hantavirus infection in vitro. As an underlying mechanism, we found increased transcript levels whereas membrane trafficking of PD-L1 was not affected. Further analysis revealed that hantavirus-associated inflammatory signals and hantaviral nucleocapsid (N) protein enhance PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression. Cell numbers were strongly reduced when hantavirus-infected endothelial cells were mixed with T cells in the presence of an exogenous proliferation signal compared to uninfected cells. This is compatible with the concept that virus-induced PD-L1 and PD-L2 upregulation contributes to viral immune escape. Intriguingly, however, we observed hantavirus-induced CD8+ T cell bystander activation despite strongly upregulated PD-L1 and PD-L2. This result indicates that hantavirus-induced CD8+ T cell bystander activation bypasses checkpoint inhibition allowing an early antiviral immune response upon virus infection.
Project description:Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a malignant tumor with aggressive biological behavior. Immune checkpoints such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) and antiprogrammed death 1 (PD-1) are critical immune-checkpoint molecules that repress T-cell activation. The DNA <i>vaccine potential</i> against CTLA4 and PD-1 in CCA is unknown. We used a thioacetamide (TAA)-induced intrahepatic <i>cholangiocarcinoma</i> (iCCA) rat model to investigate the DNA vaccine potential against CTLA4, PD-1, and PD-L1. We detected PD-L1 expression in CCA and CD8<sup>+</sup> T-cell infiltration during CCA progression in rats. We validated antibody production, carcinogenesis, and CD8<sup>+</sup> T-cell infiltration in rats receiving DNA vaccination against PD-1, PD-L1, or CTLA4. In our TAA-induced iCCA rat model, the expression of PD-L1 and the infiltration of CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells increased as in rat CCA tumorigenesis. PD-1 antibodies in rats were not increased after receiving PD-1 DNA vaccination, and CCA tumor growth was not suppressed. However, in rats receiving PD-L1-CTLA4 DNA vaccination, CCA tumor growth was inhibited, and the antibodies of PD-L1 and CTLA4 were produced. Furthermore, the number of CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells was enhanced after PD-L1-CTLA4 DNA vaccination. DNA vaccination targeting CTLA4-PD-L1 triggered the production of specific antibodies and suppressed tumor growth in TAA-induced iCCA rats.
Project description:Immune checkpoint molecules, such as PD-1/PD-L1, are reported to be closely associated with suppression of antitumor immunity, and their inhibitors have been used to treat various cancers including bladder cancer. However, there have been only a few studies investigating the effects of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) administration on expression of the immune checkpoint molecules in bladder cancer. The current study examined the expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 before and after BCG in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients. Tissue microarrays of 22 BCG-resistant NMIBC patients were stained by immunohistochemistry with antibodies against PD-L1, PD-L2, and CD8, and were compared between before and after BCG. The expression levels of PD-L1, but not of PD-L2, were significantly increased after BCG treatment on tumor cells (p < 0.001) and tumor-infiltrating inflammatory cells (p = 0.030) within tumor tissues, as well as on inflammatory cells within non-tumor normal tissues (p = 0.003). Although CD8+ T cells were significantly increased within tumor tissues (p = 0.005) and non-tumor normal tissues (p = 0.007) after BCG treatment, they might be not effective for anti-tumor immunity. This study demonstrated for the first time that expression of PD-L1, which might contribute to the immune escape mechanism, was enhanced on tumor tissue after BCG treatment in BCG-resistant NMIBC patients. Our finding thus propose that immunotherapy with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies could be feasible as combination treatment with BCG or as secondary treatment at relapse after BCG in NMIBC patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and ligand-2 (PD-L2) interaction with programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) represent an immune-inhibiting checkpoint mediating immune evasion and is, accordingly, an important target for blockade-based immunotherapy in cancer. In non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), improved understanding of PD-1 checkpoint blockade-responsive biology and identification of biomarkers for prediction of a clinical response to immunotherapy is warranted. Thus, in the present study, we systematically described PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression correlated genes in NSCLC. METHODS:We performed comparative retrospective analyses to identify PD-L1 and PD-L2 mRNA expression correlated genes in NSCLC. For this, we examined available datasets from the cancer cell line encyclopedia (CCLE) project lung non-small-cell (Lung_NSC) and the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) projects lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). RESULTS:Analysis of the CCLE dataset Lung_NSC identified expression correlation between PD-L1 and PD-L2. Moreover, we identified expression correlation between 489 genes and PD-L1, 191 genes and PD-L2, and 111 genes for both. PD-L1 and PD-L2 also expression correlated in TCGA datasets LUAD and LUSC. In LUAD, we identified expression correlation between 257 genes and PD-L1, 914 genes and PD-L2, and 211 genes for both. In LUSC, we identified expression correlation between 26 genes and PD-L1, 326 genes and PD-L2, and 13 genes for both. Only a few genes expression correlated with PD-L1 and PD-L2 across the CCLE and TCGA datasets. Expression of Interferon signaling-involved genes converged in particular with the expression correlated genes for PD-L1 in Lung_NSC, for PD-L2 in LUSC, and for both PD-L1 and PD-L2 in LUAD. In LUSC, PD-L1, and to a lesser extent PD-L2, expression correlated with chromosome 9p24 localized genes, indicating a chromosome 9p24 topologically associated domain as an important driver of in particular LUSC PD-L1 expression. Expression correlation analyses of the PD-L1 and PD-L2 receptors programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), Cluster of differentiation 80 (CD80), and Repulsive guidance molecule B (RGMB) showed that PD-1 and CD80 expression correlated with both PD-L1 and PD-L2 in LUAD. CD80 expression correlated with PD-L2 in LUSC. CONCLUSIONS:We present gene signatures associated with PD-L1 and PD-L2 mRNA expression in NSCLC which could possess importance in relation to understand PD-1 checkpoint blockade-responsive biology and development of gene signature based biomarkers for predicting clinical responses to immunotherapy.