Relaxation of the one child policy and trends in caesarean section rates and birth outcomes in China between 2012 and 2016: observational study of nearly seven million health facility births.
ABSTRACT: To examine how the relaxation of the one child policy and policies to reduce caesarean section rates might have affected trends over time in caesarean section rates and perinatal and pregnancy related mortality in China.Observational study.China's National Maternal Near Miss Surveillance System (NMNMSS).6?838?582 births at 28 completed weeks or more of gestation or birth weight ?1000 g in 438 hospitals in the NMNMSS between 2012 and 2016.Obstetric risk was defined using a modified Robson classification. The main outcome measures were changes in parity and age distributions and relative frequency of each Robson group, crude and adjusted trends over time in caesarean section rates within each risk category (using Poisson regression with a robust variance estimator), and trends in perinatal and pregnancy related mortality over time.Caesarean section rates declined steadily between 2012 and 2016 (crude relative risk 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.89 to 0.93), reaching an overall hospital based rate of 41.1% in 2016. The relaxation of the one child policy was associated with an increase in the proportion of multiparous births (from 34.1% in 2012 to 46.7% in 2016), and births in women with a uterine scar nearly doubled (from 9.8% to 17.7% of all births). Taking account of these changes, the decline in caesarean sections was amplified over time (adjusted relative risk 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 0.84). Caesarean sections declined noticeably in nulliparous women (0.75, 0.73 to 0.77) but also declined in multiparous women without a uterine scar (0.65, 0.62 to 0.77). The decrease in caesarean section rates was most pronounced in hospitals with the highest rates in 2012, consistent with the government's policy of targeting hospitals with the highest rates. Perinatal mortality declined from 10.1 to 7.2 per 1000 births over the same period (0.87, 0.83 to 0.91), and there was no change in pregnancy related mortality over time.China is the only country that has succeeded in reverting the rising trends in caesarean sections. China's success is remarkable given that the changes in obstetric risk associated with the relaxation of the one child policy would have led to an increase in the need for caesarean sections. China's experience suggests that change is possible when strategies are comprehensive and deal with the system level factors that underpin overuse as well as the various incentives at work during a clinical encounter.
Project description:To determine whether the variation in unadjusted rates of caesarean section derived from routine data in NHS trusts in England can be explained by maternal characteristics and clinical risk factors.A cross sectional analysis using routinely collected hospital episode statistics was performed. A multiple logistic regression model was used to estimate the likelihood of women having a caesarean section given their maternal characteristics (age, ethnicity, parity, and socioeconomic deprivation) and clinical risk factors (previous caesarean section, breech presentation, and fetal distress). Adjusted rates of caesarean section for each NHS trust were produced from this model.146 English NHS trusts. Population Women aged between 15 and 44 years with a singleton birth between 1 January and 31 December 2008.Rate of caesarean sections per 100 births (live or stillborn).Among 620?604 singleton births, 147?726 (23.8%) were delivered by caesarean section. Women were more likely to have a caesarean section if they had had one previously (70.8%) or had a baby with breech presentation (89.8%). Unadjusted rates of caesarean section among the NHS trusts ranged from 13.6% to 31.9%. Trusts differed in their patient populations, but adjusted rates still ranged from 14.9% to 32.1%. Rates of emergency caesarean section varied between trusts more than rates of elective caesarean section.Characteristics of women delivering at NHS trusts differ, and comparing unadjusted rates of caesarean section should be avoided. Adjusted rates of caesarean section still vary considerably and attempts to reduce this variation should examine issues linked to emergency caesarean section.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Caesarean section rates continue to increase worldwide with uncertain medical consequences. Auditing and analysing caesarean section rates and other perinatal outcomes in a reliable and continuous manner is critical for understanding reasons caesarean section changes over time. METHODS: We analyzed data on 97,095 women delivering in 120 facilities in 8 countries, collected as part of the 2004-2005 Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health in Latin America. The objective of this analysis was to test if the "10-group" or "Robson" classification could help identify which groups of women are contributing most to the high caesarean section rates in Latin America, and if it could provide information useful for health care providers in monitoring and planning effective actions to reduce these rates. RESULTS: The overall rate of caesarean section was 35.4%. Women with single cephalic pregnancy at term without previous caesarean section who entered into labour spontaneously (groups 1 and 3) represented 60% of the total obstetric population. Although women with a term singleton cephalic pregnancy with a previous caesarean section (group 5) represented only 11.4% of the obstetric population, this group was the largest contributor to the overall caesarean section rate (26.7% of all the caesarean sections). The second and third largest contributors to the overall caesarean section rate were nulliparous women with single cephalic pregnancy at term either in spontaneous labour (group 1) or induced or delivered by caesarean section before labour (group 2), which were responsible for 18.3% and 15.3% of all caesarean deliveries, respectively. CONCLUSION: The 10-group classification could be easily applied to a multicountry dataset without problems of inconsistencies or misclassification. Specific groups of women were clearly identified as the main contributors to the overall caesarean section rate. This classification could help health care providers to plan practical and effective actions targeting specific groups of women to improve maternal and perinatal care.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:In Catalonia caesarean rates have always been analysed as a single percentage. The objective is to estimate caesarean section rates using the Robson classification in publicly funded hospitals in Catalonia between 2013 and 2017, considering sociodemographic, institutional and obstetric characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Cross-sectional population-based study in Catalonia including all women delivering within publicly funded hospitals between 2013-2017 (n = 210 020). The modified Robson classification distribution was estimated, the caesarean rate and the overall contribution, analysed for each year, and by confounders, through logistic regression models. RESULTS:CS rates decreased steadily between 2013 and 2017 in Catalonia within publicly funded hospitals from 24.3% to 22.8% (cOR 0.92, 95% CI; 0.89 to 0.95). Once adjusted for changes in sociodemographic, institutional and obstetric characteristics the observed decline was even more pronounced (aOR 0.87, 95% CI; 0.84 to 0.90). Within the different groups of Robson once adjusted for confounders, groups 1+2 (aOR 0.88, 95% CI; 0.83 to 0.93), 3+4 (aOR 0.83, 95% CI; 0.78 to 0.89) and 10 (aOR 0.78, 95% CI; 0.68 to 0.90) presented a reduction in caesarean section rates, whereas group 5 showed no significant decrease (aOR 0.95, 95% CI; 0.87 to 1.03%). CONCLUSIONS:The decrease in caesarean section rates in Catalonia is more pronounced when adjusted for known confounders, suggesting retrospective overutilization of caesarean section and percentages of (in)adequacy in the past. In any case, it remains above the recommended by experts. Further efforts should be made to achieve optimum rates, including improvement on obstetric data collection.
Project description:The frequency of caesarean section delivery varies between countries and social groups. Among other factors, it is determined by the quality of obstetrics care. Rates of elective (planned) and emergency (in-labor) caesareans may also vary between immigrants (first generation), their offspring (second- and third-generation women), and non-immigrants because of access and language barriers. Other important points to be considered are whether caesarean section indications and the neonatal outcomes differ in babies delivered by caesarean between immigrants, their offspring, and non-immigrants.A standardized interview on admission to delivery wards at three Berlin obstetric hospitals was performed in a 12-month period in 2011/2012. Questions on socio-demographic and care aspects and on migration (immigrated herself vs. second- and third-generation women vs. non-immigrant) and acculturation status were included. Data was linked with information from the expectant mothers' antenatal records and with perinatal data routinely documented in the hospital. Regression modeling was used to adjust for age, parity and socio-economic status.The caesarean section rates for immigrants, second- and third-generation women, and non-immigrant women were similar. Neither indications for caesarean section delivery nor neonatal outcomes showed statistically significant differences. The only difference found was a somewhat higher rate of crash caesarean sections per 100 births among first generation immigrants compared to non-immigrants.Unlike earlier German studies and current studies from other European countries, this study did not find an increased rate of caesarean sections among immigrants, as well as second- and third-generation women, with the possible exception of a small high-risk group. This indicates an equally high quality of perinatal care for women with and without a migration history.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To describe the prevalence and determinants of births by caesarean section in private and public health facilities in underserved communities in South Asia. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SETTING:81 community-based geographical clusters in four locations in Bangladesh, India and Nepal (three rural, one urban). PARTICIPANTS:45,327 births occurring in the study areas between 2005 and 2012. OUTCOME MEASURES:Proportion of caesarean section deliveries by location and type of facility; determinants of caesarean section delivery by location. RESULTS:Institutional delivery rates varied widely between settings, from 21% in rural India to 90% in urban India. The proportion of private and charitable facility births delivered by caesarean section was 73% in Bangladesh, 30% in rural Nepal, 18% in urban India and 5% in rural India. The odds of caesarean section were greater in private and charitable health facilities than in public facilities in three of four study locations, even when adjusted for pregnancy and delivery characteristics, maternal characteristics and year of delivery (Bangladesh: adjusted OR (AOR) 5.91, 95% CI 5.15 to 6.78; Nepal: AOR 2.37, 95% CI 1.62 to 3.44; urban India: AOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.38). We found that highly educated women were particularly likely to deliver by caesarean in private facilities in urban India (AOR 2.10; 95% CI 1.61 to 2.75) and also in rural Bangladesh (AOR 11.09, 95% CI 6.28 to 19.57). CONCLUSIONS:Our results lend support to the hypothesis that increased caesarean section rates in these South Asian countries may be driven in part by the private sector. They also suggest that preferences for caesarean delivery may be higher among highly educated women, and that individual-level and provider-level factors interact in driving caesarean rates higher. Rates of caesarean section in the private sector, and their maternal and neonatal health outcomes, require close monitoring.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Antenatal care and correctly indicated caesarean section can positively impact on health outcomes of the mother and newborn. Our objective was to describe how coverage and inequalities for these interventions changed from 1982 to 2015 in Pelotas, Brazil. METHODS:Using perinatal data from the 1982, 1993, 2004 and 2015 Pelotas birth cohorts, we assessed antenatal care coverage and caesarean section rates over time. Antenatal care indicators included the median number of visits, the prevalence of mothers attending at least six visits and the proportion who started antenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy and attended at least six visits. We described these outcomes according to income quintiles and maternal skin colour, to identify inequalities. We described overall, private sector and public sector caesarean section rates. Differences in prevalence were tested using chi-square testing and median differences using Kruskal-Wallis testing. RESULTS:From 1982 to 2015, the median number of antenatal care visits and the prevalence of mothers attending at least six visits increased in all income quintiles and skin colour groups. Inequalities were reduced, but not eliminated. The overall proportion of caesarean births increased from 27.6% in 1982 to 65.1% in 2015, when 93.9% of the births in the private sector were by caesarean section. Absolute income-related inequalities in caesarean sections increased over time. CONCLUSIONS:Special attention should be given to the antenatal care of poor and Black women in order to reduce inequalities. The explosive increase in caesarean sections requires radical changes in delivery care policies, in order to reverse the current trend.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To analyse the current situation of caesarean section in Palestine using the Robson Ten Group Classification System (TGCS).<h4>Design</h4>A population-based birth cohort study.<h4>Setting</h4>Obstetrical departments in three governmental hospitals in Gaza.<h4>Participants</h4>All women (18 908) who gave birth between 1 January 2016 and 30 April 2017.<h4>Methods</h4>The contributions of each group to the study population and to the overall rate of caesarean section were calculated, as well as the rate of caesarean section in each TGCS group. Differences in proportions between study hospitals were assessed by ?<sup>2</sup> test.<h4>Main outcome measures</h4>The main outcome was the contributions of each group to the overall caesarean section rate.<h4>Results</h4>The overall rate of caesarean section was 22.9% (4337 of 18 908), ranging from 20.6% in hospital 1 to 24.6% in hospital 3. The largest contributors to the overall caesarean section rate were multiparous women with single cephalic full-term pregnancy who had undergone at least one caesarean section (group 5, 42.6%), women with multiple pregnancies (group 8, 11.6%) and those with single cephalic preterm labour (group 10, 8.1%). Statistically significant differences in caesarean section rates between the study hospitals were observed in group 1 (nulliparous women with single cephalic full-term pregnancy and spontaneous labour), group 4 (multiparous with single cephalic full-term pregnancy with induced labour or prelabour caesarean section), group 5 (multiparous with single cephalic full-term pregnancy with previous caesarean section) and in group 7 (multiparous with breech presentation).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Women in groups 5, 8 and 10 were the largest contributors to the overall caesarean section rate in the study hospitals. Efforts to reduce the differences in obstetrical care between hospitals need to be directed towards increasing the proportion of vaginal births after caesarean section and by reducing primary caesarean section in multiple pregnancies and preterm labour.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Caesarean section was initially performed to save the lives of the mother and/or her baby. Caesarean section rates have risen substantially worldwide over the past decades. In this study, we set out to compile all available caesarean section rates worldwide at the country level, and to identify the appropriate caesarean section rate at the population level associated with the minimal maternal and neonatal mortality. DESIGN:Ecological study using longitudinal data. SETTING:Worldwide country-level data. POPULATION:A total of 159 countries were included in the analyses, representing 98.0% of global live births (2005). METHODS:Nationally representative caesarean section rates from 2000 to 2012 were compiled. We assessed the relationship between caesarean section rates and mortality outcomes, adjusting for socio-economic development by means of human development index (HDI) using fractional polynomial regression models. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Maternal mortality ratio and neonatal mortality rate. RESULTS:Most countries have experienced increases in caesarean section rate during the study period. In the unadjusted analysis, there was a negative association between caesarean section rates and mortality outcomes for low caesarean section rates, especially among the least developed countries. After adjusting for HDI, this effect was much smaller and was only observed below a caesarean section rate of 5-10%. No important association between the caesarean section rate and maternal and neonatal mortality was observed when the caesarean section rate exceeded 10%. CONCLUSIONS:Although caesarean section is an effective intervention to save maternal and infant lives, based on the available ecological evidence, caesarean section rates higher than around 10% at the population level are not associated with decreases in maternal and neonatal mortality rates, and thus may not be necessary to achieve the lowest maternal and neonatal mortality. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT:The caesarean section rate of around 10% may be the optimal rate to achieve the lowest mortality.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the association of caesarean section rates with the health system characteristics in the public hospitals of Kosovo. DESIGN:Cross-sectional survey. SETTING:Five largest public hospitals in Kosovo. PARTICIPANTS:859 women with low-risk deliveries who delivered from April to May 2015 in five public hospitals in Kosovo. OUTCOME MEASURES:The prespecified outcomes were the crude and adjusted OR of births delivered with caesarean section by health system characteristics such as delivery by the physician who provided antenatal care, health insurance status and other. Additional prespecified outcomes were caesarean section rates and crude ORs for delivery with caesarean in each public hospital. RESULTS:Women with personal monthly income had increased odds for caesarean (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.27), as did women with private health insurance coverage (OR 3.44, 95% CI 1.20 to 9.85). Women instructed by a midwife on preparation for delivery had decreasing odds (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.51) while women having preference for a caesarean had increasing odds for delivery with caesarean (OR 3.84, 95% CI 1.96 to 7.51). The odds for caesarean increased also in the case of delivery by a physician who provided antenatal care (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.16 to 3.67) and delivery during office hours (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.37 to 4.05), while delivery at the University Clinical Centre of Kosovo decreased the odds for caesarean (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.90). CONCLUSIONS:We found that several health system characteristics are associated with the increase of caesarean sections in a low-risk population of delivering women in public hospitals of Kosovo. These findings should be explored further and addressed via policy measures that would tackle provision of unnecessary caesareans. The study findings could assist Kosovo to develop corrective policies in addressing overuse of caesareans and may provide useful information for other middle-income countries.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The aim of this study is to determine the odds of caesarean section in all births in teaching hospitals as compared with non-teaching hospitals.<h4>Setting</h4>Over 3600 teaching and non-teaching hospitals in 22 countries. We searched CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, PubMed, sciELO, Scopus and Web of Science from the beginning of records until May 2020.<h4>Participants</h4>Women at birth. Over 18.5?million births.<h4>Intervention</h4>Caesarean section.<h4>Primary and secondary outcome measures</h4>The primary outcome measures are the adjusted OR of caesarean section in a variety of teaching hospital comparisons. The secondary outcome is the crude OR of caesarean section in a variety of teaching hospital comparisons.<h4>Results</h4>In adjusted analyses, we found that university hospitals have lower odds than non-teaching hospitals (OR=0.66, 95%?CI 0.56 to 0.78) and other teaching hospitals (OR=0.46, 95%?CI 0.24 to 0.89), and no significant difference with unspecified teaching status hospitals (OR=0.92, 95%?CI 0.80 to 1.05, ?2=0.009). Other teaching hospitals had higher odds than non-teaching hospitals (OR=1.23, 95%?CI 1.12 to 1.35). Comparison between unspecified teaching hospitals and non-teaching hospitals (OR=0.91, 95%?CI 0.50 to 1.65, ?2=1.007) and unspecified hospitals (OR=0.95, 95%?CI 0.76 to 1.20), ?2<0.001) showed no significant difference. While the main analysis in larger sized groups of analysed studies reveals no effect between hospitals, subgroup analyses show that teaching hospitals carry out fewer caesarean sections in several countries, for several study populations and population characteristics.<h4>Conclusions</h4>With smaller sample of participants and studies, in clearly defined hospitals categories under comparison, we see that university hospitals have lower odds for caesarean. With larger sample size and number of studies, as well as less clearly defined categories of hospitals, we see no significant difference in the likelihood of caesarean sections between teaching and non-teaching hospitals. Nevertheless, even in groups with no significant effect, teaching hospitals have a lower or higher likelihood of caesarean sections in several analysed subgroups. Therefore, we recommend a more precise examination of forces sustaining these trends.<h4>Prospero registration number</h4>CRD42020158437.