Clinical study of tuberculosis in the head and neck region-11 years' experience and a review of the literature.
ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease and major health concern. Head and neck tuberculosis (HNTB) is relatively rare, but can arise in many regions, including the lymph nodes, larynx, oral cavity and pharynx. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 60 patients diagnosed with HNTB in our department between March 2005 and January 2016. A review and summary of previous HNTB articles published in PubMed since 1885 was also performed. The subjects consisted of 17 males and 43 females, and the average age of patients was 45 ± 14.67 years. The major clinical presentation was a lump or swelling, followed by an oral ulcer and skin fistula. The most common site of tuberculosis was in the cervical lymph node. Three patients also suffered from a malignant tumor in the head and neck region. A total of 980 papers involving 5881 patients were included in our literature review. The included subjects ranged in age from 15 months to 100 years with a male-to-female ratio of 1.5:1. The larynx (38.92%), cervical lymph nodes (38.28%) and oral cavity (9.92%) were the three most common development sites. 465 patients were positive according to a HIV test, and 40 patients had comorbidities with different types of tumors. Head and neck tuberculosis should always be considered during a differential diagnosis for lesions in the head and neck region. Early diagnosis and treatment can greatly enhance the therapeutic effect and patients' quality of life.
Project description:Most mouthwashes contain alcohol, a known cause of head and neck cancer (oral cavity, pharynx, larynx), likely through the carcinogenic activity of acetaldehyde, formed in the oral cavity from alcohol. We carried out a pooled analysis of 8981 cases of head and neck cancer and 10?090 controls from 12 case-control studies with comparable information on mouthwash use in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of mouthwash use with cancers of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx, adjusting for study, age, sex, pack-years of tobacco smoking, number of alcoholic drinks/day, and education. Compared with never users of mouthwash, the odds ratio (OR) of all head and neck cancers was 1.01 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.94-1.08] for ever users, based on 12 studies. The corresponding ORs of cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx were 1.11 (95% CI: 1.00-1.23) and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.06-1.56), respectively. OR for all head and neck cancer was 1.15 (95% CI: 1.01-1.30) for use for more than 35 years, based on seven studies (P for linear trend=0.01), and OR 1.31 (95% CI: 1.09-1.58) for use more than one per day, based on five studies (P for linear trend <0.001). Although limited by the retrospective nature of the study and the limited ability to assess risks of mouthwash use in nonusers of tobacco and alcohol, this large investigation shows potential risks for head and neck cancer subsites and in long-term and frequent users of mouthwash. This pooled analysis provides the most precise estimate of the association between mouthwash use and head and neck cancer.
Project description:To evaluate treatment trends and overall survival of patients with small cell carcinoma of the head and neck region.Patients from 2004 to 2012 were identified from the National Cancer Database. Patient demographics and overall survival were analyzed. Multivariable analysis was used to identify predictors of survival.Among 347,252 head and neck patients a total of 1042 (0.3%) patients with small cell carcinoma were identified. 17% of patients were diagnosed as stage I/II, 61% as stage III/IVA/IVB and 22% as stage IVC disease. The distribution by anatomic site was 9% oral cavity, 12% oropharynx, 35% larynx, 4% hypopharynx, 10% nasopharynx and 30% nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. The median overall survival by anatomical site was 20.8months for oral cavity, 23.7months for oropharynx, 17.9months for larynx/hypopharynx, 15.1months for nasopharynx and 36.4months for nasal cavity primary tumors. On multivariable analysis across stage, patients with nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses tumors had the best survival and patients with nasopharynx primaries had the worst survival. In stage I/II patients, type of treatment delivered resulted in no overall survival difference (p=0.78). In patients with locally advanced disease, there was no difference in survival between those treated with combined surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy compared to those treated only with radiotherapy and chemotherapy (p=0.46). The addition of radiotherapy to chemotherapy in the metastatic setting did not result in improved survival (p=0.14).Small cell carcinoma of the head and neck is a rare malignancy with a poor prognosis. The addition of surgery to radiotherapy and chemotherapy did not improve survival in patients with locally advanced disease.
Project description:Importance:Data are limited on the prognostic value of human papillomavirus (HPV) status for head and neck carcinoma subsites. Objective:To determine whether HPV positivity at each head and neck subsite is associated with improved overall survival. Design, Setting, and Participants:This retrospective population-based cohort study used the National Cancer Database to identify patients diagnosed with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2014. Patients were classified according to the location of their primary malignancy into 1 of the 6 main subsites of the upper aerodigestive tract: oral cavity, oropharynx, nasopharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, and sinonasal tract. Patients were also classified by their HPV status. Data collection for this study took place from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2014. Data analysis was conducted from August 1, 2017, to September 30, 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures:The difference in 5-year overall survival between patients with HPV-positive status and those with HPV-negative status in various head and neck carcinoma subsites; the role of HPV status in an unadjusted Cox multivariate regression model. Results:Of the 175 223 total number of patients identified (129 634 [74.0%] male; 45 589 [26.0%] female; mean [SD] age, 63.1 [11.9] years), 133 273 (76.1%) were ineligible and 41 950 (23.9%) were included in the sample. This sample included 16?644 patients (39.7%) with HPV-positive tumors and 25?306 (60.3%) with HPV-negative tumors. Patients with an HPV-positive status were more likely to be younger, be white, be male, present with local T category tumors, and have poor differentiation on histologic examination. HPV-positive status was associated with survival at 4 tumor subsites: oral cavity (hazard ratio [HR], 0.76; 95% CI, 0.66-0.87), oropharynx (HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.41-0.47), hypopharynx (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.45-0.77), and larynx (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.59-0.85). The HPV status was the greatest factor in survival outcome between the HPV-positive and -negative cohorts at the oropharynx subsite (77.6% vs 50.7%; survival difference, 26.9%; 95% CI, 25.6%-28.2%) and hypopharynx subsites (52.2% vs 28.8%; survival difference, 23.4%; 95% CI, 17.5%-29.3%). For the nasopharynx (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.75-1.42) and sinonasal tract (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.39-1.01) subsites, HPV-positive status was not an independent prognostic factor. Conclusions and Relevance:Human papillomavirus positivity was associated with improved survival in 4 subsites (oropharynx, hypopharynx, oral cavity, and larynx), and the largest survival difference was noted in the oropharynx and hypopharynx subsites. In the nasopharynx and sinonasal tract subsites, HPV positivity had no association with overall survival. Given these results, routine testing for HPV at the oropharynx, hypopharynx, oral cavity, and larynx subsites may be warranted.
Project description:Recent advances in the management of patients with head and neck cancer point to an expanding role of chemotherapy, resulting in an increased involvement of the medical oncologist in the multidisciplinary care of these patients. This review focuses on patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx. A comprehensive review of the clinical trial data that have defined new standards of care and a detailed presentation of widely used chemotherapeutic regimens, including both cytotoxic and molecularly targeted agents, are presented. Information on human papilloma virus-associated squamous cell cancer of the head and neck is presented, and implications in the clinical management of this subgroup of patients based on the epidemiologic and pathologic characteristics are discussed.
Project description:Clarifying the epigenetic regulation of tumor-related genes (TRGs) can provide insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and the risk for disease recurrence in HPV-negative head and neck cancers, originating in the hypopharynx, larynx, and oral cavity. We analyzed the methylation status of the promoters of 30 TRGs in 178 HPV-negative head and neck cancer patients using a quantitative methylation-specific PCR. Promoter methylation was correlated with various clinical characteristics and patient survival. The mean number of methylated TRGs was 14.2 (range, 2-25). In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis, the methylation of COL1A2 and VEGFR1 was associated with poor survival for hypopharyngeal cancer, with hazard ratios: 3.19; p = 0.009 and 3.07; p = 0.014, respectively. The methylation of p16 and COL1A2 were independent prognostic factors for poor survival in laryngeal cancer (hazard ratio: 4.55; p = 0.013 and 3.12; p = 0.035, respectively). In patients with oral cancer, the methylation of TAC1 and SSTR1 best correlated with poor survival (hazard ratio: 4.29; p = 0.005 and 5.38; p = 0.029, respectively). Our findings suggest that methylation status of TRGs could serve as important site-specific biomarkers for prediction of clinical outcomes in patients with HPV-negative head and neck cancer.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of a head and neck magnetic resonance simulation and immobilization protocol on reducing motion-induced artifacts and improving positional variance for radiation therapy applications.Two groups (group 1, 17 patients; group 2, 14 patients) of patients with head and neck cancer were included under a prospective, institutional review board-approved protocol and signed informed consent. A 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner was used for anatomic and dynamic contrast-enhanced acquisitions with standard diagnostic MRI setup for group 1 and radiation therapy immobilization devices for group 2 patients. The impact of magnetic resonance simulation/immobilization was evaluated qualitatively by 2 observers in terms of motion artifacts and positional reproducibility and quantitatively using 3-dimensional deformable registration to track intrascan maximum motion displacement of voxels inside 7 manually segmented regions of interest.The image quality of group 2 (29 examinations) was significantly better than that of group 1 (50 examinations) as rated by both observers in terms of motion minimization and imaging reproducibility (P < .0001). The greatest average maximum displacement was at the region of the larynx in the posterior direction for patients in group 1 (17 mm; standard deviation, 8.6 mm), whereas the smallest average maximum displacement was at the region of the posterior fossa in the superior direction for patients in group 2 (0.4 mm; standard deviation, 0.18 mm). Compared with group 1, maximum regional motion was reduced in group 2 patients in the oral cavity, floor of mouth, oropharynx, and larynx regions; however, the motion reduction reached statistical significance only in the regions of the oral cavity and floor of mouth (P < .0001).The image quality of head and neck MRI in terms of motion-related artifacts and positional reproducibility was greatly improved by use of radiation therapy immobilization devices. Consequently, immobilization with external and intraoral fixation in MRI examinations is required for radiation therapy application.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Head and neck cancers include carcinomas of the oral cavity, larynx, sinonasal tract and nasopharynx. Studies on molecular expression of prognostic tumour markers in Ghana are scarce. The purpose of this study was to determine the expression of p53, p16, EGFR, Cyclin-D1 and HER2 among patients with non-oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). METHODOLOGY:Tissue microarrays from 154 histologically confirmed non-oropharyngeal HNSCC at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital from 2006-2014 were constructed using duplicate cores of representative and viable areas from tumours. Expression of EGFR, p53, p16, Cyclin-D1 and HER2 was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS:For non-oropharyngeal HNSCC, majority of the cases (66.2%; 102/154) had stage IV disease. EGFR was the most expressed molecular marker (29.4%; 25/85) followed by p53 (24.0%; 29/121), p16 (18.3%; 23/126) and Cyclin-D1 (10.0%; 12/120). HER2 was not expressed in any of the cases. There was a significantly (p = 0.022) higher expression of Cyclin-D1 in tumours of the oral cavity (19.6%; 9/46) than in those of the larynx (4.7%; 2/43) and nose (3.2%; 1/31). Tumours in stages I-III were more frequently positive for p16 (28.6%; 12/42) than tumours in stage IV (13.1%; 11/84). CONCLUSION:Expression of p53, EGFR, p16 and Cyclin-D1 in non-oropharyngeal HNSCC in Ghana is largely similar to what has been reported in published studies from other countries.
Project description:Odds ratios for head and neck cancer increase with greater cigarette and alcohol use and lower body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height(2) (m(2))). Using data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium, the authors conducted a formal analysis of BMI as a modifier of smoking- and alcohol-related effects. Analysis of never and current smokers included 6,333 cases, while analysis of never drinkers and consumers of < or =10 drinks/day included 8,452 cases. There were 8,000 or more controls, depending on the analysis. Odds ratios for all sites increased with lower BMI, greater smoking, and greater drinking. In polytomous regression, odds ratios for BMI (P = 0.65), smoking (P = 0.52), and drinking (P = 0.73) were homogeneous for oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers. Odds ratios for BMI and drinking were greater for oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer (P < 0.01), while smoking odds ratios were greater for laryngeal cancer (P < 0.01). Lower BMI enhanced smoking- and drinking-related odds ratios for oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer (P < 0.01), while BMI did not modify smoking and drinking odds ratios for laryngeal cancer. The increased odds ratios for all sites with low BMI may suggest related carcinogenic mechanisms; however, BMI modification of smoking and drinking odds ratios for cancer of the oral cavity/pharynx but not larynx cancer suggests additional factors specific to oral cavity/pharynx cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:People with head and neck cancer have higher comorbidity levels but it remains unclear if pretreatment comorbidity is an independent prognosticator in head and neck cancer. METHODS:Survival analyses were performed using data from participants in a UK multicentre cohort study with cancers of the oral cavity (n =?668), oropharynx (n = 1074), and larynx (n =?530). Survival analyses were incrementally adjusted for age, sex, marital status, income, education, stage, alcohol, and smoking. RESULTS:After adjusting for demographic, clinical, and behavioral confounders, higher baseline comorbidity was associated with reduced overall survival (mild comorbidity HR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.7; moderate comorbidity HR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.3, 2.2; severe comorbidity HR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.9, 4.; P-trend<.001). CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest that comorbidity is an independent prognosticator for overall survival in head and neck cancer. Comorbid illnesses should be considered in the assessment and treatment planning of people with head and neck cancer.
Project description:Genome wide high resolution assay of copy number in a series of frozen, microdissected head and neck cancers originating from the oral cavity. The objective was to characterize areas of amplification and deletion in head and neck cancers arising from the oral cavity subsite. 31 tumors were snap frozen at the time of surgical resection, microdissected to >70% tumor content, and DNA extracted.