Treatment With Antipsychotics in Pregnancy: Changes in Drug Disposition.
ABSTRACT: Although pregnancy is known to cause changes in drug pharmacokinetics, little is known about its impact on serum levels of antipsychotics. In this study we retrospectively assessed 201 routine serum antipsychotic therapeutic drug monitoring concentration measurements obtained from a total of 110 pregnancies in 103 women, and 512 measurements from the same women before and after pregnancy. Serum concentrations in the third trimester were significantly lower than baseline for quetiapine (-76%; confidence interval (CI), -83%, -66%; P < 0.001) and aripiprazole (-52%; CI, -62%, -39%; P < 0.001), but not for olanzapine (-9%; CI, -28%, +14%; P = 0.40). For the remaining antipsychotics (perphenazine, haloperidol, ziprasidone, risperidone, and clozapine), our dataset was limited, but it indicates that concentrations may decline at least for perphenazine and possibly also for haloperidol. Even though the clinical consequence of the serum concentrations decline remains to be elucidated, our results warrant close clinical monitoring throughout pregnancy, preferentially supported by therapeutic drug monitoring.
Project description:Pregnancy may cause changes in drug disposition. The clinical consequences may be profound and even counterintuitive; in some cases pregnant women may need more than twice their usual drug dose in order to maintain therapeutic drug levels. For antidepressants, evidence on drug disposition in pregnancy is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of pregnancy on serum levels of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and venlafaxine in a large and naturalistic patient material, in order to provide tentative dose recommendations for pregnant women.Using patient data from two routine therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) services in Norway with linkage to the national birth registry, dose-adjusted serum drug concentrations of SSRIs and venlafaxine during pregnancy were compared to the women's own baseline (non-pregnant) values, using a linear mixed model.Overall, the TDM databases contained 196,726 serum concentration measurements from 54,393 women. After data linkage and drug selection (SSRIs or venlafaxine only), we identified 367 analyses obtained from a total of 290 pregnancies in 281 women, and 420 baseline observations from the same women. Serum concentrations in the third trimester were significantly lower than baseline for paroxetine (-51%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -66%, -30%; p<0.001), fluvoxamine (-56%; CI, -75%, -23%; p = 0.004) and citalopram (-24%; CI, -38%, -7%; p = 0,007), and higher than baseline for sertraline (+68%; CI, +37%, +106%; p<0.001). For escitalopram, fluoxetine and venlafaxine concentrations did not change significantly.For paroxetine and fluvoxamine the pronounced decline in maternal drug serum concentrations in pregnancy may necessitate a dose increase of about 100% during the third trimester in order to maintain stable concentrations. For fluoxetine, venlafaxine, citalopram, escitalopram and sertraline, the present study indicates that dose adjustments are generally not necessary during pregnancy.
Project description:This work reveals the effect of antipsychotics on DNA methylation using the cell model. After the treatment of antipsychotics, haloperidol and risperidone, DNA methylation profiles obtained by Illumina HumanMethylation450 beadchip were examined. Overall design: We conducted a comprehensive DNA methylation analysis of human neuroblastoma cells (SK-N-SH) cultured with antipsychotics. The cells were cultured with low and high concentrations of haloperidol or risperidone based on their effective blood concentrations for 8 days. DNA methylation assay was performed with the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Three independent samples were prepared for each experimental group (n=18 in total).
Project description:Typical antipsychotic drugs are widely thought to alleviate the positive symptoms of schizophrenia by antagonizing dopamine D2 receptors expressed by striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs). What is less clear is why antipsychotics have a therapeutic latency of weeks. Using a combination of physiological and anatomical approaches in ex vivo brain slices from transgenic mice, it was found that 2 weeks of haloperidol treatment induced both intrinsic and synaptic adaptations specifically within indirect pathway SPNs (iSPNs). Perphenazine treatment had similar effects. Some of these adaptations were homeostatic, including a drop in intrinsic excitability and pruning of excitatory corticostriatal glutamatergic synapses. However, haloperidol treatment also led to strengthening of a subset of excitatory corticostriatal synapses. This slow remodeling of corticostriatal iSPN circuitry is likely to play a role in mediating the delayed therapeutic action of neuroleptics.
Project description:Long-acting injectable antipsychotics are used to reduce medication nonadherence and relapse in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The relative effectiveness of long-acting injectable versions of second-generation and older antipsychotics has not been assessed.To compare the effectiveness of the second-generation long-acting injectable antipsychotic paliperidone palmitate with the older long-acting injectable antipsychotic haloperidol decanoate.Multisite, double-blind, randomized clinical trial conducted from March 2011 to July 2013 at 22 US clinical research sites. Randomized patients (n?=?311) were adults diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who were clinically assessed to be at risk of relapse and likely to benefit from a long-acting injectable antipsychotic.Intramuscular injections of haloperidol decanoate 25 to 200 mg or paliperidone palmitate 39 to 234 mg every month for as long as 24 months.Efficacy failure, defined as a psychiatric hospitalization, a need for crisis stabilization, a substantial increase in frequency of outpatient visits, a clinician's decision that oral antipsychotic could not be discontinued within 8 weeks after starting the long-acting injectable antipsychotics, or a clinician's decision to discontinue the assigned long-acting injectable due to inadequate therapeutic benefit. Key secondary outcomes were common adverse effects of antipsychotic medications.There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of efficacy failure for paliperidone palmitate compared with haloperidol decanoate (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.65-1.47). The number of participants who experienced efficacy failure was 49 (33.8%) in the paliperidone palmitate group and 47 (32.4%) in the haloperidol decanoate group. On average, participants in the paliperidone palmitate group gained weight and those in the haloperidol decanoate group lost weight; after 6 months, the least-squares mean weight change for those taking paliperidone palmitate was increased by 2.17 kg (95% CI, 1.25-3.09) and was decreased for those taking haloperidol decanoate (-0.96 kg; 95% CI, -1.88 to -0.04). Patients taking paliperidone palmitate had significantly higher maximum mean levels of serum prolactin (men, 34.56 µg/L [95% CI, 29.75-39.37] vs 15.41 µg/L [95% CI, 10.73-20.08]; P <.001, and for women, 75.19 [95% CI, 63.03-87.36] vs 26.84 [95% CI, 13.29-40.40]; P<.001). Patients taking haloperidol decanoate had significantly larger increases in global ratings of akathisia (0.73 [95% CI, 0.59-0.87] vs 0.45 [95% CI, 0.31-0.59]; P=.006).In adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, use of paliperidone palmitate vs haloperidol decanoate did not result in a statistically significant difference in efficacy failure, but was associated with more weight gain and greater increases in serum prolactin, whereas haloperidol decanoate was associated with more akathisia. However, the CIs do not rule out the possibility of a clinically meaningful advantage with paliperidone palmitate.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01136772.
Project description:The aim of the study was to examine mortality risk associated with use of antidepressants and antipsychotics classified with torsades de pointes (TdP) risk in elderly.A matched case-control register study was conducted in people 65 years and older dying outside hospital from 2008-2013 (n = 286,092) and matched controls (n = 1,430,460). The association between prescription of antidepressants and antipsychotics with various TdP risk according to CredibleMeds (www.crediblemeds.org) and all-cause mortality was studied by multivariate conditional logistic regression adjusted for comorbidity and several other confounders.Use of antidepressants classified with known or possible TdP risk, was associated with higher adjusted risk for mortality (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.51, 1.56 and OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.61, 1.67, respectively) compared with antidepressants classified with conditional TdP risk (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.22, 1.28) or without TdP classification (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.94, 1.05). Antipsychotics classified with known TdP risk were associated with higher risk (OR 4.57, 95% CI 4.37, 4.78) than antipsychotics with possible risk (OR 2.58, 95% CI 2.52, 2.64) or without TdP classification (OR 2.14, 95% CI 2.03, 2.65). The following risk ranking was observed for commonly used antidepressants: mirtazapine > citalopram > sertraline > amitriptyline and for antipsychotics: haloperidol > risperidone >olanzapine > quetiapine.The CredibleMeds system predicted drug-associated risk for mortality in the elderly at the risk class level. Among antipsychotics, haloperidol, and among antidepressants, mirtazapine and citalopram, were associated with the highest risks. The results suggest that the TdP risk with antidepressants and antipsychotics should be taken into consideration when prescribing to the elderly.
Project description:There are claims that second-generation antipsychotics produce fewer extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS) compared with first-generation drugs.To compare the incidence of treatment-emergent EPS between second-generation antipsychotics and perphenazine in people with schizophrenia.Incidence analyses integrated data from standardised rating scales and documented use of concomitant medication or treatment discontinuation for EPS events. Mixed model analyses of change in rating scales from baseline were also conducted.There were no significant differences in incidence or change in rating scales for parkinsonism, dystonia, akathisia or tardive dyskinesia when comparing second-generation antipsychotics with perphenazine or comparing between second-generation antipsychotics. Secondary analyses revealed greater rates of concomitant antiparkinsonism medication among individuals on risperidone and lower rates among individuals on quetiapine, and lower rates of discontinuation because of parkinsonism among people on quetiapine and ziprasidone. There was a trend for a greater likelihood of concomitant medication for akathisia among individuals on risperidone and perphenazine.The incidence of treatment-emergent EPS and change in EPS ratings indicated that there are no significant differences between second-generation antipsychotics and perphenazine or between second-generation antipsychotics in people with schizophrenia.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The presentation of schizophrenia (SCH) symptoms differs between the sexes. Long-term treatment with antipsychotics is frequently associated with decreased bone mineral density, increased fracture risk and metabolic side effects. Perinatal phencyclidine (PCP) administration to rodents represents an animal model of SCH. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of chronic haloperidol and clozapine treatment on bone mass, body composition, corticosterone, IL-6 and TNF-? concentrations and metabolic parameters in male and female rats perinatally treated with PCP.<h4>Methods</h4>Six groups of male and six groups of female rats (n = 6-12 per group) were subcutaneously treated on 2nd, 6th, 9th and 12th postnatal day (PN), with either PCP (10 mg/kg) or saline. At PN35, one NaCl and PCP group (NaCl-H and PCP-H) started receiving haloperidol (1 mg/kg/day) and one NaCl and PCP group (NaCl-C and PCP-C) started receiving clozapine (20 mg/kg/day) dissolved in drinking water. The remaining NaCl and PCP groups received water. Dual X-ray absorptiometry measurements were performed on PN60 and PN98. Animals were sacrificed on PN100. Femur was analysed by light microscopy. Concentrations of corticosterone, TNF-? and IL-6 were measured in serum samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) commercially available kits. Glucose, cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations were measured in serum spectrophotometrically.<h4>Results</h4>Our results showed that perinatal PCP administration causes a significant decrease in bone mass and deterioration in bone quality in male and female rats. Haloperidol had deleterious, while clozapine had protective effect on bones. The effects of haloperidol on bones were more pronounced in male rats. It seems that the observed changes are not the consequence of the alterations of corticosterone, IL-6 and TNF-? concentration since no change of these factors was observed. Clozapine induced increase of body weight and retroperitoneal fat in male rats regardless of perinatal treatment. Furthermore, clozapine treatment caused sex specific increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Taken together our findings confirm that antipsychotics have complex influence on bone and metabolism. Evaluation of potential markers for individual risk of antipsychotics induced adverse effects could be valuable for improvement of therapy of this life-long lasting disease.
Project description:We conducted meta-analyses of findings from randomized, placebo-controlled, short-term trials for acute mania in manic or mixed states of DSM (III-IV) bipolar I disorder in 56 drug-placebo comparisons of 17 agents from 38 studies involving 10,800 patients. Of drugs tested, 13 (76%) were more effective than placebo: aripiprazole, asenapine, carbamazepine, cariprazine, haloperidol, lithium, olanzapine, paliperdone, quetiapine, risperidone, tamoxifen, valproate, and ziprasidone. Their pooled effect size for mania improvement (Hedges' g in 48 trials) was 0.42 (confidence interval (CI): 0.36-0.48); pooled responder risk ratio (46 trials) was 1.52 (CI: 1.42-1.62); responder rate difference (RD) was 17% (drug: 48%, placebo: 31%), yielding an estimated number-needed-to-treat of 6 (all p<0.0001). In several direct comparisons, responses to various antipsychotics were somewhat greater or more rapid than lithium, valproate, or carbamazepine; lithium did not differ from valproate, nor did second generation antipsychotics differ from haloperidol. Meta-regression associated higher study site counts, as well as subject number with greater placebo (not drug) response; and higher baseline mania score with greater drug (not placebo) response. Most effective agents had moderate effect-sizes (Hedges' g=0.26-0.46); limited data indicated large effect sizes (Hedges' g=0.51-2.32) for: carbamazepine, cariprazine, haloperidol, risperidone, and tamoxifen. The findings support the efficacy of most clinically used antimanic treatments, but encourage more head-to-head studies and development of agents with even greater efficacy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Treatment of delirium often includes haloperidol. Second-generation antipsychotics like olanzapine have emerged as an alternative with possibly fewer side effects. The aim of this multicenter, phase III, randomized clinical trial was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of olanzapine with haloperidol for the treatment of delirium in hospitalized patients with advanced cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Eligible adult patients (?18?years) with advanced cancer and delirium (Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 [DRS-R-98] total score ?17.75) were randomized 1:1 to receive either haloperidol or olanzapine (age-adjusted, titratable doses). Primary endpoint was delirium response rate (DRR), defined as number of patients with DRS-R-98 severity score <15.25 and ?4.5 points reduction. Secondary endpoints included time to response (TTR), tolerability, and delirium-related distress. RESULTS:Between January 2011 and June 2016, 98 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. DRR was 45% (95% confidence interval [CI], 31-59) for olanzapine and 57% (95% CI, 43-71) for haloperidol (? DRR -12%; odds ratio [OR], 0.61; 95% CI, 0.2-1.4; p = .23). Mean TTR was 4.5?days (95% CI, 3.2-5.9?days) for olanzapine and 2.8?days (95% CI, 1.9-3.7?days; p = .18) for haloperidol. Grade ?3 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 5 patients (10.2%) and 10 patients (20.4%) in the olanzapine and haloperidol arm, respectively. Distress rates were similar in both groups. The study was terminated early because of futility. CONCLUSION:Delirium treatment with olanzapine in hospitalized patients with advanced cancer did not result in improvement of DRR or TTR compared with haloperidol. Clinical trial identification number. NCT01539733. Dutch Trial Register. NTR2559. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:Guidelines recommend that pharmacological interventions for delirium treatment in adults with cancer should be limited to patients who have distressing delirium symptoms. It was suggested that atypical antipsychotics, such as olanzapine, outperform haloperidol in efficacy and safety. However, collective data comparing the efficacy and safety of typical versus atypical antipsychotics in patients with cancer are limited. If targeted and judicious use of antipsychotics is considered for the treatment of delirium in patients with advanced cancer, this study demonstrated that there was no statistically significant difference in response to haloperidol or olanzapine. Olanzapine showed an overall better safety profile compared with haloperidol, although this difference was not statistically significant.
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series:; GSE6467: Twelve weeks expression data of the antipsychotics Clozapine and Haloperidol in the mouse brain (Affymetrix, GCRMA). GSE6511: Four weeks expression data of the antipsychotics Clozapine and Haloperidol in the mouse brain (Affymetrix, GCRMA). Experiment Overall Design: Refer to individual Series