Proteomic profiling of HIV-infected T-cells by SWATH mass spectrometry.
ABSTRACT: Viral pathogenesis results from changes in host cells due to virus usurpation of the host cell and the innate cellular responses to thwart infection. We measured global changes in protein expression and localization in HIV-1 infected T-cells using subcellular fractionation and the Sequential Window Acquisition of all Theoretical Mass Spectra (SWATH-MS) proteomic platform. Eight biological replicates were performed in two independent experimental series. In silico merging of both experiments identified 287 proteins with altered expression (p < .05) between control and infected cells- 172 in the cytoplasm, 84 in the membrane, and 31 in nuclei. 170 of the proteins are components of the NIH HIV interaction database. Multiple Reaction Monitoring and traditional immunoblotting validated the altered expression of several factors during infection. Numerous factors were found to affect HIV infection in gain- and loss-of-expression infection assays, including the intermediate filament vimentin which was found to be required for efficient infection.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection remains a worldwide epidemic, and innovative therapies to combat the virus are needed. Developing a host-oriented antiviral strategy capable of targeting the biomolecules that are directly or indirectly required for viral replication may provide advantages over traditional virus-centric approaches. We used quantitative proteomics by SWATH-MS in conjunction with bioinformatic analyses to identify host proteins, with an emphasis on nucleic acid binding and regulatory proteins, which could serve as candidates in the development of host-oriented antiretroviral strategies. Using SWATH-MS, we identified and quantified the expression of 3608 proteins in uninfected and HIV-1-infected monocyte-derived macrophages. Of these 3608 proteins, 420 were significantly altered upon HIV-1 infection. Bioinformatic analyses revealed functional enrichment for RNA binding and processing as well as transcription regulation. Our findings highlight a novel subset of proteins and processes that are involved in the host response to HIV-1 infection. In addition, we provide an original and transparent methodology for the analysis of label-free quantitative proteomics data generated by SWATH-MS that can be readily adapted to other biological systems.
Project description:Dendritic cells are key immune cells that respond to pathogens and co-ordinate many innate and adaptive immune responses. Quantitative mass spectrometry using Sequential Window Acquisition of all THeoretical fragment-ion spectra-Mass Spectrometry (SWATH-MS) was performed here to determine the global alterations in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) in response to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A moDC library of 4,666 proteins was generated and proteins were quantified at 0, 6 and 24?h post-LPS stimulation using SWATH-MS. At 6?h and 24?h post-LPS exposure, the relative abundance of 227 and 282 proteins was statistically significantly altered (p-value???0.05), respectively. Functional annotation of proteins exhibiting significant changes in expression between the various time points led to the identification of clusters of proteins implicated in distinct cellular processes including interferon and interleukin signalling, endocytosis, the ER-phagosome pathway and antigen-presentation. In SWATH-MS major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I proteins were highly upregulated at 24?h, whilst MHC class II proteins exhibited comparatively fewer changes over this period. This study provides new detailed insight into the global proteomic changes that occur in moDCs during antigen processing and presentation and further demonstrates the potential of SWATH-MS for the quantitative study of proteins involved in cellular processes.
Project description:Background:Advances in mass spectrometry have accelerated biomarker discovery in many areas of medicine. The purpose of this study was to compare two mass spectrometry (MS) methods, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion spectra (SWATH), for analytical efficiency in biomarker discovery when there are multiple methodological constraints such as limited sample size and several time points for each patient to be analyzed. Methods:A total of 140 tear samples were collected from 28 glaucoma patients at 5 time points in a glaucoma drug switch study. Samples were analyzed with iTRAQ and SWATH methods using NanoLC-MSTOF mass spectrometry. Results:We discovered that even though iTRAQ is faster than SWATH with respect to analysis time per sample, it loses in sensitivity, reliability and robustness. While SWATH analysis yielded complete data of 456 proteins in all samples, with iTRAQ we were able to quantify 477 proteins in total but on average only 125 proteins were quantified in a sample. 283 proteins were common in the datasets produced by the two methods. Repeatability of the methods was assessed by calculating percent relative standard deviation (% RSD) between replicate MS analyses: SWATH was more repeatable (56% of proteins?<?20% RSD), compared to iTRAQ (43% of proteins?<?20% RSD). Despite the overall benefits of SWATH, both methods showed less than 1 log fold change difference in the expression of 74% common proteins. In addition, comparison to MS/MS peptide results using 8 isotopically labeled peptide standards, SWATH and iTRAQ showed similar results in terms of accuracy. Moreover, both methods detected similar trends in a longitudinal analysis of protein expression of two known tear biomarkers. Conclusions:Overall, we conclude that SWATH should be preferred for biomarker discovery studies when analyzing limited volumes of clinical samples collected at multiple time points. Trial Registeration:The study was approved by the Ethics Committee at Tampere University Hospital and was registered in EU clinical trials register (EudraCT Number: 2010-021039-14).
Project description:Host-directed therapies against HIV-1 are thought to be critical for long term containment of the HIV-1 pandemic but remain elusive. Because HIV-1 infects and manipulates important effectors of both the innate and adaptive immune system, identifying modulations of the host cell systems in humans during HIV-1 infection may be crucial for the development of immune based therapies. Here, we quantified the changes of the proteome in human CD4+ T cells upon HIV-1 infection, both in vitro and in vivo A SWATH-MS approach was used to measure the proteome of human primary CD4+ T cells infected with HIV-1 in vitro as well as CD4+ T cells from HIV-1-infected patients with paired samples on and off antiretroviral treatment. In the in vitro experiment, the proteome of CD4+ T cells was quantified over a time course following HIV-1 infection. 1,725 host cell proteins and 4 HIV-1 proteins were quantified, with 145 proteins changing significantly during the time course. Changes in the proteome peaked 24 h after infection, concomitantly with significant HIV-1 protein production. In the in vivo branch of the study, CD4+ T cells from viremic patients and those with no detectable viral load after treatment were sorted, and the proteomes were quantified. We consistently detected 895 proteins, 172 of which were considered to be significantly different between the viremic patients and patients undergoing successful treatment. The proteome of the in vitro-infected CD4+ T cells was modulated on multiple functional levels, including TLR-4 signaling and the type 1 interferon signaling pathway. Perturbations in the type 1 interferon signaling pathway were recapitulated in CD4+ T cells from patients. The study shows that proteome maps generated by SWATH-MS indicate a range of functionally significant changes in the proteome of HIV-infected human CD4+ T cells. Exploring these perturbations in more detail may help identify new targets for immune based interventions.
Project description:For data-independent acquisition by means of sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion spectra (SWATH), a reference library of data-dependent acquisition (DDA) runs is typically used to correlate the quantitative data from the fragment ion spectra with peptide identifications. The quality and coverage of such a reference library is therefore essential when processing SWATH data. In general, library sizes can be increased by reducing the impact of DDA precursor selection with replicate runs or fractionation. However, these strategies can affect the match between the library and SWATH measurement, and thus larger library sizes do not necessarily correspond to improved SWATH quantification. Here, three fractionation strategies to increase local library size were compared to standard library building using replicate DDA injection: protein SDS-PAGE fractionation, peptide high-pH RP-HPLC fractionation and MS-acquisition gas phase fractionation. The impact of these libraries on SWATH performance was evaluated in terms of the number of extracted peptides and proteins, the match quality of the peptides and the extraction reproducibility of the transitions. These analyses were conducted using the hydrophilic proteome of differentiating human embryonic stem cells. Our results show that SWATH quantitative results and interpretations are affected by choice of fractionation technique. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006190.
Project description:Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) protect against viruses including HIV-1. To avoid viral escape mutants that thwart immunity, we chose 25 CTL epitopes defined in the context of natural infection with functional and/or structural constraints that maintain sequence conservation. By combining HLA binding predictions with knowledge concerning HLA allele frequencies, a metric estimating population protection coverage (PPC) was computed and epitope pools assembled. Strikingly, only a minority of immunocompetent HIV-1 infected individuals responds to pools with PPC >95%. In contrast, virus-naive individuals uniformly expand IFNgamma producing cells and mount anti-HIV-1 cytolytic activity. This disparity suggests a vaccine design paradigm shift from infected to normal subjects.
Project description:Many research questions in fields such as personalized medicine, drug screens or systems biology depend on obtaining consistent and quantitatively accurate proteomics data from many samples. SWATH-MS is a specific variant of data-independent acquisition (DIA) methods and is emerging as a technology that combines deep proteome coverage capabilities with quantitative consistency and accuracy. In a SWATH-MS measurement, all ionized peptides of a given sample that fall within a specified mass range are fragmented in a systematic and unbiased fashion using rather large precursor isolation windows. To analyse SWATH-MS data, a strategy based on peptide-centric scoring has been established, which typically requires prior knowledge about the chromatographic and mass spectrometric behaviour of peptides of interest in the form of spectral libraries and peptide query parameters. This tutorial provides guidelines on how to set up and plan a SWATH-MS experiment, how to perform the mass spectrometric measurement and how to analyse SWATH-MS data using peptide-centric scoring. Furthermore, concepts on how to improve SWATH-MS data acquisition, potential trade-offs of parameter settings and alternative data analysis strategies are discussed.
Project description:Sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra (SWATH-MS) requires a spectral library to extract quantitative measurements from the mass spectrometry data acquired in data-independent acquisition mode (DIA). Large combined spectral libraries containing SWATH assays have been generated for humans and several other organisms, but so far no publicly available library exists for measuring the proteome of zebrafish, a rapidly emerging model system in biomedical research. Here, we present a large zebrafish SWATH spectral library to measure the abundance of 104,185 proteotypic peptides from 10,405 proteins. The library includes proteins expressed in 9 different zebrafish tissues (brain, eye, heart, intestine, liver, muscle, ovary, spleen, and testis) and provides an important new resource to quantify 40% of the protein-coding zebrafish genes. We employ this resource to quantify the proteome across brain, muscle, and liver and characterize divergent expression levels of paralogous proteins in different tissues. Data are available via ProteomeXchange (PXD010876, PXD010869) and SWATHAtlas (PASS01237).
Project description:Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is an important enzyme for lipid metabolism and an interesting pharmacological target, given its role in anandamide breakdown. The FAAH<sup>-/-</sup> genotype is the most widely used mouse model to investigate the effects of a complete pharmacological inhibition of this enzyme. In this paper, we explore, by means of label-free SWATH proteomics, the changes in protein expression occurring in the liver of FAAH<sup>-/-</sup> knockout (KO) mice. We identified several altered biological processes and pathways, like fatty acid synthesis and glycolysis, which explain the observed phenotype of this mouse. We also observed the alteration of other proteins, like carboxylesterases and S-methyltransferases, apparently not immediately related to FAAH, but known to have important biological roles. Our study, reporting more than 3000 quantified proteins, offers an in-depth analysis of the liver proteome of this model.
Project description:Advances in gene editing now allow reverse genetics to be applied to a broad range of biological systems. Ultimately, any modification to coding sequences requires confirmation at the protein level, although immunoblotting is often hampered by antibody quality or availability especially in non-model species. Sequential Window Acquisition of All Theoretical Spectra (SWATH), a mass spectrometry (MS) technology with exceptional quantitative reproducibility and accuracy, offers an ideal alternative for protein-based confirmation. Here, using genome edits in mouse, zebrafish and Bicyclus anynana butterflies produced using either homologous recombination or targeted nucleases, we demonstrate absence of the targeted proteins using SWATH, thus confirming successful editing. We show that SWATH is a robust antibody-independent alternative for monitoring gene editing at the protein level and broadly applicable across diverse organisms and targeted genome manipulation techniques. Moreover, SWATH concomitantly defines the global proteome response in the edited organism, which may provide pertinent biological insights.