Sarcoma-Targeting Peptide-Decorated Polypeptide Nanogel Intracellularly Delivers Shikonin for Upregulated Osteosarcoma Necroptosis and Diminished Pulmonary Metastasis.
ABSTRACT: Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone cancer and is notorious for pulmonary metastasis, representing a major threat to pediatric patients. An effective drug targeting osteosarcoma and its lung metastasis is urgently needed.In this study, a sarcoma-targeting peptide-decorated disulfide-crosslinked polypeptide nanogel (STP-NG) was exploited for enhanced intracellular delivery of shikonin (SHK), an extract of a medicinal herb, to inhibit osteosarcoma progression with minimal systemic toxicity.The targeted, loaded nanogel, STP-NG/SHK, killed osteosarcoma cells by inducing RIP1- and RIP3-dependent necroptosis in vitro. Necroptosis is a novel cell death form that could be well adapted as an efficient antitumor strategy, the main obstacle of which is its high toxicity. After intravenous injection, STP-NG/SHK efficiently suppressed tumor growth and reduced pulmonary metastasis, offering greater tumor necrosis and higher RIP1 and RIP3 upregulation compared to free SHK or untargeted NG/SHK in vivo. Additionally, the treatment with NG/SHK or STP-NG/SHK showed minimal toxicity to normal organs, suggesting low systemic toxicity compared to free SHK.The STP-guided intracellular drug delivery system using the necroptosis mechanism showed profound anti-osteosarcoma activity, especially eliminated lung metastasis in vivo. This drug formulation may have great potential for treatment of osteosarcoma.
Project description:Necroptosis is mediated by a signaling complex called necrosome, containing receptor-interacting protein (RIP)1, RIP3, and mixed-lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL). It is known that RIP1 and RIP3 form heterodimeric filamentous scaffold in necrosomes through their RIP homotypic interaction motif (RHIM) domain-mediated oligomerization, but the signaling events based on this scaffold has not been fully addressed. By using inducible dimer systems we found that RIP1-RIP1 interaction is dispensable for necroptosis; RIP1-RIP3 interaction is required for necroptosis signaling, but there is no necroptosis if no additional RIP3 protein is recruited to the RIP1-RIP3 heterodimer, and the interaction with RIP1 promotes the RIP3 to recruit other RIP3; RIP3-RIP3 interaction is required for necroptosis and RIP3-RIP3 dimerization is sufficient to induce necroptosis; and RIP3 dimer-induced necroptosis requires MLKL. We further show that RIP3 oligomer is not more potent than RIP3 dimer in triggering necroptosis, suggesting that RIP3 homo-interaction in the complex, rather than whether RIP3 has formed homo polymer, is important for necroptosis. RIP3 dimerization leads to RIP3 intramolecule autophosphorylation, which is required for the recruitment of MLKL. Interestingly, phosphorylation of one of RIP3 in the dimer is sufficient to induce necroptosis. As RIP1-RIP3 heterodimer itself cannot induce necroptosis, the RIP1-RIP3 heterodimeric amyloid fibril is unlikely to directly propagate necroptosis. We propose that the signaling events after the RIP1-RIP3 amyloid complex assembly are the recruitment of free RIP3 by the RIP3 in the amyloid scaffold followed by autophosphorylation of RIP3 and subsequent recruitment of MLKL by RIP3 to execute necroptosis.
Project description:Necroptosis is a recently described Caspase 8-independent method of cell death that denotes organized cellular necrosis. The roles of RIP1 and RIP3 in mediating hepatocyte death from acute liver injury are incompletely defined. Effects of necroptosis blockade were studied by separately targeting RIP1 and RIP3 in diverse murine models of acute liver injury. Blockade of necroptosis had disparate effects on disease outcome depending on the precise etiology of liver injury and component of the necrosome targeted. In ConA-induced autoimmune hepatitis, RIP3 deletion was protective, whereas RIP1 inhibition exacerbated disease, accelerated animal death, and was associated with increased hepatocyte apoptosis. Conversely, in acetaminophen-mediated liver injury, blockade of either RIP1 or RIP3 was protective and was associated with lower NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Our work highlights the fact that diverse modes of acute liver injury have differing requirements for RIP1 and RIP3; moreover, within a single injury model, RIP1 and RIP3 blockade can have diametrically opposite effects on tissue damage, suggesting that interference with distinct components of the necrosome must be considered separately.
Project description:Necroptosis is a type of programmed cell death with great significance in many pathological processes. Tumour necrosis factor-?(TNF), a proinflammatory cytokine, is a prototypic trigger of necroptosis. It is known that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote necroptosis, and that kinase activity of receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1) is required for TNF-induced necroptosis. However, how ROS function and what RIP1 phosphorylates to promote necroptosis are largely unknown. Here we show that three crucial cysteines in RIP1 are required for sensing ROS, and ROS subsequently activates RIP1 autophosphorylation on serine residue 161 (S161). The major function of RIP1 kinase activity in TNF-induced necroptosis is to autophosphorylate S161. This specific phosphorylation then enables RIP1 to recruit RIP3 and form a functional necrosome, a central controller of necroptosis. Since ROS induction is known to require necrosomal RIP3, ROS therefore function in a positive feedback circuit that ensures effective induction of necroptosis.
Project description:Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-induced RIP1/RIP3 (receptor-interacting protein kinase 1/receptor-interacting protein kinase 3)-mediated necroptosis has been proposed as an alternative strategy for treating apoptosis-resistant leukemia. However, we found that most acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, especially M4 and M5 subtypes, produce TNF and show basal level activation of RIP1/RIP3/MLKL signaling, yet do not undergo necroptosis. TNF, through RIP1/RIP3 signaling, prevents degradation of SOCS1, a key negative regulator of interferon-? (IFN-?) signaling. Using both pharmacologic and genetic assays, we show here that inactivation of RIP1/RIP3 resulted in reduction of SOCS1 protein levels and partial differentiation of AML cells. AML cells with inactivated RIP1/RIP3 signaling show increased sensitivity to IFN-?-induced differentiation. RIP1/RIP3 inactivation combined with IFN-? treatment significantly attenuated the clonogenic capacity of both primary AML cells and AML cell lines. This combination treatment also compromised the leukemogenic ability of murine AML cells in vivo. Our studies suggest that inhibition of RIP1/RIP3-mediated necroptotic signaling might be a novel strategy for the treatment of AML when combined with other differentiation inducers.
Project description:Necroptosis is crucially involved in severe cardiac pathological conditions. However, whether necroptosis contributes to age-related intolerance to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains elusive. In addition, metformin as a potential anti-aging related injury drug, how it interacts with myocardial necroptosis is not yet clear. Male C57BL/6 mice at 3-4- (young) and 22-24 months of age (aged) and RIPK3-deficient (Ripk3-/- ) mice were used to investigate aging-related I/R injury in vivo. Metformin (125 ?g/kg, i.p.), necrostatin-1 (3.5 mg/kg), and adenovirus vector encoding p62-shRNAs (Ad-sh-p62) were used to treat aging mice. I/R-induced myocardial necroptosis was exaggerated in aged mice, which correlated with autophagy defects characterized by p62 accumulation in aged hearts or aged human myocardium. Functionally, blocking autophagic flux promoted H/R-evoked cardiomyocyte necroptosis in vitro. We further revealed that p62 forms a complex with RIP1-RIP3 (necrosome) and promotes the binding of RIP1 and RIP3. In mice, necrostatin-1 treatment (a RIP1 inhibitor), RIP3 deficiency, and cardiac p62 knockdown in vivo demonstrated that p62-RIP1-RIP3-dependent myocardial necroptosis contributes to aging-related myocardial vulnerability to I/R injury. Notably, metformin treatment disrupted p62-RIP1-RIP3 complexes and effectively repressed I/R-induced necroptosis in aged hearts, ultimately reducing mortality in this model. These findings highlight previously unknown mechanisms of aging-related myocardial ischemic vulnerability: p62-necrosome-dependent necroptosis. Metformin acts as a cardioprotective agent that inhibits this unfavorable chain mechanism of aging-related I/R susceptibility.
Project description:The receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3) associates with RIP1 in a necrosome complex that can induce necroptosis, apoptosis, or cell proliferation. We analyzed the expression of RIP1 and RIP3 in CD34+ leukemia cells from a cohort of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and CD34+ cells from healthy donors. RIP3 expression was significantly reduced in most AML samples, whereas the expression of RIP1 did not differ significantly. When re-expressed in the mouse DA1-3b leukemia cell line, RIP3 induced apoptosis and necroptosis in the presence of caspase inhibitors. Transfection of RIP3 in the WEHI-3b leukemia cell line or in the mouse embryonic fibroblasts also resulted in increased cell death. Surprisingly, re-expression of a RIP3 mutant with an inactive kinase domain (RIP3-kinase dead (RIP3-KD)) induced significantly more and earlier apoptosis than wild-type RIP3 (RIP3-WT), indicating that the RIP3 kinase domain is an essential regulator of apoptosis/necroptosis in leukemia cells. The induced in vivo expression of RIP3-KD but not RIP3-WT prolonged the survival of mice injected with leukemia cells. The expression of RIP3-KD induced p65/RelA nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) subunit caspase-dependent cleavage, and a non-cleavable p65/RelA D361E mutant rescued these cells from apoptosis. p65/RelA cleavage appears to be at least partially mediated by caspase-6. These data indicate that RIP3 silencing in leukemia cells results in suppression of the complex regulation of the apoptosis/necroptosis switch and NF-?B activity.
Project description:Necroptosis is a programmed necrosis, regulated by receptor interacting protein kinase 1(RIP1) and receptor interacting protein kinase 3(RIP3), and could be inhibited by necrostatin-1(Nec-1) specifically. This study aims to evaluate the effect of Nec-1 on LPS-treated periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). In the research, three groups were established: normal cultured PDLSCs, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg)-LPS stimulated PDLSCs and Pg-LPS+Nec-1 treated PDLSCs. The expression of RIP1 and RIP3 and osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs in three groups were analyzed. Then, we constructed cell aggregates (CA) using PDLSCs, then PDLSCs-CA were combined with Bio-Oss in three groups were transplanted subcutaneously in nude mice to assess their potentials of periodontal tissue regeneration. The results showed that RIP1 and RIP3 were fully expressed in Pg-LPS stimulated PDLSCs and the level increased significantly. Nec-1 inhibited RIP1-RIP3 interaction, and further inhibited necroptosis of PDLSCs in inflammatory state. Moreover, Nec-1 pretreatment ameliorates the osteogenic differentiation of LPS-treated PDLSCs and can effectively promote the cementum like structure ectopic regenerative ability of PDLSCs in nude mice. These findings show RIP1/RIP3-mediated necroptosis is an important mechanism of cell death in PDLSCs. Nec-1 has a protective effect in reducing cell death and promotes ectopic periodontal tissue like structure regeneration by inhibiting necroptosis. Nec-1 is a hopeful therapeutic agent which protects cells from necroptosis and ameliorates functional outcome.
Project description:Necroptosis is a type of programmed necrosis regulated by receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1) and RIP3. Necroptosis is found to be accompanied by an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the role of ROS in regulation of necroptosis remains elusive. In this study, we investigated how shikonin, a necroptosis inducer for cancer cells, regulated the signaling leading to necroptosis in glinoma cells in vitro. Treatment with shikonin (2-10 ?mol/L) dose-dependently triggered necrosis and induced overproduction of intracellular ROS in rat C6 and human SHG-44, U87 and U251 glioma cell lines. Moreover, shikonin treatment dose-dependently upregulated the levels of RIP1 and RIP3 and reinforced their interaction in the glioma cells. Pretreatment with the specific RIP1 inhibitor Nec-1 (100 ?mol/L) or the specific RIP3 inhibitor GSK-872 (5 ?mol/L) not only prevented shikonin-induced glioma cell necrosis but also significantly mitigated the levels of intracellular ROS and mitochondrial superoxide. Mitigation of ROS with MnTBAP (40 ?mol/L), which was a cleaner of mitochondrial superoxide, attenuated shikonin-induced glioma cell necrosis, whereas increasing ROS levels with rotenone, which improved the mitochondrial generation of superoxide, significantly augmented shikonin-caused glioma cell necrosis. Furthermore, pretreatment with MnTBAP prevented the shikonin-induced upregulation of RIP1 and RIP3 expression and their interaction while pretreatment with rotenone reinforced these effects. These findings suggest that ROS is not only an executioner of shikonin-induced glioma cell necrosis but also a regulator of RIP1 and RIP3 expression and necrosome assembly.
Project description:Necroptosis is a form of necrotic cell death that requires the activity of the death domain-containing kinase RIP1 and its family member RIP3. Necroptosis occurs when RIP1 is deubiquitinated to form a complex with RIP3 in cells deficient in the death receptor adapter molecule FADD or caspase-8. Necroptosis may play a role in host defense during viral infection as viruses like vaccinia can induce necroptosis while murine cytomegalovirus encodes a viral inhibitor of necroptosis. To see how general the interplay between viruses and necroptosis is, we surveyed seven different viruses. We found that two of the viruses tested, Sendai virus (SeV) and murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV68), are capable of inducing dramatic necroptosis in the fibrosarcoma L929 cell line. We show that MHV68-induced cell death occurs through the cytosolic STING sensor pathway in a TNF-dependent manner. In contrast, SeV-induced death is mostly independent of TNF. Knockdown of the RNA sensing molecule RIG-I or the RIP1 deubiquitin protein, CYLD, but not STING, rescued cells from SeV-induced necroptosis. Accompanying necroptosis, we also find that wild type but not mutant SeV lacking the viral proteins Y1 and Y2 result in the non-ubiquitinated form of RIP1. Expression of Y1 or Y2 alone can suppress RIP1 ubiquitination but CYLD is dispensable for this process. Instead, we found that Y1 and Y2 can inhibit cIAP1-mediated RIP1 ubiquitination. Interestingly, we also found that SeV infection of B6 RIP3-/- mice results in increased inflammation in the lung and elevated SeV-specific T cells. Collectively, these data identify viruses and pathways that can trigger necroptosis and highlight the dynamic interplay between pathogen-recognition receptors and cell death induction.
Project description:Necroptosis is a form of regulated necrotic cell death that is mediated by receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) and RIP3 kinases. Diverse receptors, including death receptors, Toll-like receptors, interferon receptors, and DAI DNA receptors are able to trigger necroptosis. The newly identified MLKL protein functions downstream of RIP1/RIP3 and is essential for the execution of necroptosis. Studies also indicate involvement of reactive oxygen species and calcium and sodium ions. Identification of the key mediators of necroptosis is critical for understanding the molecular mechanisms of the necroptotic process.