Cand1-Mediated Adaptive Exchange Mechanism Enables Variation in F-Box Protein Expression.
ABSTRACT: Skp1?Cul1?F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase assembly is regulated by the interplay of substrate binding, reversible Nedd8 conjugation on Cul1, and the F-box protein (FBP) exchange factors Cand1 and Cand2. Detailed investigations into SCF assembly and function in reconstituted systems and Cand1/2 knockout cells informed the development of a mathematical model for how dynamical assembly of SCF complexes is controlled and how this cycle is coupled to degradation of an SCF substrate. Simulations predicted an unanticipated hypersensitivity of Cand1/2-deficient cells to FBP expression levels, which was experimentally validated. Together, these and prior observations lead us to propose the adaptive exchange hypothesis, which posits that regulation of the koff of an FBP from SCF by the actions of substrate, Nedd8, and Cand1 molds the cellular repertoire of SCF complexes and that the plasticity afforded by this exchange mechanism may enable large variations in FBP expression during development and in FBP gene number during evolution.
Project description:The modular SCF (Skp1, cullin, and F box) ubiquitin ligases feature a large family of F box protein substrate receptors that enable recognition of diverse targets. However, how the repertoire of SCF complexes is sustained remains unclear. Real-time measurements of formation and disassembly indicate that SCF(Fbxw7) is extraordinarily stable, but, in the Nedd8-deconjugated state, the cullin-binding protein Cand1 augments its dissociation by one-million-fold. Binding and ubiquitylation assays show that Cand1 is a protein exchange factor that accelerates the rate at which Cul1-Rbx1 equilibrates with multiple F box protein-Skp1 modules. Depletion of Cand1 from cells impedes recruitment of new F box proteins to pre-existing Cul1 and profoundly alters the cellular landscape of SCF complexes. We suggest that catalyzed protein exchange may be a general feature of dynamic macromolecular machines and propose a hypothesis for how substrates, Nedd8, and Cand1 collaborate to regulate the cellular repertoire of SCF complexes.
Project description:SKP1-Cullin1-F-box protein (SCF) ubiquitin-ligases regulate numerous aspects of eukaryotic growth and development. Cullin-Associated and Neddylation-Dissociated (CAND1) modulates SCF function through its interactions with the CUL1 subunit. Although biochemical studies with human CAND1 suggested that CAND1 plays a negative regulatory role by sequestering CUL1 and preventing SCF complex assembly, genetic studies in Arabidopsis have shown that cand1 mutants exhibit reduced SCF activity, demonstrating that CAND1 is required for optimal SCF function in vivo. Together, these genetic and biochemical studies have suggested a model of CAND1-mediated cycles of SCF complex assembly and disassembly. Here, using the SCF(TIR1) complex of the Arabidopsis auxin response pathway, we test the SCF cycling model with Arabidopsis mutant derivatives of CAND1 and CUL1 that have opposing effects on the CAND1-CUL1 interaction. We find that the disruption of the CAND1-CUL1 interaction results in an increased abundance of assembled SCF(TIR1) complex. In contrast, stabilization of the CAND1-CUL1 interaction diminishes SCF(TIR1) complex abundance. The fact that both decreased and increased CAND1-CUL1 interactions result in reduced SCF(TIR1) activity in vivo strongly supports the hypothesis that CAND1-mediated cycling is required for optimal SCF function.
Project description:SCF (Skp1-Cullin-F-box) ubiquitin ligases comprise several dozen modular enzymes that have diverse roles in biological regulation. SCF enzymes share a common catalytic core containing Cul1?Rbx1, which is directed toward different substrates by a variable substrate receptor (SR) module comprising 1 of 69 F-box proteins bound to Skp1. Despite the broad cellular impact of SCF enzymes, important questions remain about the architecture and regulation of the SCF repertoire, including whether SRs compete for Cul1 and, if so, how this competition is managed. Here, we devise methods that preserve the in vivo assemblages of SCF complexes and apply quantitative mass spectrometry to perform a census of these complexes (the "SCFome") in various states. We show that Nedd8 conjugation and the SR exchange factor Cand1 have a profound effect on shaping the SCFome. Together, these factors enable rapid remodeling of SCF complexes to promote biased assembly of SR modules bound to substrate.
Project description:SCF (Skp1-cullin/Cdc53-F-box protein) ubiquitin ligases bind substrates via the variable F-box protein and, in conjunction with the RING domain protein Rbx1 and the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc3/Cdc34, catalyze substrate ubiquitination. The cullin subunit can be modified covalently by conjugation of the ubiquitin-like protein Rub1/NEDD8 (neddylation) or bound noncovalently by the protein CAND1 (cullin-associated, neddylation-dissociated). Expression of the Candida albicans CAND1 gene homolog CaTIP120 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is toxic only in the presence of CaCdc53, consistent with a specific interaction between CaTip120 and CaCdc53. To genetically analyze this system in C. albicans, we deleted the homologs of RUB1/NEDD8, TIP120/CAND1, and the deneddylase gene JAB1, and we also generated a temperature-sensitive allele of the essential CaCDC53 gene by knock-in site-directed mutagenesis. Deletion of CaRUB1 and CaTIP120 caused morphological, growth, and protein degradation phenotypes consistent with a reduction in SCF ubiquitin ligase activity. Furthermore, the double Carub1(-/-) Catip120(-/-) mutant was more defective in SCF activity than either individual deletion mutant. These results indicate that CAND1 stimulates SCF ubiquitin ligase activity and that it does so independently of neddylation. Our data do not support a role for CAND1 in the protection of either the F-box protein or cullin from degradation but are consistent with the suggested role of CAND1 in SCF complex remodeling.
Project description:The combinatorial architecture of cullin 1-RING ubiquitin ligases, in which multiple F-box containing substrate receptors compete for access to CUL1, poses special challenges to assembling cullin 1-RING ubiquitin ligase complexes through high affinity protein interactions while maintaining the flexibility to dynamically sample the entire F-box containing substrate receptor repertoire. Here, using highly quantitative mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that this problem is addressed by CAND1, a factor that controls the dynamics of the global cullin 1-RING ubiquitin ligase network by promoting the assembly of newly synthesized F-box containing substrate receptors with CUL1-RBX1 core complexes. Our studies of in vivo cullin 1-RING ubiquitin ligase dynamics and in vitro biochemical findings showing that CAND1 can displace F-box containing substrate receptors from Cul1p suggest that CAND1 functions in a cycle that serves to exchange F-box containing substrate receptors on CUL1 cores. We propose that this cycle assures comprehensive sampling of the entire F-box containing substrate receptor repertoire in order to maintain the cullin 1-RING ubiquitin ligase landscape, a function that we show to be critical for substrate degradation and normal physiology.
Project description:The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is thought to maintain the stability of cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRL) by limiting the autocatalytic destruction of substrate adapters such as F box proteins (FBPs). CAND1, a protein associated with unneddylated CUL1, was proposed to assist in this role in an as yet unclear fashion. We found that only a subset of Schizosaccharomyces pombe FBPs, which feature a critical F box proline that promotes their interaction with CUL1, required CSN for stability. Unlike the CRL3 adaptor Btb3p, none of the CSN-sensitive FBPs were affected by deletion of ubp12. Contrary to current models, CAND1 does not control adaptor stability but maintains the cellular balance of CRL1 complexes by preventing rare FBPs from being outcompeted for binding to CUL1 by more ample adapters. These findings were integrated into a refined model of CRL control in which substrate availability toggles CRLs between independent CSN and CAND1 cycles.
Project description:Covalent modification of cullins by the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 (neddylation) regulates protein ubiquitination by promoting the assembly of cullin-RING ligase E3 complexes. Like ubiquitination, neddylation results from an enzymatic cascade involving the sequential activity of a dedicated E1 (APPBP1/Uba3), E2 (Ubc12), and an ill-defined E3. We show that SCCRO (also known as DCUN1D1) binds to the components of the neddylation pathway (Cullin-ROC1, Ubc12, and CAND1) and augments but is not required for cullin neddylation in reactions using purified recombinant proteins. We also show that SCCRO recruits Ubc12 approximately NEDD8 to the CAND1-Cul1-ROC1 complex but that this is not sufficient to dissociate or overcome the inhibitory effects of CAND1 on cullin neddylation in purified protein assays. In contrast to findings in cellular systems where no binding is seen, we show that SCCRO and CAND1 can bind to the neddylated Cul1-ROC1 complex in assays using purified recombinant proteins. Although neddylated (not unneddylated) Cul1-ROC1 is released from CAND1 upon incubation with testis lysate from SCCRO+/+ mice, the addition of recombinant SCCRO is required to achieve the same results in lysate from SCCRO(-/-) mice. Combined, these results suggest that SCCRO is an important component of the neddylation E3 complex that functions to recruit charged E2 and is involved in the release of inhibitory effects of CAND1 on cullin-RING ligase E3 complex assembly and activity.
Project description:Cand1 (Cullin-associated and neddylation-dissociated protein 1) has long been known as a regulator of SCF ubiquitin ligases, but details remained puzzling due to conflicting results from in vitro and in vivo experiments. Three recent reports, one in Cell and two in Nature Communications, propose Cand1 as a protein exchange factor with interesting mechanism that reconciles Cand1 genetics and biochemistry.
Project description:Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) tubules connect each other by three-way junctions, resulting in a tubular ER network. Oligomerization of three-way junction protein lunapark (Lnp) is important for its localization and the three-way junction stability. On the other hand, Lnp has an N-terminal ubiquitin ligase activity domain, which is also important for the three-way junction localization. To understand the mode of action of Lnp, we isolated Cullin-associated and neddylation-dissociated 1 (CAND1), a regulator of Skp1-Cul1-F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase, as a Lnp-binding protein by affinity chromatography. CAND1 and Lnp form a higher-molecular-weight complex in vitro, while they do not co-localize at the three-way junctions. CAND1 reduces the auto-ubiquitination activity of Lnp. CAND1 knockdown enhances proteasomal degradation of Lnp and reduces the tubular ER network in mammalian cells. These results suggest that CAND1 has the potency to promote the formation of the higher-molecular-weight complex with Lnp and reduce the auto-ubiquitination activity of Lnp, thereby regulating the three-way junction stability of the tubular ER network.
Project description:COP9 signalosome (CSN) mediates deconjugation of the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8 from the cullin subunits of SCF and other cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRLs). This process is essential to maintain the proper activity of CRLs in cells. Here, we report a detailed kinetic characterization of CSN-mediated deconjugation of Nedd8 from SCF. CSN is an efficient enzyme, with a k(cat) of ~1 s(-1) and K(m) for neddylated Cul1-Rbx1 of ~200 nm, yielding a k(cat)/K(m) near the anticipated diffusion-controlled limit. Assembly with an F-box-Skp1 complex markedly inhibited deneddylation, although the magnitude varied considerably, with Fbw7-Skp1 inhibiting by ~5-fold but Skp2-Cks1-Skp1 by only ~15%. Deneddylation of both SCF(Fbw7) and SCF(Skp2-Cks1) was further inhibited ~2.5-fold by the addition of substrate. Combined, the inhibition by Fbw7-Skp1 plus its substrate cyclin E was greater than 10-fold. Unexpectedly, our results also uncover significant product inhibition by deconjugated Cul1, which results from the ability of Cul1 to bind tightly to CSN. Reciprocally, CSN inhibits the ubiquitin ligase activity of deneddylated Cul1. We propose a model in which assembled CRL complexes engaged with substrate are normally refractory to deneddylation. Upon consumption of substrate and subsequent deneddylation, CSN can remain stably bound to the CRL and hold it in low state of reduced activity.